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The New York Times > Books > Sunday Book Review > 'Though the Heavens May Fall' and 'Bury the Chains'

By MARILYNNE ROBINSON
THOUGH THE HEAVENS MAY FALL
The Landmark Trial That Led to the End of Human Slavery.
By Steven M. Wise.
Illustrated. 282 pp. Da Capo Press. $25.
BURY THE CHAINS
Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves.
By Adam Hochschild.
Illustrated. 468 pp. Houghton Mifflin Company. $26.95.
The air of England is too pure for a slave to breathe in.'' This phrase, with slight variations, recurs through long years in the rhetoric of movements to abolish first African slavery within England, then the Atlantic traffic in African people that England dominated for more than a century and then the institution of slavery in the British Empire, whose populations included hundreds of thousands of slaves. It is an axiom traditionally believed to have been invoked in 1772, in principle if not verbatim, by Lord Mansfield, the judge in Somerset v. Steuart, which Steven M. Wise in ''Though the Heavens May Fall'' calls the ''trial that led to the end of human slavery.'' Somerset was an African who accompanied Steuart, his owner, to England. He escaped, was recaptured and sued successfully for his freedom.
Both Wise and Adam Hochschild celebrate this trial and the events and personalities that brought it about. No doubt they should. It is a melancholy fact, however, that the phenomenon of African slavery loomed as it did over the Atlantic world because, from the reign of Elizabeth I to the reign of George III, England assumed that the air of its colonies, or of any other colony ready to buy, was impure enough to accommodate slavery very nicely.
Wise, the president of the Center for the Expansion of Fundamental Rights, traces with reverent care how the question of the legality of slavery developed within England, culminating in this famous trial. The hero of his narrative is Granville Sharp, a minor government clerk who educated himself in the law in the course of defending the rights of Africans brought into England as slaves. He devoted himself and his slender resources to this work over decades with the object of finally putting an end to slavery itself. The trial, which is said to have abolished slavery within England by legal precedent, was centered on the question of Steuart's right to sell Somerset into the West Indies. Lord Mansfield ruled in favor of Somerset on the grounds that slavery ''is so odious that nothing can be suffered to support it but positive law.'' There being no such law in England, ''the black must be discharged.'' This decision freed an estimated 15,000 Africans then held as slaves in England.
Wise follows Sharp and the lawyers sympathetic to him through a series of trials in which they attempt to obtain rulings to vindicate the argument that English law does not countenance slavery. He has an eye for evocative detail and an interest in the trappings and procedures of an 18th-century courtroom that do as much to engage the reader as the drama of the trials themselves. And he has a good lawyer's love of those moments in which the true poetry of humane justice finds its voice. More insight into the actual operations of the law would have been useful -- some discussion, for example, of the yawning gulf between the principle of the right to trial and the fact that in early-19th-century England, an average felony trial lasted less than nine minutes, sometimes ending so quickly that the accused did not know he had been tried. In practice, common law seems only a little too supple to be called a rope of sand. Yet Wise assumes, more or less, that by means of it England pulled itself out of the abyss of slavery and pulled America and the world after it.
In this instance, though the purport of the Mansfield judgment was taken to be that ''as soon as any slave sets foot on English ground, he becomes free,'' the emancipated black population fell into a wretchedness so extreme as to justify their expulsion to -- such paradoxes are endless -- the region of Sierra Leone that was also the center of the British slave trade and from which Africans were shipped into the West Indies. Their destitution was exploited and exacerbated by none other than Granville Sharp, who ''distributed handbills asking London's gentlemen to cease dispensing charity to poor blacks in order to nudge them toward Africa.'' This coercion was apparently not at odds with the high view of English liberty with which he had swayed public and judicial opinion. Sharp, Wise says, ''believed wild tales of how mild and fertile'' Sierra Leone was -- surely a remarkable feat of credulity, given England's long experience with the place. In any case, in 1787 several hundred former slaves sailed to Sierra Leone ''with dozens of white prostitutes whom the English authorities, anxious to rid themselves of as many undesirables as possible, black and white, had married to the settlers while the women were drunk'' -- if true, a further light on English liberty. The population of the colony promptly fell by two-thirds largely because of famine and disease.
This is not to give away the end of the story, which for Wise is in fact the triumph of law and the beginning of the abolition of human slavery. He acknowledges anomalies like this one in a late chapter but, he concludes, ''Somerset's chief legacy'' was that human slavery ''was so odious the common law would never support it.'' And he continues: ''Mansfield's proved just the opening salvo in a legal barrage that, within a century, splintered all of human slavery's bulwarks.'' That century brought the world to 1872, when colonialism was at its height and its depredations were only accelerating. Colonialism disrupted and destroyed far more African lives than did slavery. Indeed, the distinction between the two seems no more than convenient.
Yet the Atlantic slave trade was an enormity stunning in its scale and its duration. In ''Bury the Chains,'' Adam Hochschild says: ''So rapidly were slaves worked to death, above all on the brutal sugar plantations of the Caribbean, that between 1660 and 1807, ships brought well over three times as many Africans across the ocean to British colonies as they did Europeans. And, of course, it was not just to British territories that slaves were sent. From Senegal to Virginia, Sierra Leone to Charleston, the Niger delta to Cuba, Angola to Brazil, and on dozens upon dozens of crisscrossing paths taken by thousands of vessels, the Atlantic was a vast conveyor belt to early death in the fields of an immense swath of plantations that stretched from Baltimore to Rio de Janeiro and beyond.'' The subject of this interesting and valuable book is the tiny cadre of reformers that undertook to arouse public feeling against this great abuse. Hochschild says: ''For 50 years, activists in England worked to end slavery in the British Empire. None of them gained a penny by doing so, and their eventual success meant a huge loss to the imperial economy.'' Vast, entrenched and profitable as the slave trade was, how did they manage to bring it to an end?
That they did end it is assumed by Hochschild rather than proved by him. It seems a little odd in a historian to use the improbability of a movement's success as grounds for heightened admiration, rather than for heightened attention to other contributing factors. Given that the whole infernal enterprise was sustained by the immense wealth it generated, one might, without cynicism, look to the economic considerations in play. When the British outlawed the exportation of Africans to the colonies for sale in 1807, they had had almost 20 years' notice that the Americans intended to ban the importation of Africans in 1808. And it was just about this time that Napoleon, cut off by the British Navy from French colonies in the Caribbean, began looking into the domestic cultivation of the sugar beet.
And there were the rebellions in the West Indies, particularly the Haitian rebellion. The sections of the book that deal with them bring to light an astounding, and forgotten, episode in Western history. Since Haiti alone produced as much foreign trade at that time as the whole of the 13 colonies of North America, it was potentially a great loss. It belonged to France, but Britain supplied it with slaves, a valuable trade since the slaves were intentionally worked to death -- it was cheaper to replace them than to sustain them -- so the market for Africans was very brisk. Uprisings had long been frequent in the West Indies, but at long last rage in Haiti converged with the tactical brilliance of Toussaint L'Ouverture and others and the slaves seized the island. This part of the story is familiar. But there is more.
First the British and then the French under Napoleon sent huge forces against the Haitians. The British sent a larger army against Haiti than it had dispatched to fight in the American Revolution. And it buried 60 percent of those soldiers in Haiti. The two greatest powers on earth went up against a population of half-starved, desperate people and were utterly defeated. It is no surprise that these two abysmal wars of empire have fallen out of history. One cannot read about them without concluding that the Haitian Africans contributed mightily to making the Caribbean slave system untenable. All in all, in 1807 the prospects of the traffic in human beings were not good. It is perhaps coincidental that in adopting the abolitionist stance Britain was able to seize the moral high ground and attempt (together with the United States) to suppress the slave trade among its economic rivals. Certainly this posture was gallant enough to make a great part of the world forget that Britain was for so long pre-eminent among the despoilers of Africa.
Hochschild has written eloquently about the importance of this kind of historical forgetting in ''King Leopold's Ghost,'' his account of the policies of the Belgian King Leopold II in the Congo in the early 20th century, which are estimated to have taken 10 million lives. There he writes, ''The world we live in -- its divisions and conflicts, its widening gap between rich and poor, its seemingly inexplicable outbursts of violence -- is shaped far less by what we celebrate and mythologize than by the painful events we try to forget.'' How consistently and with what lethal effect we choose not to be aware.
Nevertheless, Hochschild interprets the success of the British abolitionist movement as a triumph of empathy, a humane response to horrors of which the public only gradually became conscious. His heroes are Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp and the former slave Olaudah Equiano, among others. These men did indeed work patiently and passionately for emancipation. Certainly it is uplifting to find empathy and law together championing justice, as they do in the narratives of both Hochschild and Wise. The intention of the writers is clearly the honorable one of finding an instance in history in which justice has prevailed and the world has been changed, and of finding as well a model of the kinds of activism by which present enormities are, or might be, addressed. Yet, again to the credit of both writers, these narratives include elements incompatible with this kind of interpretation, indeed consistent with the opposite and very bleak conclusion that movements based on empathy and law, when proceeding from exalted tributes to the essential decency of a population, can flatter indifference or complicity.
In fact, the slave trade was at home in a world where the appropriation of lives and the extortion of labor were astonishingly commonplace. Hochschild describes the virtual abductions by which slave ships were manned, and tells how these sailors were subject to flogging and starving, and died in numbers as great as did the abducted Africans they helped to transport. And the British Navy was manned in the same way. None of this was at all exceptional, as it would have to have been if there were indeed a presumption of freedom embedded in English culture, as both books assert. No consensus in support of freedom can be demonstrated. The industrialist Robert Owen, writing in 1813, years after the Mansfield decision, describes the transfer to factories of the children of British paupers by the hundreds, 6-, 7- and 8-year-olds who worked 13 hours a day through seven-year apprenticeships. These little workers died quickly and were replaced by other pauper children. They were not slaves in the strictest sense. The system did resemble Caribbean slavery, however, in that it set a negative value on their well-being.
The literature on such practices is immense because they were pervasive and long lived and of interest to many generations of activists. Indeed, if there were not economic motives behind British abolition, then the speed with which that reform came about is miraculous compared with the laggardly pace of reforms affecting the laboring classes who were the great majority of the British population. Owen asks, ''Shall the well-being of the poor, half-naked, half-famished, untaught and untrained . . . not call forth one petition, one delegate, one rational effective legislative measure?'' Just at the time of the emancipation of the British West Indies, a reform bill passed by Parliament created the ''Poor Law Bastilles,'' a system of punitive incarceration for the indigent. Hochschild describes how the Parliament paid the West Indian slaveholders extravagant sums for their emancipated slaves, who then became their oppressed and wretchedly paid employees, driven to frequent rebellion just as the slaves had been. If Britain taught the world by ending actual slavery, it gave the world a second lesson in establishing virtual slavery. As Hochschild remarks in ''King Leopold's Ghost,'' empathy is fickle.
The primacy of England in these narratives slights the fact that a consensus against slavery had been building for a generation in New England, and longer in Quaker Philadelphia. The role of England in sustaining slavery in its colonies is demonstrated in the abolition of slavery immediately after the American Revolution, in Vermont in 1777 and in Massachusetts in 1780. The institution of human bondage became truly peculiar to the South only after the Revolution, because it was legal everywhere in the colonies while they were under British law. And years after the emancipation of slaves in the empire, Britain came near intervening in the American Civil War on the side of the slave states. The arguments in Somerset v. Steuart treat the laws of the colonies as alien to England, though members of the royal family were major stockholders in the slave trade, and what is more English than the Church of England, which was a great slaveholder in Jamaica? While every good effect of an important precedent must be welcomed, the fact remains that the claim to an exclusive English purity that is the basis for the legal arguments associated with Steuart v. Somerset was and is a denial of history, a part of the great forgetting.
Marilynne Robinson teaches at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. Her most recent novel is ''Gilead.''
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''StyleSheet:'' StyleSheetColors - StyleSheetLayout - StyleSheetPrint

SiteUrl
If you are new to this kind of site, the NavigationHelp is most useful.
<<forEachTiddler 
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>>
<<list tagged hot_news>>
Your site visitors won't be interested in seeing every single Tiddler. All they want to see is a list of interesting content in some clear naviagational format.You might want the list to be an A-Z index, or to be soted by some tagging criteria. This is how to do it. 

#Install the ForEAchTiddler plugin and macro
Assuming that your articles are logically tagged, use one of the provided macro formulas to sort and order your Tiddlers.
!Create a list sorted with the newest article at the top.
{{{
<<forEachTiddler 
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'tiddler.tags.contains("1publish")'
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>>
}}}
##Create a "list of lists", basically a navigation menu that points to your longer lists.
>Put it in the Main Menu, Side menu, or as a default Tiddler.

{{{
<<forEachTiddler 
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http://jokes4all.net/
!Heaven and Hell
Heaven:

The cooks are French,
The policemen are English,
The mechanics are German,
The lovers are Italian,
The bankers are Swiss.

In Hell:

The cooks are English,
The policemen are German,
The mechanics are French,
The lovers are Swiss,
The bankers are Italian.
!How many economists does it take to screw in a light bulb?

None. If the light bulb really needed changing, market forces would have already caused it to happen.
----
What not to say to the nice policeman:

Hey, is that a 9mm? That's nothing compared to this .44 magnum!
----
A man was wandering around in a field, thinking about how good his wife had been to him and how fortunate he was to have her.

He asked God, "Why did you make her so kind-hearted?"
The Lord responded, "So you could love her, my son."
"Why did you make her so good-looking?"
"So you could love her, my son."
"Why did you make her such a good cook?"
"So you could love her, my son."

The man thought about this. Then he said, "I don't mean to seem ungrateful or anything, but ... why did you make her so stupid?"

"So she could love you, my son."
----
A man goes into a pet shop to buy a parrot. The shop owner points to three identical looking parrots on a perch and says, "the parrot on the left costs 500 dollars". "Why does the parrot cost so much," asks the man. The shop owner says, "well, the parrot knows how to use a computer".

The man then asks about the next parrot to be told that this one costs 1,000 dollars because it can do everything the other parrot can do plus it knows how to use the UNIX operating system.

Naturally, the increasingly startled man asks about the third parrot to be told that it costs 2,000 dollars. Needless to say this begs the question, "What can it do?" To which the shop owner replies, "to be honest I have never seen it do a thing, but the other two call him boss!"
----
A string walks into a bar with a few friends and orders a beer. The bartender says, "I'm sorry, but we don't serve strings here."

The string walks away a little upset and sits down with his friends. A few minutes later he goes back to the bar and orders a beer. The bartender, looking a little exasperated, says, "I'm sorry, we don't serve strings here."

So the string goes back to his table. Then he gets an idea. He ties himself in a loop and messes up the top of his hair. Then he walks back up to the bar and orders a beer.

The bartender squints at him and says, "Hey, aren't you a string?"

And the string says, "Nope, I'm a frayed knot."
----
!Modern Marriage
A couple had been married for many years, and their son had gotten old enough to date. One day the boy brought a girl over to diner. The mother was thrilled with her son's choice and couldn't wait for the wedding. However, the father was upset and, eventually, the boy asked, "Dad, why don't you seem happy with her. Mom likes her a lot."

The father explained, "No son, there's nothing wrong with the girl. It's just that I cheated on your mother a long time ago, and the girl you've been dating is my daughter by that woman."

So the boy dumped her and found himself another girl. Again, he brought her home to the mother's delight, but the father again told him this girl was actually his half-sister. The boy lost his temper and told his mother what his father had said.

Furious, the mother shouted, "Don't listen to him, sweetheart! He isn't even your father!"
----

How does the man on the moon get his hair cut?

Eclipse it!

Source: [[Keith's Home Page - News, entertainment, salsa, politics and shopping|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/homepage.html]]

String Theory
A string walks into a bar with a few friends and orders a beer. The bartender says, "I'm sorry, but we don't serve strings here."

The string walks away a little upset and sits down with his friends. A few minutes later he goes back to the bar and orders a beer. The bartender, looking a little exasperated, says, "I'm sorry, we don't serve strings here."

So the string goes back to his table. Then he gets an idea. He ties himself in a loop and messes up the top of his hair. Then he walks back up to the bar and orders a beer.

The bartender squints at him and says, "Hey, aren't you a string?"

And the string says, "Nope, I'm a frayed knot."
----
What’s black and white and red all over?
A newspaper.

What illness do retired pilots get?
Flu.

What does the garden say when it laughs?
Hoe, hoe, hoe.
----
''A selection of interesting articles.''
<<list tagged news_article>>
<<forEachTiddler 
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'tiddler.tags.contains("*News")'
 sortBy
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 descending
>>

!Publish and upload
[[Web sites and web design|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/miscellany.html]]
[[WWW|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/worldwideweb.html]]
!Private Use
[[MonkeyGDT - My Planner|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/1keithsmonkeygtd.html]]
[[My notebook- dump file waiting to be sorted|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/1keithsnotes.html]]
[[Project files folder|file:///E:/0%20Project%20maps/1inuse/]]
!Test site
[[Test site|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/testmonkeypiratemptwtheme.html]]
!Handy scripts
[[Search engines|file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/multibrowsers.html]]

Options used by UploadPlugin
Username: <<option txtUploadUserName>>
Password: <<option pasUploadPassword>>

Url of the UploadService script^^(1)^^: <<option txtUploadStoreUrl 50>>
Relative Directory where to store the file^^(2)^^: <<option txtUploadDir 50>>
Filename of the uploaded file^^(3)^^: <<option txtUploadFilename 40>>
Directory to backup file on webserver^^(4)^^: <<option txtUploadBackupDir>>

^^(1)^^Mandatory either in UploadOptions or in macro parameter
^^(2)^^If empty stores in the script directory
^^(3)^^If empty takes the actual filename
^^(4)^^If empty existing file with same name on webserver will be overwritten
<<upload>>
{{{
<<upload [http://www.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/wikis/store.php [toFilename [backupDir [uploadDir [thebizn]]]]]>>
}}}


MptwViewTemplate - rearranged DIVs and added the Tagger script
!1072 nm light as an anti-ageing agent
 human lymphocytes pre-irradiated with 1072 nm light are afforded some protection against subsequent ultraviolet light toxicity.
!For cold sores
Reduces healing time by 1/3
[[Virulite Coldsore Machine|http://www.virulite.eu/about-virulite/]]
[[Lipzore|http://www.lipzor.net/lipzor-net/]] - uses an LED
!Infra red
Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz)[1] (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments[2][3][4][5]). Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared.
Options used by UploadPlugin
Username: <<option txtUploadUserName>>
Password: <<option pasUploadPassword>>

Url of the UploadService script^^(1)^^: <<option txtUploadStoreUrl 50>>
Relative Directory where to store the file^^(2)^^: <<option txtUploadDir 50>>
Filename of the uploaded file^^(3)^^: <<option txtUploadFilename 40>>
Directory to backup file on webserver^^(4)^^: <<option txtUploadBackupDir>>

^^(1)^^Mandatory either in UploadOptions or in macro parameter
^^(2)^^If empty stores in the script directory
^^(3)^^If empty takes the actual filename
^^(4)^^If empty existing file with same name on webserver will be overwritten
<<upload>>
{{{
<<upload [http://www.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/wikis/store.php [toFilename [backupDir [uploadDir [thebizn]]]]]>>
}}}


Anne Beitel - office at 01962 829705
1. Dark chocolate—the darling of the superfoods—has been found to reduce the risk of a number of stress-related diseases:  lower heart disease risk, a measurable drop in melanoma skin cancer rates, a lower diabetes risk, and better cognition in older people.
 
2. Coffee is packed with antioxidants that make it one of the healthiest beverages on earth. In addition to being beneficial for athletic performance and brain function due to the caffeine, coffee decreases disease risk, including cancer (lung, prostate, breast, endometrial, pancreatic, stomach, and colon), heart disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
 
3. Tart Cherry Juice has been found to significantly enhance sleep quality by raising the hormone melatonin, and it accelerates recovery from exercise due to its high antioxidant content. It’s especially good for folks who can’t sleep due to mental stress because it reduces the buildup of inflammatory factors like IL-6, which can spiral out of control when you experience a lot of anxiety.
 
4. Coconut oil has taken the underground nutrition world by storm because it is anti-inflammatory and can moderate blood sugar. It’s a useful fat to cook with, being not easily oxidized at high temperatures.
 
Avoid drinking it in very large quantities daily since, like all fats, it is energy dense and contains a rather whopping dose of saturated fat, which is safe in reasonable amounts, but should not be over consumed.
 
5. Red wine is famous for containing the antioxidant resveratrol that has been shown to reduce muscle soreness after exercise, lower cancer risk, and promote insulin sensitivity. Along with red grapes and grapeseed extract, high-quality red wine has the ability to fight stress when consumed in small quantities and it also improves estrogen metabolism.
 
6. Beef liver is nutrient dense, but low in calories and fat. It provides an array of protective nutrients in a source that the body can easily absorb, including phosphorous, potassium, vitamin A, zinc, copper, iron, folate, and choline.
 
7. Organic bison, or buffalo, is high in anti-inflammatory compounds including  omega-3 fats, and the amino acids, carnitine, glutamine, glycine and glutathione. It’s also got the potent cancer fighting antioxidant CLA, and provides conditionally essential amino acids that are protective in times of stress.
 
8. Brazil nuts are high in selenium, zinc, and the vitamins B and E—a combination of antioxidants that enable enzymes needed for glutathione, the immune regulator. Brazil nuts may also enhance androgen hormone production.
 
9. Bananas are a nutrient-rich food that have the ability to raise the sleep hormone melatonin as well as significantly improve blood antioxidant levels. Plus, they contain prebiotics, which are compounds on which the beneficial bacteria in your gut thrive, making them an excellent regular anti-stress food.
 
Why exactly bananas have gotten a bad rap is unclear—maybe it’s the 5.7 or whatever percent fructose, the 105 calories, the starch, or just the carbs, but it’s all nonsense and there is no reason to banish bananas.  
 
10. Almonds are high in phytonutrients, vitamin D, protein, fiber, and beneficial fats. Even though they are abundant in calories, fascinating research shows that when people supplement with almonds in addition to their normal diets they don’t gain fat, which is likely due to something called uncoupling proteins. Uncoupling proteins raise body temperature as they are metabolized, leading to greater energy expenditure.
 
11. The antioxidants in balsamic vinegar improve nutrient partitioning so that carbohydrates get stored in muscle as glycogen instead of as fat. Vinegar also moderates blood sugar and improves pancreatic function, making it a valuable addition to any higher carb foods.
 
12. Cold water fish—salmon, mackerel, smelt, chad, perch, sardines, and anchovies—provide an array of amino acids to reduce the breakdown of lean muscle tissue that occurs with high cortisol levels. They also provide those wonderful anti-stress fish oils, DHA and EPA. In fact, supplementing the diet with fish oil has been found to reduce cortisol levels and improve body composition.
 
13. Whey protein raises glutathione, which is the internally produced antioxidant that helps improve the entire anti-inflammatory cascade. Whey is the superior protein source for elevating protein synthesis and tissue repair after exercise.
 
14. Fenugreek is a spice that deserves special attention because it’s filled with protective compounds, is anti-diabetic, and improves energy use in the body. It acts at the insulin receptor level to help remove sugar from the blood, making it a useful addition to any foods high in carbs, or to aid in the loading of nutrients like creatine or carnitine into muscle.
 
15. No surprise that blueberries and related dark-colored fruits like raspberries and blackberries are on this list.
 
What you may not know is that they are one of the most useful foods for building muscle and strength because they accelerate recovery. They help remove the waste products or “garbage” produced by intense training. Eat them alone or add them to high-glycemic carbs for better insulin sensitivity.  
 
16. Lentils of all colors contain the highest phytonutrient levels of all legumes making them protective of many stress-related diseases including heart disease, high blood pressure, and inflammation.
 
17. Yerba Mate and Green Tea come from different plants, but they both contain extremely high levels of catechin antioxidants that promote fat loss. The catechins inhibit lipase, decreasing fat absorption, and can suppress food intake.
 
They also enhance energy expenditure via greater thermogenesis, improve liver function, promote the use of fat for fuel rather than carbs, and lead to the death of fat cells (apoptosis).
 
18. Asparagus is nutritionally rich, containing folate, vitamins A, C, E, and K, and chromium, which is often low in the modern diet and will reduce sugar cravings and stress eating. It’s also high in glutathione, that super antioxidant that is at the core of the immune system.
 
19. Rainbow Chard contains some of the most exotic antioxidants, which are linked to cancer prevention, an increased immune response, and better wound healing. Eating it regularly will improve blood sugar and it’s known in Turkey as an anti-diabetic.
 
20. Seaweed—nori and kumbu are particularly high in antioxidants—is a major condiment in Asia that is protective against aging, stress, and disease. It’s also a rich source of amino acids, with red seaweeds containing 47 percent protein, which is noteworthy for plant foods.
 
21. Walnuts may be the healthiest nut because they are eaten raw with the skin on and have a superior fat profile. Their numerous antioxidant compounds play out well in association studies that show people who eat nuts regularly have better body composition, overall health, and longer lives.
 
22. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage made from green or black tea and it’s often brewed with fruits like pomegranate, ginger, or blueberry. The combination of anti-stress compounds from the tea leaves, the phytoplant-rich fruits, and the fact that it contains probiotics makes it a much sought after beverage to promote wellness and optimal body composition.
 
23. Kim Chi is a probiotic food that improves gut health, and insulin sensitivity. It’s made from some of the most protective anti-stress ingredients available: The main ingredient is cabbage, which improves detoxification, and it’s seasoned with hot pepper, garlic, onion, and ginger, which together make up a group of powerful antioxidants.  
 
24. Avocado is called an “anti-obesity” food by scientists because it’s jam-packed with nutrients and antioxidants that can produce a lower body weight and waist circumference, as was seen in an analysis of the diets of 17,567 Americans.
 
25. Ginger is sweet, spicy, and abundant in anti-inflammatory effects that are therapeutic for the stomach, the joints, and supportive of the body’s internal antioxidant cascade. It’s very versatile—sauté with slices of this root, blend it in a protein shake, drink it in tea, or flavor dishes with the ground spice.
 
26. Eggs are a perfect protein, highly affordable, and packed with the antioxidants selenium, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Eating 3 eggs a day as part of lower carb diet has been shown to produce fat loss, decrease insulin, and shift the body into an anti-inflammatory state.
 
27. Red palm oil contains some of the most powerful antioxidant compounds such as chlorogenic acids and catechins, as well as fat soluble vitamins, all of which have been found to significantly reduce oxidative stress.
 
28. Turmeric is a spice that contains the active compound curcumin, which is one of the most researched natural therapeutics due to its ability to improve enzyme activity involved in energy use, ability to speed the clearance of waste products from alcohol use, intense exercise, and other toxic compounds like BPA.
 
29. The pomegranate is impressively high in rare antioxidants, ellagic and tannic acids, which have multiple fat loss effects, inhibiting fat absorption and suppressing energy intake. The pomegranate has also been shown to improve cardiovascular health by reducing inflammation, making it a superior anti-stress food.  
 
30. Black pepper raises the metabolism by stimulating central nervous system and hormone activity. It’s rife with powerful compounds that reduce inflammation, aid digestion, and it’s proven well in preventing the growth of tumors.
 
31. Cinnamon is a wonder spice that improves the removal of sugar from the blood, while reducing oxidative stress from inflammatory foods that are high in fat in carbs. It’s also been found to boost brain function and cognition due to better glucose use.
 
32. Broccoli is a well-known, cheap superfood that reduces oxidative stress, aids in estrogen metabolism, and protects against the big diseases like cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, and aging.
 
33. Stevia is a non-caloric sweetener that comes form the stevia plant and its phytochemicals improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. It also reduces oxidative stress in the liver and kidneys. It’s a beneficial addition to whey protein, carbs, or fatty foods because it reduces inflammation caused by lipid peroxidation.
 
34. Onion and scallions are nutrient powerhouses that also act as prebiotics for anti-inflammatory gut bacteria to gnaw on.
 
35. Beets, like dark colored berries, are composed of the most exotic and effective antioxidants for stress reduction. Beets improve blood flow by improving nitric oxide in the body for improved exercise performance. Eat them raw, baked, or blended in a workout shake.
 
36. Shiitake mushrooms, long used in Asia for superior flavor and nutrition, and other wild mushrooms, improve immune function and have been found beneficial for preventing cancer.  
 
37. Quinoa has anti-inflammatory properties from quercetin and kaempferol and is composed of an exceptional balance between oil, protein, and fat, making it beneficial for brain function and cell membrane health.
 
It’s technically a seed, gluten free, and contains a nice dose of carbs and is highly nutritious, if energy dense. Great for a post-workout meal or when carb cycling, eat quinoa with fruits, vegetables, or spices that enhance glucose uptake.
 
38. Sweet potatoes and yams are a higher sugar plant that are packed with antioxidants, fiber, and vitamins, making them a delicious go-to carb source post-workout or when you just need something sweet.
 
39. Plums are a more economical superfood than blueberries but they have equal amounts of protective antioxidants. Of interest, plums, in particular, dried plums have a unique ability to improve glutathione and enhance bone metabolism—women who eat them regularly have greater bone density and less risk of osteoporosis.
 
40. Spinach and tomatoes have complementary antioxidants called carotenoids that work synergistically to give the body extra disease protection. Other superfood combinations are nuts and Greek yogurt, garlic and fish, lamb and rosemary, and lemon and kale.
 
http://www.guardian.co.uk/gender/story/0,,1795453,00.html#article_continue. Monday June 12, 2006

Caroline Norton fought a brutal husband and a male-only political system to change the divorce laws. As high-profile cases put women's rights in marriage under the spotlight, Natasha Walter looks at the life of a forgotten heroine

You can hardly open a newspaper these days without finding female commentators saying that the law has become too nice to women by allowing them an equal share of their husbands' wealth after divorce. But 150 years ago, women had no rights at all in the long and convoluted process. Nobody knew that better than a heroic woman called Caroline Norton. She had been ruined by her husband but decided to fight back - and in doing so changed the situation of all women. And they are still reaping the rewards today.

When the first secular law on divorce was discussed in parliament in 1856, no women's voices could be heard directly - there were neither women MPs nor lawyers in those days. But an 80-year-old Tory peer, Lord Lyndhurst, pushed decisively for reform by reading out chunks of Caroline Norton's writing on the subject. Her arguments - including the point that even before divorce women deserved a separate legal existence from their husbands - were incorporated into the final Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act in 1857.
Caroline Norton was an unlikely radical - a fashionable, sociable, upper-class woman who loved parties and flirting. Indeed, if she hadn't experienced such terrible injustice in her own life, she would never have become a campaigner. She came from a grand but impoverished family - her grandfather was Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the playwright - and jumped into marriage with the first eligible man who sought her out because at 19 she was under pressure from her family to get married before her younger sister.
The marriage to George Norton, who was Tory MP for Guildford, was a violent disaster. On one occasion when Caroline was slow in coming to bed, her husband "suddenly sprang from the bed, seized me by the nape of my neck, and dashed me down on the floor. The sound of my fall awakened my sister and brother-in-law, who slept in a room below, and they ran up to my door ... My brother-in-law burst the door open, and carried me downstairs. I had a swelling on my head for days afterwards."
He continued to beat her for years and then early one morning in 1836, after a particularly vicious quarrel, Caroline returned to the family home to find that her three little boys - Fletcher, Brinsley and William - were gone. She tracked them down to the house of a friend of her husband's: "When I did find them, he refused to let me even see them, and called in the police! I could hear their little feet running merrily over my head while I sat sobbing below - only the ceiling between us, and I not able to get at them! My merry little Briney! & poor Spencer who had been so ill ... I came away without even being able to kiss them & say goodbye - if they keep my boys from me I shall go mad." George Norton did keep her children from her and pursued her for divorce, accusing her of adultery. Caroline had long been intimate with Lord Melbourne, the then prime minister. For years he had visited her three times a week, choosing afternoons when her husband would not be there. Some sections of the press had a field day. "Though it forever my renown may blot, I'll still stand up dear Caroline for thee, For Oh! How oft (the marriage vows forgot) Hast thou consented to lie down for me," read one verse signed "Melbourne", which was published in the Satirist in 1835.
Nobody knows for sure if they had an affair. In her letters to him, which have survived and are marvellously readable, she says very clearly that they did not have sex, but that they did love each other: "In the sight of Heaven my crime is the same as if I had been your mistress these five years," she wrote to him. After their public shaming, she quotes to him his words to her from the early days of their relationship, "I have been in despair today at not seeing you," and tells him, "Then I came more to please you than to please myself, now it breaks my whole life not seeing you."
Whatever the reality of their relationship, the case George Norton brought against Lord Melbourne for "criminal conversation", or adultery, with Caroline, was the great scandal of the day. He brought servants to testify that they had seen Caroline's hair tumbled and clothes disarranged after Melbourne's visits.
After the court case Caroline was irrevocably compromised: her husband had lost the case but she hadn't won it - it had been fought between the two men, and she had not had a chance to speak up in court. What is more, she was in legal limbo. She couldn't get a divorce, but as a married woman had no right to her own earnings - her income came from writing poetry, novels and songs - or to see her children. Once she was called suddenly to see her youngest son because he was sick - and when she got there he was dead.
Caroline was one of the first women to make the personal political. Her first struggle was to get access rights for mothers. Caroline had already made her name as a writer but now she learned how to turn a political and legal argument in a way that would make people listen. She published pamphlets in defence of "the natural claim of a mother to the custody of her children", and used all her charm and influence to persuade influential men to draw up the first child custody law. An MP called Sir Thomas Talfourd pushed through the Infant Custody Bill in 1839, but nobody had any doubt, as Caroline's most recent biographer, Alan Chedzoy, put it, "that the triumph was really Caroline's." It was the first piece of women's rights legislation ever brought before the House of Commons. And by the time the divorce bill was being debated in 1856, Caroline was a seasoned campaigner.
Until 1857, divorce was such a convoluted and expensive process that only very powerful men could manage it. Married women simply had no legal rights; even if they were separated from their husbands they did not have the right to make contracts, to sue, or even to keep their own earnings. Throughout the more than 20 years Caroline had been living separated from her husband: "I exist and I suffer, but the law denies my existence." She ends her pamphlet on the subject, A Letter to the Queen, with a wit that makes you smile grimly even today. "My husband has a legal copyright of my works. Let him claim this!"
When the 1857 act, which brought divorce within secular courts for the first time, was passed, it put right some of these wrongs - including the right of separated women to keep their earnings. Yet Caroline never got a divorce; she lived alone but as George Norton's wife until his death in 1875. She then married William Stirling-Maxwell, a sweet and gentle friend of hers who was very different from George, but their happiness ended after only three months when Caroline died, aged 69, in 1877.
Given her political successes, it's surprising that Caroline Norton isn't better known, especially among all those women who have benefited from her victories. But she was always anomalous, even in her own time. Other campaigners for women's rights in the mid-19th century were building up a lasting network of hard-working women who would get signatures on petitions and run meetings, and who were making the vital links between all the different aspects of women's oppression, from property law, to education and even suffrage. Norton, meanwhile, was too much of an individualist, both too socially grand and too socially compromised, to be part of their circles. She could be presented to Queen Victoria and have dinner with Tennyson even after her disgrace, but she had to face down respectable wives who cut her dead because they thought she was a fallen woman. Although she had close female friends among women who were too posh or too clever to care what others thought, such as the Duchess of Sutherland or Mary Shelley, most of her alliances were with influential men. What is more, Caroline never argued the doctrine of equal rights, but always said that she believed in men's superiority - a position that helped her to win over the powerful men she needed, but has put feminists off her legacy.
But even if she is easy to criticise, she stuck to her guns where other women would not. "Well, I know how many hundreds infinitely better than I, more pious, more patient, and less rash under injury, have watered their bread with tears," she wrote. "My plea to attention is that, in pleading for myself I am able to plead for all these others. For this, I believe, God gave me the power of writing. To this I devote that power. I abjure all other writing, till I see these laws altered." And she saw the laws altered - even though she hardly benefited from her successes. As women flock to the courts to get more equal settlements, they should light a candle to the memory of the woman who first fought for the rights of divorced women. 
Read and quote from the texts to support your answers and opinions.

In pairs discuss and write down 1 paragraph answers to the following questions. Make sure your written answer is good enough to be read out loud.

How would things be different if abortion were illegal, as in the past?
When is a baby a baby? How can we decide? On what facts?
Isn't a foetus in the first few weeks similar to frogspawn?
What are the justifications for abortion?
What are the arguments against?
Is the "limit of viability" still viable in the light of modern science?
Why has the rate of abortions risen? Are the reasons justifiable?
Who should decide to have an abortion, the man or the woman?
After considering the evidence and differing points of view, what are your own opinions?
Should this be a political issue?


Debate Assignment

You are an MP who has been called to a Constituency Meeting to explain and justify your stand on the Abortion Issue. Your constituency is of mixed ethnic and religious origin - Atheists, Catholics, Muslims and Hindus. Prepare your speech.





Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, leader of six million Catholics, says it ought to be an election issue. Tony Blair disagrees. So should it be?
16 March 2005
Abortion: The facts <http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=620582> 
The history
The Ancient Greeks and Romans allowed abortions. The early philosophers argued that a foetus did not become formed and begin to live until at least 40 days after conception for a male, and around 80 days for a female.
From the 16th century, the Christian doctrine of passive conception held that the foetus was only given a soul in the fifth month. Then, in 1869, Pope Pius X changed the timing of "ensoulment" to conception.
In 1803, the Ellenborough Act made abortion in Britain after the 16- to 20-week period in which life is first felt, an offence that carried the death penalty, though it later became life imprisonment. In 1938, Dr Alex Bourne was acquitted of performing an illegal abortion after claiming that it was to save a raped girl mental harm, setting a case-law precedent. Women wanting to terminate had illegal, backstreet abortions performed by unqualified abortionists. Women were often injured in the process and some died. At least 50 were killed each year from botched surgery and infection.
The 1967 Act
The private member's Bill introduced by the Liberal MP David Steel ended the scourge of backstreet terminations. Abortion was legalised if two doctors certified that continuing with the pregnancy would involve a risk greater than if it was terminated to the physical or mental health of the woman - or where there was a substantial risk of serious abnormality in the child. In 1969, the first complete year after the Act, there were 54,819 registered abortions. Doctors found abortion in the first few weeks was actually safer than continuing with the pregnancy. They began to interpret the law more liberally, taking increasing account of the mental health of the woman.
After 1967: the science
An upper time limit of 28 weeks for abortions was introduced under the 1967 Act. That was derived from the Infant Life Preservation Act of 1929 which had set it as the limit of viability - the age at which a foetus could survive.
Medical advances have seen the limit of viability fall. Today, neonatal units are equipped to save babies of 24 weeks gestation and below. Survival after birth has continued to improve since 1990.
In Britain, 1 per cent of babies born at 22 weeks survive and 11 per cent at 23 weeks. About a quarter survive at 24 weeks. Two-thirds of babies born at 23 weeks and more than a third born at 24 weeks suffer long-term disability.
After 1967: the politics
From the start, the Abortion Act came under sustained attack from opponents who sought to reduce the time limit and repeal the law. In 1990, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act introduced controls over techniques developed to help infertile couples and to monitor experiments on embryos. The abortion law was reviewed in the light of the new Act and the time limit for abortions was reduced from 28 to 24 weeks in 1991.
The key numbers
There were 181,600 legal abortions in England and Wales in 2003, a rise of 5,700 (3.2 per cent) on the year before.
The abortion rate for women resident in England and Wales in 2003 was 17.5 per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44. The abortion rate was highest, 31.3 per 1,000, among women aged 20 to 24.
The rise in the abortion rate in modern Britain is attributed to issues ranging from women wanting fewer children and wanting them later in life, to the decreasing popularity of marriage and the rise of "career women" who fear that children will hinder their job prospects.
The percentage of abortions performed at 20 weeks or later has remained at between 1 per cent and 1.6 per cent for years. Teenagers are more likely to have late abortions, usually because they do not realise they are pregnant.
Why cut the time limit?
The debate about the 24-week limit began with claims that the foetus showed evidence of consciousness and could feel pain from an early stage in the womb. The survival of babies at 22 and 23 weeks also showed that the limits of viability had fallen.
The foetus is sensitive to touch from about seven weeks and soon afterwards can move its limbs. But its movements are spinal reflexes and do not indicate awareness. After 26 weeks, actions become more defined, reflecting improved organisation in the nervous system. The structures necessary for pain to be felt are in place but there remains disagreement over when pain can first be experienced.
Many doctors and nurses feel uncomfortable performing late abortions and most over 18 weeks are contracted out by the NHS to the private sector.
Many doctors, MPs, medical ethicists and members of the public support a reduction in the time limit from 24 weeks to 22 or 20 weeks.
Why leave the limit?
Medical organisations say the law is humane, practical and working well. Pro-choice groups warn that any reduction in the time limit would be likely to affect the most vulnerable women - teenagers whose relationships have broken up and women waiting for the results of tests. Screening tests for foetal abnormalities in pregnancy identify women at high risk but they must be followed by diagnostic tests. Women may also have to wait until 20 weeks or more to get confirmatory test results of foetal abnormalities. After receiving the results they need time to consider their options.
Groups such as the British Pregnancy Advisory Service, the Family Planning Association and Antenatal Results and Choices say reducing the time limit will narrow the options for these women and lead to the birth of more unwanted babies.
The political football
Michael Howard made abortion an election issue by declaring last weekend that the upper limit for legal termination should be reduced from 24 weeks to 20 weeks.
Tony Blair, whose wife is a Roman Catholic, said abortion was a "difficult issue" but said he would not change the law.
Charles Kennedy said he had voted for the upper time limit to be reduced from 24 weeks to 22 but added that advances in medicine meant that "I don't know what I would do now".
Cardinal Cormac Murphy- O'Connor, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales, hinted that all Catholics should vote Tory but the Prime Minister has said he believes it is a matter for a free vote and conscience on both sides of the House.
So will this week's controversy take centre stage as the parties contest the election? 
!Search for a room
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/deals/hotel-sales
http://www.laterooms.com/
http://www.travelstay.com/
http://www.yha.org.uk
http://www.travel-library.com
http://www.priceline.co.uk
!Cottages
http://www.cottages.co.uk/
http://www.cottages4you.co.uk/
http://www.countrycottagesonline.net/
!!North East and Northumbria
http://www.northeastcoastalcottages.co.uk/
http://www.visitnortheastengland.com
!Business Hotels
http://www.etaphotel.com/gb/home/index.shtml
http://www.premierinn.com/
http://www.travelodge.co.uk/
http://www.accorhotels.com - Ibis
http://www.holidayinn.co.uk/
http://www.novotel.com/gb/
[[London]]
http://pointfinder.org/
http://www.yinyanghouse.com/basics/introduction_to_acupuncture
[[Acupuncture points|http://www.yinyanghouse.com/acupuncturepoints/locations_theory_and_clinical_applications]]
http://compwellness.org/eGuide/acupre.htm
http://www.qi-journal.com/acumodel.asp?-Token.AcuPhoto=Acu3&-token.view=front
http://www.herbalshop.com/Acupressure/Acupressure_20.html
----
!Acupuncture pen
Acupuncture Pen emits a low-intensity electric current (micro current) to stimulate the acupuncture points, which makes this method especially simple, clean, painless, gentle and ideal for people sensitive to acupuncture needling. The duration as well as the intensity of stimulation of a given acupuncture point is individually adjustable. The simulation time is either individually selected or preset to15 seconds or 30 seconds. When the intensity slide switch is at highest (+) position, the tip voltage is 250Vp-p +15%; when the intensity slide switch is at lowest (-) position, the tip voltage is 55Vp-p +15%. And when the Acupuncture Pen is used for acupoint detection, its working electric current is 5-10MA; and when it is used for micro current stimulation, its working electric current is 25-50MA. 
!Finding the correct point
http://www.tcmstudent.com/study_tools/Cun%20Measurements.html

!Achilles tendinopathy
http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993%2812%2900069-X/fulltext
810-nm, 100-mW 3J per point and 18J per session
"To conclude that LLLT is ineffective in the clinical setting and fails to produce statistically significant effects may be true but may also be premature given its measureable effects shown at the cellular level from laboratory studies."
http://www.bikeradar.com/fitness/article/how-to-get-your-seat-height-right-14608/#null
Type the text for 'Adjust the brakes'
!Adjusting the Rear Derailleur 
#High cog at the front and small cog at the back
#Loosen the cable
#Check the adjuster screws at bottom and top positions so the chain does not fall off either end
#Connect the cable and tighten the adjuster screw fully clockwise
#Use the adjuster cable to make smooth gear changes up and down.
http://youtu.be/Rr2LTP5Yikg
http://youtu.be/D0Xt_QCHD1U
*Adjust the Barrel adjuster - http://www.fezzari.com/support/rb_d
By turning the Barrel Adjuster COUNTER-CLOCKWISE, it tightens the cable.
http://www.fezzari.com/videos/watch/Support
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//Look closely at the content, theme, mood, language and characters in the poem.//

!!Paragraph 1 - Introduction.
Say that you will be analysing the poem. Briefly tell the story of this narrative poems. E.g. In the poem ‘Cousin Kate’, Rossetti describes a cottage maiden who...
!!Paragraph 2 - ‘Cousin Kate’
!!Paragraph 3 - When, why and how?
Say when and by whom the poem was written. Mention the setting. Explain the themes of the poem. E.g. The main themes within ‘Cousin Kate’ are love and relationships... Look at the different types of love - the cottage maiden’s, Cousin Kate’s and the Lord’s. How is their love described? What is the nature of the relationship? Use quotations and explain any images or imagery. Other ideas that the poems explore are marriage, motherhood, abuse of power/ wealth (poverty), betrayal and female roles. Are there any messages in these poems?
!!Paragraph 4 - Images and Feelings
Discuss the feelings of the cottage maiden. Say that ‘Cousin Kate’ is written in the first person - from the point of view of the cottage maiden. Therefore, it allows her to express a number of feelings. What is the mood of this poem? (Refer to your notes and quotations). Show how feelings are shown by the use of images. E.g The cottage maiden says that she, ‘might have been a dove’ if she had not fallen for the advances of the lord. She uses the image of the dove in order to allude to her innocence.
!!Paragraph 5 - Imagery and Mood
Comment on the use of similes in ‘Cousin Kate’ and say how they create mood. E.g. In ‘Cousin Kate’ the simile: ‘He wore me like a silken knot’ links the treatment of the cottage maiden with the treatment of discarded clothing. It shows that she can be ‘put on’ and ‘taken off’ just like a piece of clothing.
!!Paragraph 6 - The lord
Say that the poem has a description of the male character. What do we know about him? How is he presented? Use examples and quotations to support your opinions. How does he treat the cottage maiden? E.g. The Lord has power over the woman. In particular, he uses his wealth and charm to seduce the cottage maiden. How does the poet make us dislike the Lord? (Hint - descriptions and actions)
!Paragraph 7 - The Cottage Maiden
Say that the poem has a female as the central character. What do we know about her? How is she presented? Use examples and quotations to support your opinions. How does she react to the treatment she receives from the lord? (Hint - she has a number of differing reactions.) How do others treat her? Briefly consider the fate of single parents in the ‘olden days’. Is the cottage maiden a strong or a weak character? (Hint - look at the language she uses.) Do you sympathise with her? Why? Do you respect her? Why? Briefly give your own response to the poem.
!!Paragraph 8 - Conclusion
The conclusion should be a summary of what you have shown in the essay. As a guide, use a couple of sentences to summarise each of the paragraphs in the main body of your essay. E.g. In conclusion, we can see that the poem...

This Cousin Kate resource sheet by Chantel Mathias was found free at www.englishresources.co.uk

!Dialogue
nín   máng  ma 
Are you busy?
----
wǒ   hěn  máng. Nín    ne 
I'm very busy. How about you?
----
wǒ    bù   máng 
I'm not busy.
----
Lǐ   xiān  shēng  ne?
How about Mr. Li?
----
Nín   tài     tai  máng  bù   máng 
Is your wife busy?
----
Tā     yě     bù   máng. Wǒ   men  dōu   bù    tài   máng 
She's not busy. Neither of us are very busy.
!Vocabulary
Nín    ne 
How about you?
----
Bù    tài   máng 
Not too busy
----
tā   máng  wǒ   yě   máng  
He's busy, and I'm busy too.
----
yě
too; also; either
----
dōu
all; both
----
[[Meniscal tears]]
----
[[Supplements and dosage|http://mediawiki.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/index.php?title=Treatments_for_Arthritis#Cheapest_Joint_Supplements]]
[[Baldwins list of treatements in order of effectiveness|http://www.baldwins.co.uk/health_notes?resource=%2fuk%2fassets%2fhealth-condition%2fosteoarthritis%2fhelpful-supplements]]
[[Miscellaneous athritis cures]]
http://www.arthritistoday.org
http://www.theknee.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knee_cartilage_replacement_therapy
[[BBC radio programme|http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b01mk5bw/Inside_Health_Viruses_and_asthma_osteoarthritis_cartilage_repair/]]
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/main.cfm
----
!Acupuncture
http://www.yinyanghouse.com/treatments/acupuncture_for_arthritis
!!Patient reports
http://www.treatmentreport.com/
!Exercises
[[1 minute stretch|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZCq1yP50vI]]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HekbzjpXI0g
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7WUAwi9cyU - longwinded but good
*Realignment
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSaTJXJ_Maw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CssWqOwhIZw
http://www.freecookingrecipes.net/atkins-diet
http://www.atkins.com/recipes.aspx
http://www.goodtoknow.co.uk/recipes/Atkins-diet
----
Really good paraphrase: http://www.chewfo.com/diets/the-new-atkins-made-easy-by-colette-heimowitz-2013-food-list-what-to-eat-and-foods-to-avoid/
----
!All phases: Avoid sugar and processed carbs.
Start with induction, then add unprocessed carbs one type at a time using the Carb Ladder.
!Induction phase 1
Eat proteins, foundation vegetables, fats; average 20 Net Carbs daily.
!Ongoing weight loss phase 2
Add nuts and seeds, then low-carb fruits, then yogurt and fresh cheeses, then legumes; increase carb intake in 5- and 10-gram increments to up to 80 Net Carbs daily.
!Pre-maintenance phase 3
Add other fruits, then higher-carb vegetables, then whole grains; gradually increase Net Carb intake if still losing weight.
!Maintenance phase 4
Keep an eye on carbs to maintain weight.
Aubergine curry
This is quite hot and spicy. All of the ingredients can be picked up in a decent supermarket, though you may have to go to a Chinese or Thai shop for the fresh lime leaves. Dried are passable, but will have lost some of their magic. Serves 4 with rice.
for the spice paste:
5 small, hot chillies (bird’s eye)
5 spring onions
4 cloves of garlic
a lump of ginger about the size of a golf ball
6 lime leaves
1 tbsp coriander seed
1 tsp cumin seed
2 green cardamom pods
1 tbsp groundnut oil
a small handful of coriander
for the curry:
2 large aubergines
6 medium-sized tomatoes
a can of coconut milk
more fresh coriander
to serve: steamed white rice for four
Make the curry paste: cut the chillies in half, scrape out the seeds and discard them, then put the chillies into the bowl of a food processor. Roughly chop the spring onions, discarding the darkest of the green shoots as you go, then add them to the chillies together with the peeled cloves of garlic.
Peel the ginger and cut it into thin slices. Remove the thick central vein from the lime leaves, roll the leaves up tightly, then shred them finely. Add them with the ginger, coriander and cumin to the food processor. Crack the cardamom pods open and smash the seeds to a powder in a pestle and mortar, then add it to the chilli mixture with the oil. Blitz till you have a rough paste, pushing the mixture down from the sides of the bowl as you go. Add a good handful of coriander leaves and stems. You can add 8 or 10 roots, too, clean and scrubbed. Blitz again.
For the curry, slice the aubergines in half, then cut each half into thick wedges. Cut each wedge in half. Grill the aubergines, without any oil, over a hot grill or on a ridged griddle pan until they are tender and marked black by the bars of the grill. Remove each one as it becomes ready. Chop the tomatoes.
Roughly chop a good couple of handfuls of coriander leaves and stir them in. Serve with rice.
!Robert Scarlett
<img src="images/RobertScarlettsmall.jpg" style="float:left;padding-right: 5px;">
I am ten years old and live with my mum, dad and brother. I was diagnosed with autism when I was four, while at nursery school. I am a big fan of Top Gear, the Discovery Channel and The Beano. I play the cello and am working towards my grade one exam. At school, my favourite subjects are science and music. I haven't quite decided what I want to be when I grow up - perhaps a physicist (as I really like science), an engineer, or maybe a gardener.
I took all the photos myself (apart from one or two, which I had some help with) and it didn't take long. They include pictures of everyday objects like cars, my clarinet, my mum's cooker and best of all, my lava lamp. I would have liked to have taken photos of the park near my Grandma's, too, but instead my dad and I made do with the one near my house which isn't as big but not bad.
I would have also liked to have taken photos of koalas, as they are my favourite animal, but there aren't many in England!
I really enjoyed taking photos of everyday items, which I feel people often fake for granted. I realise how fortunate we are to have such items in our lives. I hope that when people see my photos, they too will realise how fortunate they are to have these objects in their life.
!Michael McGuinness
<img src="images/michaelmcguinesssmall.jpg" style="float:left;padding-right: 5px;">My name is Michael McGuinness and I am eight years and ten months old. I was diagnosed with autism in October 2002 when I was three years and eight months old.
I am very good at concentrating on things I like. Sometimes I find the world a noisy and frightening place, but I love forests and nature. I don't understand the rules. Sometimes people don't give me time to answer them and so they ignore me. I can't understand what their faces say. It is hard for me to tell people what I need in the right words at the right time. I always need to know what is happening next. I love my little brother Matthew, who is five. He is my best friend.
I took pictures of the things I like. I chose the piano because music makes me feel happy and I love playing it. Traffic lights have beautiful colours and I like watching them change. I love using the computer to make animations. I enjoy using the Microsoft paint program and drawing pictures of clocks and traffic lights and my favourite things. I especially like the font Comic Sans MS.
I also like to build with Lego, and I love my dog, Toby, because I can talk to him and he talks to me. I love direction signs and arrows. I love clocks, digital and ordinary ones. I like numbers. I love to tell the time.
I loved getting my pictures taken. I had to stand for a long time. Robin was very nice. He had a magic camera.
Observer Magazine, 28 October 2007.
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 force - re-render content whenever ANY tiddler content is changes (or refreshDisplay() is triggered)
 id - (optional)
 is a unique DOM element identifier on which to operate.
 If not specified, the current tiddler (or containing parent if not in a tiddler) is used.

%/<script>
 var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
 if (here) { // in a tiddler, get containing viewer element
 var here=place; while (here && here.className!='viewer') here=here.parentNode;
 if (!here) return; // no 'viewer' element (perhaps a custom template?)
 }
 else here=place.parentNode; // not in a tiddler, use immediate parent container

 // if DOM id param, get element by ID instead of using container
 if ("$2"!="$"+"2") var here=document.getElementById("$2");

 if (!here) return; // safety check

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 var tid=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
 if (!tid) return; // can't determine source tiddler
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 }
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 here.setAttribute("refresh","content");
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!Guacamole 1
Ingredients
1 ripe avocado, mashed
½ tbsp. honey
3 tbsp. salsa
1 tbsp. lemon juice
1 tbsp. Spanish onion, finely chopped
Braggs Seasoning, or sea salt to taste
¼ tsp. garlic powder
¼ tsp. onion powder
½ tsp. low-salt chicken base powder
½ tsp. Vegit seasoning (optional)
Method
Blend all the ingredients in a bowl and serve with cut up raw vegetables
Serve immediately.
Serves 2
!Guacamole 2
''Ingredients''
    4 mild chillies, finely chopped

    bunch coriander, chopped

    2 tomatoes, finely chopped

    salt, to taste

    1 onion, finely chopped

    1-2 tbsp water

    ½ lime, juice only

    3 ripe avocados

''Preparation method''

    In a pestle and mortar, pound the chillies, coriander, tomatoes, salt and onion to a fine paste.

    Add a little water and lime juice to make a looser mixture. Mash in the avocados. Serve.
!Avocado Hummus
''Ingredients''

    1 ripe avocado, cut in half, skin and stone removed

    1 x 400g/14oz can chickpeas, drained and rinsed

    1 garlic clove, peeled, finely chopped

    1-2 lemons, juice only

    ½ tsp Tabasco

    ½ tsp ground cumin

    sea salt, to taste

    6 ready-made pitta breads, to serve

''Preparation method''

    Blend all of the ingredients in a food processor until smooth.

    Transfer the avocado hummus to a bowl and cover with cling film. Chill in the fridge for one hour.

    Serve in bowls with pitta breads.

Reuters December 4, 2000

LONDON -- Britain's police and intelligence services are seeking the right to access records of every telephone call, e-mail and Internet connection made in the United Kingdom, the government said Sunday.
The country's crime-fighting and intelligence agencies want all such communications to be logged, and the information stored for seven years in vast government-run "data warehouses."
"They have passed a document to us which we are now looking at, but it has to be stressed that there has been no decision made on this," a Home Office spokeswoman said.
"We work very closely with these organizations and want to ensure they have the tools they need to tackle serious, organized crime, but there are other important issues, such as human rights, to be considered."
The spokeswoman said the powers sought would require new legislation, but "that is a long way off at the moment."
The request, from the police, customs and intelligence services, was first reported Sunday by The Observer newspaper, which had seen a copy of the document submitted to the Home Office.
The document said new powers were needed to tackle growing problems of cyber crime, pedophiles' use of computers to run child porn rings, terrorism and international drug trafficking, according to The Observer report.
Politicians and campaigners cited by the paper as condemning the idea included Conservative peer and privacy expert Lord Cope.
"We are sympathetic to the need for greater powers to fight modern types of crime," he said.
"But vast banks of information on every member of the public can quickly slip into the world of Big Brother. I will be asking serious questions about this."
Go to source: Chicago Tribune | Nation World -- BRITISH POLICE SEEKING ACCESS TO CALLS, E-MAILS
!Evidence that Low level laser therapy works
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19913903
In theory, these onions are a very pleasing side dish to roast beef or pork, but I feel their juicy, herbal qualities deserve more than just a supporting role. We ate them this week as part of a light lunch, with a wedge of blue-veined Stichelton and dark black grapes to follow. Serves 4 as a side dish.
''Ingredients''
4 large, juicy onions
80g butter
balsamic vinegar
''Preparation''
Bring a deep pot of water to the boil and lower the onions, whole and unpeeled, into it. Let them cook at a merry simmer for 20 minutes, then remove with a draining spoon. Set the oven at 200C/gas 6.

Cut four squares of kitchen foil or baking parchment large enough to wrap each onion. Place an onion in the centre of each, add a piece of the butter and a few shakes of balsamic vinegar to each, then pull up the sides of the paper around the onion and seal with a scrunch, in the case of foil, or a twist if you have used paper. Either way, seal in the mellow buttery notes until the onions reach the table.

Bake for 25 minutes then put an onion on everyone's plate. Let them open the wrapping just before they eat, peeling away the onion skins with a knife and fork and spooning the juices over the golden flesh. 
''Ingredients''
4lb Elderberries
5 litres (1 gallons) of boiling water
3 lb of granulated sugar
a 'claret' yeast sachet
8 oz chopped raisins
Juice of 1 lemon
Juice of 1 orange
1 vitamin B tablet
1 teaspoon of yeast nutrient
''Preparation''
Strip the berries from the umbrells into a suitably large primary fermentation vessel with a fork.
Add 8 oz chopped raisins, juice of the lemon, juice of the orange, a vitamin B tablet and a teaspoon of yeast nutrient.
Add the boiling water and stir well.
When cool enough to handle, squeeze fruit with hands to extract juice.
Leave for one day to infuse.
Add 2 1/2 lb sugar and activated yeast and leave covered for three days.
Strain off liquid into demijohns, top up with another 1/4 lb of sugar in each and, if necessary, with cooled boiled water.
Leave to ferment in a warm (65-75 degrees), dark place.
Rack off the lees into a clean demijohn when bubbling has subsided.
Rack again 6 weeks later.
Bottle in dark green bottles when wine is clear (I use a desk lamp to shine through from the other side) and there has been no activity for some time.
Mature for at least 6 months before drinking. 
Once seen as the Cinderella of the kitchen garden, beetroot is now soaring up the supermarket sales league table, thanks to an astonishing list of health-giving properties. Maxine Frith reports Published: 17 January 2006

The humble beetroot has always been a bit of a poor relation to other, trendier species in the vegetable world. Perhaps it is because of its association with war-time rationing (it was often used as a substitute for soft fruit in jam). Perhaps it’s the memory of the cheap pickled variety that adorned school dinners (and its irritating side-effect: the indelible red stains). Whatever the reason, it has never had quite the cachet of, say, fennel or artichokes.

Now all that is changing.

According to Tesco, beetroot sales have doubled during the past year and its stores are now having to devote extra space to the raw variety in their vegetable aisles. Uber-hip chef Heston Blumenthal features beetroot jelly on the menu of his Michelin three-starred restaurant, The Fat Duck. And one of the most popular dishes at the eastern European-themed Baltic bistro in London is beetroot and apple salad.

But it is not only the world of fine dining that this unglamorous root vegetable has conquered. Beetroot has now been anointed by health experts as a “superfood” - virtually fat free, rich in iron and magnesium and possibly cancer-preventing to boot.

It even boasts its own diet - in which followers have to eat beetroot three times a day, alongside other vegetables and whole foods. Dismiss it as yet another food fad if you will, but Warwickshire County Cricket Club adopted the Beetroot Diet in 2004 - and won the county championship that season.

Beetroot was known as a delicacy in Ancient Greece, where the leaves were cooked with honey and wine. The root was prized for its medicinal qualities and was used as a treatment for fevers, skin problems and digestive complaints.

Those well-known gourmets the Romans also ate beetroot, with Apicius, the Jamie Oliver of his day, recommending that it be made into a salad with a dressing of mustard, oil and vinegar - not so very dissimilar from the 21st-century recipe on the opposite page.
In the 16th century, it was given as a “blood builder” to people who were pale and run down. At the time, doctors and patients may not have known why it was so efficaceous, but health experts now know that its high iron content can help to treat anaemia and fatigue.
It is also rich in folic acid, which is known to be helpful in reducing the risks of birth defects if taken before conception and in the early stages of pregnancy.
Catherine Zeta Jones is reported to have become addicted to beetroot after eating it while pregnant with her two children.

The weight-conscious actress may also have appreciated the vegetable’s lack of fat and the fact that there are only 36 calories per 100 grams. In addition to B vitamins, iron and zinc, beetroot is a good source of vitamins A and C, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium, as well as protein and fibre.

The vegetable that was once seen as peasant fare has come a long way. Dietician Helen Andrews said: “It is interesting because beetroot was originally seen as a poor person’s vegetable because it could be grown in your own garden. Now it has become quite trendy, probably partly due to people like Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall being on television and talking about things you can grow yourself.

”It is also affordable, at a time when one of the complaints people have about eating more fruit and vegetables is that it can be expensive.”

She added: “Beetroot does contain lots of vitamins and minerals and is high in soluble fibre, which plays a role in preventing heart disease, so it is very good for you as part of a balanced diet.”

If all that weren’t enough, researchers have recently labelled the vegetable a “mood food” because it contains a compound called betaine that is known to relax the mind and help with depression.

And there have even been claims that beetroot could be Nature’s Viagra, as it has high levels of the mineral boron, which has a role in the production of sex hormones.
Throughout history, it has been believed that the vegetable may have the power to prevent and even cure cancer. Research has shown that beetroot can inhibit tumour growth and has antioxidant properties that may help to prevent cancer in the first place. However, doctors have expressed concern about cancer patients who reject chemotherapy in favour of a regimen of raw vegetables such as beetroot.

Luckily, for those who are still traumatised by childhood memories of pickled beetroot, there are now alternatives. Specialist health shops offer a powder preparation and even freeze-dried cubes. Beetroot juice, which is also on sale in health food shops, is said to help cure acne and contribute to a clear complexion.

Graham Forber, managing director of one of the major beetroot-producing companies in Britain, said that the market in the root vegetable is growing by up to 20 per cent a year. “I think a lot of people have been put off by the nasty pickled variety of beetroot that they had at school,” he said.

”It used to be seen as a very traditional rather than trendy vegetable, but all that is changing. Rather than the pickled version, the demand is for the fresh variety. It is seen as being very healthy, with lots of really good properties and quite versatile.”
Producers are now generating 60,000 of tonnes of beetroot a year, most of which is sold in this country. And new varieties of the vegetable are also being created, such as the smaller “cocktail beetroot” which is designed for use in canapes, and a “golden” version - which has a yellow rather than red colour to eradicate the risk of staining.
Yes, beetroot is now much more Jamie Oliver than school dinners.

!10 things you never knew about beetroot
* Its Latin name is Beta vulgaris and it is part of the Chenopodiaceae family of vegetables, which includes Swiss chard and spinach. As well as the root, which can be baked or boiled, the leaves are edible and can be either eaten in salad, or steamed.
* It originated in the Mediterranean in pre-Christian times and was often left as an offering to the god Apollo at his temple in Delphi.
* The world’s heaviest beetroot weighed 23.4kg (51.48lb) and was grown by Ian Neale from Somerset in 2001.
* Beetroot - which is related to the sugar beet - has one of the highest sugar contents of any vegetable. Up to 10 per cent of beetroot is sugar, but it is released slowly into the body rather than the sudden rush that results from eating chocolate.
* Pickled beetroot became popular after the Second World War, when farmers began growing crops in the summer as well as winter.
* The Russians use beetroot to make a soup called borscht, and in Australia, it is a popular topping for burgers.
* English folklore states that if a man and a woman eat from the same beet, they will fall in love.
* The Elizabethans prepared beetroot by wiping it with fresh dung before cooking it.
* The red pigment in beetroot - betaline - is used as a food colouring in a wide range of foods, including frozen pizzas, tomato paste and strawberry ice cream.
* Beetroot was first used as a vegetable dye in the 16th century - later, the Victorians used it as a hair colouring.

!Baltic’s beetroot and apple salad

This beetroot and apple salad is served at Baltic, the highly acclaimed restaurant in Blackfriars Road, south-east London
Serves four
6 organic beetroots, peeled and roughly grated
4 Granny Smith apples, peeled and roughly grated
4 small shallots, finely diced
2 teaspoons of granulated sugar
2 tablespoons of olive oil
squeeze of lemon juice
Bind the above together with coarse sea salt and pepper to taste. Serve immediately. Keep chilled. 



*Study the Navigation tips carefully
*Use the menus
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For any other information, go to my [[WorldWideWeb website|http://www.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/wikis/worldwideweb.html]] for computer help. 

Ask for help via the comments section on the Joomla sites - or email - and I'll do my best to point you to a suitable website. 

//Internet resources are now so good, there is always something useful and productive out there. Finding information that is written in Plain English is the problem and that is where I can help you by assessing what I think is the correct level and whether or not the information is correct.//
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Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3236515/
!Health benefits
#Non-alcoholic fatty liver
#Insulin resistance
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993168/
#Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771632
https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=promote+your+blog&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=ec2nVr2cO8mu-QHL3YTABA#q=betaine+hcl+site:http:%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F
http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-312-betaine%20hydrochloride.aspx?activeingredientid=312&activeingredientname=betaine%20hydrochloride
http://www.thesportshq.com/electric-bikes.aspx
http://www.bicycles4u.com/?bike=4
----
+++[Bike maintenance guides]
[[Bike Radar|http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL56C43FD507BCBC61&feature=plcp]]
===
+++[Bike sites]
http://www.bikeradar.com/
http://www.bicycling.com/
===
----
[[Mountain Bike]]
[[Change a chain]]
----
[[Adjust the gears]]
[[Adjust the brakes]] - http://youtu.be/zLqrhFzW8s0
[[Repair a puncture]]
[[Adjust set height]]
----
!Bike repairs - Newcastle
Recykley'bike - Unit 2 Railway Arch, Hanninington Street, Byker NE61JT 2654197
----
Geared4life 
Crisis Skylight
1-3 City Road
Newcastle Upon Tyne
NE1 2AF
Tel: 0191 232 5774
----
!Bike rides
http://www.gps-routes.co.uk/routes/home.nsf/RoutesLinksWalks/great-north-forest-heritage-trail-walking-and-cycle-route#
Evans Bycicles
Unit 2 Allison Court
Metro Centre
Gateshead
NE11 9YS 
https://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2006/may2006_report_blood_01.htm
!C-reactive protein
C-reactive protein is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body.
!Smoothies
http://www.mensfitness.co.uk/nutrition/smoothies/archive/

''Ingredients''
100g blueberries
1tsp flaxseeds
½ a banana
1tsp honey
3tbsp low-fat natural yoghurt
2-3tbsp oats
50ml soya milk
----
''Ingredients''
175ml/6fl oz apple juice
120ml/4fl oz natural yoghurt
1 banana, peeled and roughly chopped
170g/6oz blueberries (defrosted if frozen)
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<body>
<strong><u>Turkey</u></strong><strong><u> </u></strong><br>

 <strong>Bodrum</strong><br>
 <img src="images/clip_image001_0001.gif" alt="Bodrum" width="499" height="309" border="0"></p>
<p><strong>Bodrum</strong> <br>
 In the eyes of its devotees, <strong>BODRUM</strong> - ancient Halicarnassos - with its whitewashed houses and subtropical gardens, is the most attractive Turkish resort, a quality outfit in comparison to its upstart Aegean rivals. And it is a pleasant town in most senses, despite having no real beach, although development has proceeded apace over the last couple of decades. The centrepiece is the <strong>Castle of St Peter</strong> (Tues-Sun 9am-noon &amp; 1-5pm; $7), built by the Knights of St John over a Sel&ccedil;uk fortress between 1437 and 1522. Inside, the various towers house a <strong>Museum of Underwater Archeology</strong>, which includes coin and jewellery rooms, classical and Hellenistic statuary, and Byzantine relics retrieved from two wrecks, alongside a diorama explaining salvage techniques. The <strong>Carian princess hall</strong> ($2.50 extra) displays the skeleton and sarcophagus of a fourth-century BC noblewoman unearthed in 1989. There is also the <strong>Glass Wreck Hall</strong> ($2.50 extra) containing the wreck and cargo of an ancient Byzantine ship, which sank near Marmaris. Immediately north of the castle lies the <strong>bazaar</strong>, from where you can stroll up T&uuml;rkkuyusu Caddesi and turn left to the town&rsquo;s other main sight, the <strong>Mausoleum</strong> (daily 8am-5pm; $2). This is the burial place of Mausolus, who ruled Halicarnassos in the fourth century BC, greatly increasing its power and wealth. His tomb (from which we derive the word &ldquo;mausoleum&rdquo;) was regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but the bulk of it is now in London&rsquo;s British Museum. The town&rsquo;s ancient <strong>amphitheatre</strong>, just above the main highway to the north, was begun by Mausolus and was modified in the Roman era; it&rsquo;s used during the annual September festival.<br>
 <strong>Ferries</strong> dock at the jetty west of the castle, close to the <strong>tourist office</strong> on &#304;skele Meydan&#305; (Mon-Fri 8.30am-5.30pm; summer also Sat &amp; Sun). The <strong>bus station</strong> is 500m up Cevat &#350;akir Caddesi, which divides the town roughly in two. Bodrum Ferryboat Association (tel 0252/316 0882) handles <strong>ferries to Kos</strong> ($20 one-way, $25 day return, $30 open return), as well as domestic services to Dat&ccedil;a, while Bodrum Express Lines (tel 0252/316 1087) handles <strong>hydrofoils to Kos</strong> ($30 one-way, $35 day return, $40 open return), <strong>Rhodes</strong> ($50 one-way, $60 day return, $70 open return) and domestic services to Marmaris. There&rsquo;s a port tax ($10), payable on arrival in Greece if you&rsquo;re not returning the same day. Some of the best <strong>accommodation</strong> is southeast of the bus station in Kumbah&ccedil;e. <em>Emiko Pansiyon</em>, Atat&uuml;rk Cad, Uslu Sok 11 (tel 0252/316 5560, <em><a href="mailto:emiko@turk.net">emiko@turk.net</a></em>; &pound;10-20/$16-32 [&euro;15-29]), has a pleasant courtyard and quiet rooms. <em>Durak</em>, Rasthane Sok 8 (tel 0252/316 1564; up to &pound;10/$16), has some with balconies, as does the friendly <em>U&#287;ur</em>, across the road at no. 13 (tel 0252/316 2106; &pound;10-20/$16-32 [&euro;15-29]). West of the bus station, <em>Melis</em>, T&uuml;rkkuyusu Cad 50 (tel 0252/316 0560; &pound;10-20/$16-32 [&euro;15-29]), has en-suite rooms and attractive courtyards. The nearby <em>D&ouml;nen</em> (tel 0252/316 4017; &pound;10-20/$16-32 [&euro;15-29]) is a quiet family-run operation with a garden. <em>Dolmu&#351;es</em> from the bus station head to nearby Akyarlar, which offers the best sandy beach around, some quiet <em>pansiyons</em> and restaurants, and a <strong>campsite</strong>.<br>
 You don&rsquo;t come to Bodrum to save money, and <strong>eating out</strong> is no exception. Best of the budget places is <em>Zeta&#351;Ocakba&#351;&#305;</em> on Atat&uuml;rk Cad, which offers good <em>pide</em> and meat dishes. <em>Gemiba&#351;i</em>, opposite the yacht harbour, on the corner of Firkayten Sok and Neyzen Tevfik, is good for a no-nonsense meat meal and also serves fish. The <em>Karadeniz</em> cake shop on Dr Alim Bey Cad does wonderful fruit and cream cakes. The same street boasts many of the town&rsquo;s fast-changing <strong>bars</strong> - current hot-spots include <em>Robin Hood</em> and the <em>White House</em>. <em>Halikarnas</em> at the east end of Cumhuriyet Cad is the most famous <strong>club</strong> on the Aegean, while the <em>M&amp;M Marine Club</em> is reputedly the biggest floating disco in the world; it sets sail at 2am when the onshore establishments close. <strong>Internet</strong> access is at Hakim&rsquo;s Internet on Atat&uuml;rk Cad.<br>
 <strong><u>Nightlife</u></strong><br>
 <strong>Halikarnas Disco </strong><br>
 <strong>Kuba - Jazz</strong><br>
 <strong>Picante - Salsa</strong><br>
 Lets start our bar and disco walk right underneath the impressive walls of the castle - on Iskele Meydani, the place just on the harbor side where are many cafes, just next to the tourism office.<br>
 <br>
 Here starts Dr. Alim Bey street, later it leads to Cumhuriyet street, but both together are all over Bodrum known as Barstreet. This one mile long street runs parallel with the sea, so all the bars and restaurants on your right side offer a sitting area on the beach with the scenic view of the castle.<br>
 <br>
 <strong>McDonalds</strong> fast food will be the first on the left side.<br>
 <br>
 Then next to it is <strong>VELI BAR</strong>, with frequently live music. This one is probably the oldest bar in town.<br>
 <br>
 Nestled among boutiques with good quality textiles you&rsquo;ll see <strong>YETTIGARI</strong> and then a bit further on <strong>HADIGARI BAR &amp; RESTAURANT</strong> <br>
 <br>
 Before you come to an open place, known as PIDE Place you will pass <strong>M&amp;M DANCING</strong>, this is a very recommendable disco of high quality standard in sound system and decoration<br>
 Now you have reached a little square, in precise words the Hilmi Uran Meydani, or in short: the Pide place, because you find a bunch of shops selling snacks like the Turkish Pizza, the Pide. Take a rest here.<br>
 <br>
 On the right then you&rsquo;ll see a stone house facade with the name <strong>FORA BAR</strong>. It is again one of these nice discos situated on the Beach offering a marvellous view of the sea and castle.<br>
 <br>
 Now you enter straight away the extension of this barstreet, the Cumhuriyet Caddesi. If you come in high season you&rsquo;ll find it difficult to walk on this narrow and crowded street.<br>
 <br>
 Many shops and boutiqes sell all kinds of goods and among them are the restaurants and bars. And don&rsquo;t forget - you are still parallel with the sea. <br>
 <br>
 By now you have reached another opening, called Azmakbasi, but the Cumhuriyt caddesi carries on.<br>
 <br>
 Here on right you find <strong>FASIL CAFE RASIT</strong>, an upstairs bar with authentic Turkish music and belly dance. The program start around 11 PM.<br>
 After Azmakbasi you&rsquo;ll have the open sea on your right side and many bars and inviting restaurants to your left-<br>
 <br>
 your eyes will be attracted by a building in nearly Victorian style <strong>THE WHITE HOUSE BAR</strong> offering live music.<br>
 <br>
 A bit further on is <strong>SULTANS BEACH H0USE</strong>, owned by friendly Erdogan Danaci.<br>
 <br>
 More discos and bars follow and still on your right side is the open Aegean sea. A nice little cafe called <strong>MAVI BAR</strong> - the blue bar invites you for a drink while you can have a look at their galleries<br>
 <br>
 From here you walk about 50 meters along the little ascending street to one of the nicest discos in the world, the <strong>HALIKARNASS DISCO</strong>. </p>
<p><strong>Markets</strong><br>
 Tuesday<br>
 <strong>Hotels</strong><br>
 <strong>Mr Zafer K&uuml;st&uuml;<br>
 <u>Su Otel</u></strong><br>
 Tepecik Mahallesi, Turgut Reis Cad., 1201 Sokak<br>
 <u>Bodrum &lt;../BodrumMain.html&gt;</u>, Mugla, Turkey<br>
 Tel +90 (252) 316 6906<br>
 <strong>Walk to Su Otel from Bodrum Waterfront</strong><br>
 Find <strong>Gerence Sokak</strong> going inland (north) from <strong>Neyzen Tevfik Caddesi</strong>, the waterfront street around Salmakis Bay (the western of Bodrum&rsquo;s two bays). Gerence Sokak starts between Neyzen Tevfik Caddesi Nos. 34 and 36. It&rsquo;s about a 10-minute walk from Neyzen Tevfik Caddesi to the <u>Su Otel &lt;su_otel.html&gt;</u>. There are small signs marking the route the entire way.<br>
 Follow Gerence Sokak, which curves around to the left, then is more direct, all the way to <strong>Turgutreis Caddesi, </strong>the narrow one-lane, one-way (eastbound) street. Turn left (west), and beware the traffic on this street as you walk, looking for small &ldquo;<u>Su Otel &lt;su_otel.html&gt;</u>&rdquo; signs. The entrance to <strong>1201 Sokak</strong>,<strong> </strong>the Su Otel access path is on the left (south).<br>
 <strong><u>Dolphin Apart - selef catering</u></strong><br>
 Umurca Mah. Dr. M&uuml;mtaz Ataman Cad. | Rasattepe Sok No.:8, Bodrum 48400, Turkey</p>


</body>
</html>
Official title of the tradesman is Heating engineer
http://www.bdonline.co.uk/cpd-module-august-07-condensing-continuous-hot-water-heating-systems/3092891.article
!DIY
http://www.judgeelectrical.co.uk/central-heating/general-advice/central-heating-problems-advice.html

!Forums
http://www.diydoctor.org.uk/forums/heating-air-conditioning-forum.html
http://www.ultimatehandyman.co.uk/forum1/central-heating-boilers-f35.html
http://www.boilerguide.co.uk/forum/
http://www.ukplumbersforums.co.uk/central-heating-forum/
!Videos
http://www.ultimatehandyman.org/video/central-heating/index.php
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBOmFLSbrmqVbhLy5LKCe9H5VXA1s70dz
Overview of boiler installation - http://youtu.be/q-7gnV2MijU
----
*Drain the boiler
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0g6T9SOAt4&feature=share&list=PLBOmFLSbrmqVbhLy5LKCe9H5VXA1s70dz&index=32
+++[Spares]
http://www.keeptheheaton.com
http://www.sabre-spares.co.uk
===

[[Worcester green star 301 erp]]
    Tamanu oil (wooooooooooonderful for acneic or oily skin, or skin with scars)
    Sea buckthorn oil (powerfully nourishing, this is a great oil for all skin types, but especially aging or dry skin)
    Rosehip seed oil (incredibly regenerating, this oil is known for it’s firming and anti-aging abilities – it’s good for dry, aging, and normal skin)
    Carrot seed oil (you only need a small amount of this oil, but it’s superb for any skin type – is there anything it won’t heal?)
    Borage oil (crazy high in oleic acids, this oil is great for most skin types, but especially oily and acneic skin)
    Evening primrose oil (acne, aging, normal skin, you name it – and evening primrose oil can even be taken internally to help with acne)
    Neem oil (very antimicrobial and healing, neem oil is a stellar choice for acne and oily skin)
    Emu oil (emollient like you wouldn’t believe, emu oil is protective and nourishing for dry or aging skin)

When you take a long time, you're slow.
When your boss takes a long time, they're thorough.

When you don't do it, you're lazy.
When your boss doesn't do it, they're too busy.

When you make a mistake, you're an idiot.
When your boss makes a mistake, they're only human.

When doing something without being told, you're overstepping your authority.
When your boss does the same thing, that's initiative.

When you take a stand, you're being pig-headed.
When your boss does it, they're being firm.

When you overlooked a rule of etiquette, you're being rude.
When your boss skips a few rules, they're being original.

When you're out of the office, you're wandering around.
When your boss is out of the office, they're on business.

When you're on a day off sick, you're always sick.
When your boss has a day off sick, they must be very ill.

When you apply for leave, you must be going for an interview.
When your boss applies for leave, it's because they're overworked.
/***
|Name|BreadcrumbsPlugin|
|Source|http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=150646|
|OriginalAuthor|Alan Hecht (with 2.0 update from 'jack' and revisions by Bram Chen)|
|Version|1.5.5.0TT|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|Story.prototype.displayTiddler|
|Description|show a list of tiddlers viewed during this session. Also defines "back" (previousTiddler) toolbar button and macro|

!Revision History:
__TiddlyTools (TT) variant:__
1.5.5.0 2007.04.11 - added optional params to previousTiddler macro handler() to allow alternative label and tooltip text (instead of default "back")
1.5.4.0 2007.03.02 - in refreshCrumbs(), for TW2.2, look for "storyDisplay" instead of "tiddlerDisplay" but keep fallback to "tiddlerDisplay" for TW2.1 or earlier
1.5.3.0 2007.02.24 - changed from hijack of onClickTiddlerLink to hijack of displayTiddler() so that ALL displayed tiddlers are recorded in the crumbs, including programmatically displayed tiddlers opened by macros, scripts, etc., (such as [[GotoPlugin]], among many others) in addition to those opened by clicks on links.
1.5.2.0 2007.02.24 - eliminated global space clutter by moving function and data declarations so they are contained inside config.breadCrumbs object.
1.5.1.0 2007.02.06 - added "previousTiddler" macro (for use in sidebar)
1.5.0.0 2007.02.05 - added "previousTiddler" toolbar command (aka, "back")
1.4.0.1 2006.08.04 - change spaces to tabs
1.4.0.0 2006.08.04 - modified from 1.4.0 distro:
<<<
in refreshCrumbs(), set {{{display:none/block}}} instead of {{{visibility:hidden/visible}}}
in restartHome(), check for valid crumbArea before setting style
general code cleanup/reformat using tabs to indent
<<<
|1.4.0|Aug 02, 2006|Fixed bug, the redefined onClickTiddlerLink_orig_breadCrumbs works incorrectly on IE|
|1.3.0|Jul 20, 2006|Runs compatibly with TW 2.1.0 (rev #403+)|
|1.2.0|Feb 07, 2006|change global array breadCrumbs to config.breadCrumbs by Eric's suggestion|
|1.1.0|Feb 04, 2006|JSLint checked|
|1.0.0|Feb 01, 2006|TW2 ready and code Cleaned-up|

!Code section:
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.breadCrumbs = {major: 1, minor: 5, revision: 5, date: new Date("Apr 11, 2007")};

if (Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler==undefined)
 Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,title,template,animate,slowly)
{
 this.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
 // if not displaying tiddler during document startup, then add it to the breadcrumbs
 // note: 'startingUp' flag is a global, set/reset by the core init() function
 if (!startingUp) config.breadCrumbs.addCrumb(title);
}

config.breadCrumbs = { // ELS: move all functions and data inside config.breadCrumbs object (eliminate global clutter)
 crumbs: [], // the list of current breadcrumbs
 addCrumb: function (title) { // ELS: changed from passing event, "e", to passing tiddler title
 var thisCrumb = "[[" + title + "]]";
 var ind = this.crumbs.find(thisCrumb);
 if(ind === null)
 this.crumbs.push(thisCrumb);
 else
 this.crumbs=this.crumbs.slice(0,ind+1); // ELS: use slice() to truncate array instead of just setting array length
 this.refreshCrumbs();
 return false;
 },
 refreshCrumbs: function() {
 var crumbArea = document.getElementById("breadCrumbs");
 if (!crumbArea) {
 var crumbArea = document.createElement("div");
 crumbArea.id = "breadCrumbs";
 crumbArea.style.display= "none"; // ELS changed from: crumbArea.style.visibility= "hidden";
 var targetArea= document.getElementById("tiddlerDisplay"); // TW2.1-
 if (!targetArea) targetArea = document.getElementById("storyDisplay"); // TW2.2+
 targetArea.parentNode.insertBefore(crumbArea,targetArea);
 }
 crumbArea.style.display = "block"; // ELS changed from: crumbArea.style.visibility = "visible";
 removeChildren(crumbArea);
 createTiddlyButton(crumbArea,"Home",null,this.restartHome);
 wikify(" | " + this.crumbs.join(' > '),crumbArea) // ELS: changed || to |
 },
 restartHome: function() {
 story.closeAllTiddlers();
 restart();
 config.breadCrumbs.crumbs = [];
 var crumbArea = document.getElementById("breadCrumbs");
 if (crumbArea) // ELS: added check to make sure crumbArea exists
 crumbArea.style.display = "none"; // ELS changed from: crumbArea.style.visibility = "hidden";
 }
};

config.commands.previousTiddler = { // ELS: added "BACK" toolbar command
 text: 'back',
 tooltip: 'view the previous tiddler',
 hideReadOnly: false,
 dateFormat: 'DDD, MMM DDth YYYY hh:0mm:0ss',
 handler: function(event,src,title) {
 var here=story.findContainingTiddler(src); if (!here) return;
 if (config.breadCrumbs.crumbs.length>1) {
 var crumb=config.breadCrumbs.crumbs[config.breadCrumbs.crumbs.length-2].replace(/\[\[/,'').replace(/\]\]/,'');
 story.displayTiddler(here,crumb);
 }
 else
 config.breadCrumbs.restartHome();
 return false;
 }
};

config.macros.previousTiddler= { // ELS: added "BACK" macro
 label: 'back',
 prompt: 'view the previous tiddler',
 handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
 var label=params.shift(); if (!label) label=this.label;
 var prompt=params.shift(); if (!prompt) prompt=this.prompt;
 createTiddlyButton(place,label,prompt,function() {
 if (config.breadCrumbs.crumbs.length>1) {
 var crumb=config.breadCrumbs.crumbs[config.breadCrumbs.crumbs.length-2].replace(/\[\[/,'').replace(/\]\]/,'');
 story.displayTiddler(place,crumb);
 }
 else
 config.breadCrumbs.restartHome();
 });
 }
}
//}}}
!French toast, hot marmalade sauce

Be sure to have something on the side to balance the richness, such as a fruit puree or a splash of sharp dairy produce. Serves 2.
!!Ingredients
100ml full-cream milk
2 eggs
a dash of vanilla extract
1 tbsp caster sugar
4 thick slices of brioche or good, white bread
30g butter
cream or creme fraiche, and icing sugar to serve
----
Lightly beat the milk and eggs, beat in the vanilla and sugar, then pour into a shallow dish. Dunk the slices of bread into the milk and egg and leave for a good 5 minutes.
----
Warm the butter in a non-stick frying pan. When it sizzles, slide in the soaked bread. Let it form a crisp crust on the outside - a matter of 3 or 4 minutes. Turn the bread over with a fish slice or palette knife then cook the other side for a minute or two till golden.
----
Lift the toast out and drain on a piece of kitchen paper and serve, dusted with icing sugar, if you wish, and cream.
----
!!For the sauce:
200g marmalade, probably not too dark or thickly cut
a squeeze of lemon
1 tbsp whisky or brandy, or better still Cointreau
3 tbsp water
----
Melt the marmalade in a small, non-stick pan. Pour in the lemon juice, the alcohol and a tablespoon of the water, bring to the boil and stir to a syrupy consistency. If it seems too thick, add a little more water. Spoon over the toast.
----
* [[Lemon Juice]]
* Porridge or Muesli
* Toast and jam or marmite
* French toast
* Poached or scrambled on toast
* Boiled eggs
* Bacon sandwhich
!Three types - 1 active and 2 deactivated
*Brewer’s Yeast is a particular variety of the single cell fungus/yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Nutritional yeast, sold as a supplement is deactivated and is not the same as the active bread or beer making yeast which should not be used as a supplement. Brewers yeast tastes bitter.
Brewer’s Yeast is high in the trace mineral chromium which must be present in order for insulin to do its work of removing glucose from the blood into the cell.  The chromium found in Brewer’s Yeast occurs as glucose tolerance factor (GTF).  It is in this form that the body is able to use this mineral to help regulate insulin levels and thereby regulate blood sugar levels.
*Nutritional Yeast is made from the same Saccharomyces Cerevisiae fungus/yeast as used in the brewing industry.  The difference is that with nutritional yeast, the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is not obtained from the brewing industry but is grown on molasses or some other medium. 
While Brewers Yeast is a good natural source of the minerals chromium and selenium, Nutritional Yeast is not unless it is fortified with these minerals.
!Nutrition
100g
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) 	10mg 909%
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 	4mg 286%
Niacin 	40mg 250%
Pantothenic Acid 	18mg 300%
Vitamin B6 	1.53mg 109%
Folic Acid 	2,000μg 1000%
Biotin 	142μg 284% 

Steer clear of supplements identified as “debittered,” since the debittering process removes chromium
!Effective for
Blood sugar - chromium
Cholesterol
Immunity
!Possible effective for
diarrhea
upper respiratory infection
!Contraindications
Crohn's disease
medications used to treat depression
!How does it work?
Due to the chromium content of brewer's yeast, there is interest in using it for lowering blood glucose in people with diabetes. Chromium may help the body use insulin more effectively and this can lower blood sugar levels.
Additionally, brewer's yeast seems to stimulate chemicals (intestinal enzymes) that could help relieve diarrhea.
It also might help fight bacteria that cause infections in the intestine, as well as improve the body’s defenses against viral lung infections such as flu and the common cold.
Brewer's yeast is a source of B vitamins and protein.
!Research
[[Webmd|http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-715-brewer's%20yeast.aspx?activeingredientid=715&activeingredientname=brewer%27s%20yeast]]
http://www.greenchronicle.com/british_regional_recipes.htm
http://www.deliaonline.com/
http://www.circlecity.co.uk/kitchen/index.php
!Traditional British Food
Cottage Pie
Kedgeree
Fish and Chips
Mince and Dumplings
Bacon bone soup
Scotch broth
Lancashire Hot Pot
Welsh Rarebit
Haggis
Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding
Full English Breakfast
Afternoon Tea
Bangers and Mash

!!Puddings and sweet stuff
[[Spotted Dick]]
Jam Roly Poly
Fruit Crumble
Custard
Trifle
Scones
*Here is a browser with links to my sites - or just use it like an ordinary browser. 
*Please be patient while the multimedia stuff loads!
<<tiddler MiniBrowser>>
----
''Notice the @@color(#cc0000):Fit to size@@ button at the bottom of the browser window (when it is open)!''
----
[[Information and list of items|http://www.newcastle.gov.uk/environment-and-waste/rubbish-waste-and-recycling/apply-for-a-bulky-waste-collection]]
"You don't get everything you want. A dictatorship would be a lot easier." - Governing Magazine, July, 1998

"If this were a dictatorship, it would be a heck of a lot easier; just so long as I'm the dictator." - Washington D.C. December 18, 2000

"A dictatorship would be a heck of a lot easier, there's no question about it." - Business Week, July 30, 2001

"See in my line of work you got to keep repeating things over and over and over again for the truth to sink in, to kind of catapult the propaganda." - Rochester NY, May 24, 2005

 

"The really rich people figure out how to dodge taxes anyway." - Annandale VA, August 9, 2004

 

"Our enemies are innovative and resourceful and so are we. They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we." - Washington D.C. August 5, 2004

"It's been a fabulous year for Laura and me." - December 20, 2001 (Three months after the 9/11 attacks)

"The most important thing is for us to find Osama bin Laden. It is our number one priority and we will not rest until we find him." - Sept. 13, 2001

"I don't know where bin Laden is. I have no idea and really don't care. It's not that important. It's not our priority." - March 13, 2002

 

"I just want you to know that, when we talk about war, we're really talking about peace." - June 18, 2002 (ever read George Orwell's 1984? Remember "Doublethink"?)

""I'm the commander - see, I don't need to explain - I do not need to explain why I say things. That's the interesting thing about being President." - quoted in Bob Woodward's "Bush at War"

"I'm also not very analytical. You know I don't spend a lot of time thinking about myself, about why I do things." - June 4, 2003

"See, free nations are peaceful nations. Free nations don't attack each other. Free nations don't develop weapons of mass destruction." - October 3, 2003
----
    * Serves: 6 to 8
    * Preparation Time:  5 minutes
    * Cooking Time: 20 minutes

Ingredients:
	
Units:

    * 280 g flour
    * 1 tsp baking soda
    * 2 tsp baking powder
    * 4 tbsp sugar
    * ½ tsp salt
    * 2 eggs , beaten
    * 600 ml buttermilk
    * 1 tsp vanilla
    * 50 g butter , melted
    * 100 ml vegetable oil
    * for the garnish:
    * some maple syrup
    * some fruit
    * 1 bowl
    * 1 whisk
    * 1 frying pan
    * 1 spatula
    * 1 plate
    * 1 ladle 

	
*Step 1: Combine the dry ingredients
**Begin by mixing the flour, baking soda, baking powder, sugar and salt, together.
* Step 2: Combine the wet ingredients
**Add the eggs, buttermilk, vanilla and the butter into the same bowl. Only mix until just combined. Don't worry about lumps at this stage.
* Step 3: Fry the pancakes
**Heat the frying pan on a medium heat.
**Add a little bit of oil. Ladle one portion of batter into the frying pan. Fry for roughly three minutes. Or until bubbles start to rise on the top of the pancake.      	**Carefully flip it over to the over side. Don't worry if the batter runs out the sides. Fry for roughly 1 minute on this side. When it turns a golden brown, remove it from the pan. Place it onto a plate. Repeat the frying process until the rest are cooked.
* Step 4: Garnish and serve
*Now garnish some fresh fruit, like strawberries and a generous drizzle of maple syrup. Serve.
!Recipes
[[5-Minute Healthy Sautéed Red Cabbage|http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=recipe&dbid=240]]

Braise red cabbage with a chopped apple and red wine. This is a child-friendly dish since the alcohol (but not the flavor or the flavonoids) will evaporate.

Combine shredded red and green cabbage with fresh lemon juice, olive oil, and seasonings such as turmeric, cumin, coriander, and black pepper to make coleslaw with an Indian twist.
!Nutrition - 1 cup - 70g
vitamin K 66.5%
vitamin C 42.7%
Debating is a very popular activity in Great Britain. For the British, it is important to 
be able to speak well and to speak convincingly. As a result there are many debating 
clubs and societies in schools and universities to train people to debate well.
Each year there is a competition to find the country's best debater. One year the
finalists were Steven Swan from England and Magnus MacDonald from Scotland. 
They were two very different characters, both in appearance and personality. 
Steven Swan was a short and very fat man. He weighed over 200 kilos and he was 
shaped like a ball. He was a very sociable man. Steven was always with friends and he 
never stopped talking. He spent a great amount of his time in expensive London 
restaurants debating with politicians and businessmen. They always paid the bills so 
Stephen ate enormous amounts of food.
Magnus MacDonald, on the other hand, was almost the complete opposite. He was 
tall and very, very thin. He looked like a pencil and he seemed to be just skin and 
bones. Magnus lived in a small Scottish town so he was quite unknown. He was a 
quiet man who spent most of his time reading books in the library. He never spoke 
unless it was necessary. 'Never waste words' was one of his favourite sayings.
On the day of the final a large crowd waited anxiously to see and hear the two 
finalists. They entered the debating room and stood looking at each other. This was 
the first time that they had met. Magnus was silent. Steven slowly looked at Magnus 
from head to toe and said, 
"So you are Magnus. Looking at you, anybody would think that there was a famine
in Scotland."
The crowd laughed. Magnus waited until the laughter had stopped and replied coldly,

" .............................................................................."
*CANSCAN D900 - £27
*Bluetooth ELM327 OBD2 diagnostic scanner 
*Maxiscan Diagnostic Scanner CAN Code Reader £16.50
----
[[Mastech MS6231]]
You will find plenty of reviews of PNDs (<<wikipedia 'Personal Navigation Device'>>) on the Internet. This article is a buyer beware article for the UK market. For example, I bought a Mio C230 after reading that it had TTS (Text to Speech) and full postcode searching after checking the UK vendor's site first. However, I discovered that the European model does not have TTS and on my unit even the postcode search was only 5 digit. I returned it!
!Main features of a budget PND 
*WinCE Core 5.0
*SiRFStar III GPS Chipset
*Full Post Code search
*Auto-zoom
*Speed camera database
*POIs (Points of Interest)
----
*SD memory card expansion slot (new Tom Tom One does not!)
*12-24 volt adapter cable that plugs into your cigarette lighter
*USB cable
!Beware of the difference between US and UK models
Have you noticed that as goods travel from the US to the UK they double in price and the specifications and standards for the same model drop? In other words, welcome to short-changed ripoff Britain.
Check the spec for the UK model!
----
The main differences are:
Text to Speech: US yes, UK no
Huge POIs: US yes, UK no
Extra software: US yes, UK no
Multimedia: US yes, UK no
Extra cables: US yes, UK no
----
''If you get one with a headphone jack that is a plus but you can get inexpensive USB headphones nowadays.
You will find that POIs are a real benefit.''
!Can I hack my device?
In many cases you can hack the device. What that means is that you make the underlying WindowsCe software available via a new menu option that is loaded when you switch on. If your unit does not have a media player, you can usually enable it that way. If you do a backup of the software on the device when you first set it up, you can't do any harm. Just delete everything and reinstall your original copy. Remember to do a hard reset.
!useful sites
|pocketgpsworld|http://www.pocketgpsworld.com/menu.php|
|Maps|http://www.pda4x.com/|
|POIs|http://www.poiplaza.com/|
!GPS devices
[[Navigo SY885]]
!Plan a Route
|AAA travel|http://www.theaa.com/travelwatch/planner_main.jsp|
!Hire a car
|Enterprise|http://www.enterprise.com|
Class A Mini Ford Ka or similar £ 16.35 GBP / day
Class B Economy Chevy Aveo or similar £ 16.69 GBP / day

|Jowetts|http://autohireatjowetts.co.uk/?p=Home&s=Prices|0191 413 0070|
 £15 a day for 3 days or more - 1.0 Micra.
http://www.howacarworks.com
http://www.carbasics.co.uk/how_index.htm
http://www.carbasics.co.uk/blog/category/car-parts-guides/general-car-parts-guide/general-diy-guides/
If your spouse or civil partner or another close member of family over the age of 60 is still living in the house, the property cannot be sold to pay for your care home fees. So if an elderly daughter or sister has moved in as a carer this could help reduce future care costs. In addition, it should also be disregarded if care needs are classified as ‘temporary’.
Couples may be able to permanently remove the property from the local authority’s clutches by changing ownership to ‘tenants in common.’ This allows both partners to leave his or her half share to other beneficiaries such as children or grandchildren or putting the half share into trust. If either subsequently needs long term care, the other is entitled to remain in the property. On the death of the first partner, should the survivor subsequently need full time care, the property may be valued at nil, since one half is owned by the beneficiaries and nobody will want to buy half a house. At worst just half its value will be taken into consideration when assessing your ability to pay.
    Argan oil (great for dry, aging, oily, normal, or acne-prone skin)
    Jojoba oil (great for dry, aging, oily, normal, or acne-prone skin)
    Apricot kernel oil (great for any skin type, but especially good for normal, dry, and aging skin)
    Sweet almond oil (just an all-around great facial oil, but it takes a bit longer to “sink in” than the first two)
    Grapeseed oil (great for normal, oily, or acne-prone skin)
    Avocado oil (great for dry and aging skin)
    Hemp seed oil (great for any skin type, also very light)
http://autobus.cyclingnews.com/tech/fix/?id=chainfit

It depends on whether you are using a Shimano or SRAM system! If it is a Shimano  - big front, small rear, deraileur vertical like in this video.

<html><body>
<iframe width="560" height="315" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/bsU2nEf2Tpc" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
</body></html>
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/phones/home-phone-calls#step1
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/phones/0870-say-no
http://www.saynoto0870.com/search.php
----
!Phone from a Landline to
!!China
''http://www.briing.com/cheap-calls/china.php''
----
*China ''Landline 1 p/min'' Simply dial: ''084 3253 5353'' Then enter China destination number (including 00 86)
*China ''Mobile   1 p/min'' Simply dial:084 3253 5353 Then enter China destination number (including 00 86)
----
''http://www.call18866.co.uk/rates.php''
----
*China ''Landline 1p/m''
*China ''mobile	  3p/m''
----
!Phone from a Mobile to
!!China
''http://www.talkmobile.co.uk/pay_as_you_go.html''
----
*Calls to Landlines  	7p
*Calls to Mobiles  	7p
*Texts (SMS)  		10p
----
!Text via Internet SMS to
!!China
18866
----
5p
----
!Text via Mobile to
!!China

[[Mobile Phone PAYG]]
[[Goats Cheese]]
[[Crème fraiche]]
http://www.metatube.net/search.php
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OyifGWljXqY
http://cheeseforum.org/default.htm
----
90F/32C (lukewarm)
190F = just before boiling
----
!Basic ingredients
one gallon freshest milk (the fewer bacteria present, the more predictable the cheese) heated to nearly boiling point for quick cheese recipes and 30 C for slower cheese
1/2 cup of cultured buttermilk  (or 1/3rd cup yogurt ) as a starter
1/4 tablet rennet or lemon juice or white vinegar to curdle
Add salt to taste and maybe any suitable herbs
!!Starter cultures
The two basic categories of cheese starter culture used in cheesemaking are mesophilic and thermophilic cultures. 
*A mesophilic (moderate temperature-loving) culture is used in cheese where the curds are not warmed to over 102! F. during cooking. 
Sour cream, buttermilk, and fresh starter culture (mesophilic) produces a variety of soft cheeses and contains extra flavor-producing bacteria.
*A thermophilic (heat-loving) culture is used in cheeses in which the curd is cooked at temperatures up to 132 F. The bacteria thrive at high temperatures. 
!!Coagulation
When milk has ripened for the proper length of time for the cheese you plan to make, and it is still at the right ripening temperature (85! to 90! F.), it is 
time to add rennet. Rennet usually works most efficiently at 104 F
!Junket

570ml (1 pint) Full Cream Milk
2 tsp Brandy or Rum (optional)
1 tbsp Sugar
1 tsp Rennet
Cinnamon, to taste
Grated Nutmeg, to taste

Place the milk in saucepan with sugar and warm gently to blood heat.
Stir to dissolve sugar.
Remove pan from heat, add the brandy or rum (If used).
Pour into a serving dish.
Stir in rennet and set aside to set at room temperature for 2 hours.
When set add on cinnamon and nutmeg then chill in fridge.
Serve with sugar to taste and sweetened whipped cream. 
!Basic Cottage Cheese
Ingredients:

1 gallon milk
1/2 cup vinegar
1 tsp salt

1. Heat the milk to 190F. You will need a thermometer for other cheeses but you can get by here turning off the heat just before the milk begins to boil.

2. Add the vinegar and allow the mixture to cool.

3. When cool, pour the mixture, (which now consists of curds and whey as in Miss Muffet food) into a colander and drain off the whey.

4. Pour the curds into a bowl and sprinkle on the salt and mix well. You may wish to use less salt or more. It is simply a matter of taste which is the next step. You can add a little cream for a silky texture.
http://schmidling.com/making.htm

!Soft cheese (cream cheese style)

* 5 quarts whole milk
* 1/3 cup buttermilk
* 2 tablespoons diluted rennet (dilution is 3 drops of liquid rennet into 1/3 cup of cool water)

Warm the milk to 80 degrees F. Stir in the buttermilk, mix well and add the dilute rennet solution. Stir well, cover and allow to set at room temperature for eight to 12 hours. The cheese is ready when it is thick.

Line a large bowl with a cloth and hang to drain for six to eight hours. Draining can be speeded up if you take the bag of curds down and scrape them from the outside of the bag to the center. The cheese is drained when it has stopped dripping and has the consistency of cream cheese. This cheese will freeze for several months. Makes 1-1/2 to 2 pounds.

Note: Cheesecloth won't drain this type of cheese. You must use a muslin-type cheesecloth or case cloth, as I like to call it. Case cloth is simply an old pillow case with the seams opened up to make a large square of cloth. It can be washed out in hot, soapy bleach water and reused until the cloth wears out. Shoelaces will work for hanging the cheese to drain. You can use this cheese as a substitute for cream cheese. We like to mix in herbs and spices and make cheeseballs. Because this cheese is so versatile and easy to make, I recommend it as one of the first cheeses for the beginner. 
http://www.thefarm.org/charities/i4at/countrylife/cheese.html
!Cheddar cheese
http://www.milkfacts.info/Milk%20Processing/Cheese%20Production.htm

* 2 gallons milk
* 1/2 cup cultured buttermilk or substitute (see list below)
* 1 tsp. liquid rennet or 1/2 rennet tablet
* 1/2 cup cool water
* 4 teaspoons salt

In a large stainless or enamel pot, warm the milk to 88 degrees F and stir in buttermilk or other culture (see below). Allow the milk to set to ripen for one hour. Keep the milk warm at 88 degrees F during this time. This can easily be done by placing the milk in a sink full of warm or hot water. Cool or hot water can be added as needed.

After one hour, mix the rennet in cool water and stir into the milk for 30 seconds. Maintain the temperature at 88 degrees F for 45 minutes to coagulate the milk. The curd is ready to cut when you dip your finger into the curds and they break cleanly over your finger as whey fills the depression.

Cut the curds into 1/2-inch cubes and let them rest for 20 minutes, then gently stir them while increasing temperature to 98 degrees F. Increase heat very slowly over a 30-minute period. This process is called cooking the curds. Stir often to prevent the curds from matting together. Keep at 98 degrees F until the curds have firmed up enough where they feel spongy when gently squeezed between your fingers and no longer have a custard-like interior. This will usually take 30 to 45 minutes.

Let the curds settle to the bottom of the pot and carefully pour off some of the whey. Pour remaining curds and whey into a colander and allow to drain for 10 minutes. Place the curds back into the pot and stir in four teaspoons of salt. Mix well, breaking up any curds that have matted together. Keep the curds warm in the pot in a sink full of hot water for one hour. Stir often to keep the curds from matting.

Line a cheese press with cheesecloth, scoop curds into the press and fold over any excess cheesecloth. Place a wood follower on top of that and press at 15 pounds pressure for 20 minutes. Remove the cheese from the press, turn over and redress onto another clean cheesecloth and press at 30 pounds pressure for two hours. Remove cheese from press, redress in a clean cheesecloth and press at 30 to 40 pounds overnight.

In the morning, remove the cheese from the press and allow to air dry several days until the cheese is dry to the touch. Turn several times a day while it is drying. Coat with cheese wax when the cheese is dry to the touch. Age at 55 degrees F for two to six months, depending on how strong you like the cheese. Really good cheddar is aged for 12 months or more. Culture substitutions: You can use 1/4 teaspoon mesophilic DVI (direct vat inoculant) or 1/2 regular mesophilic culture in place of buttermilk. 
!Penne with gorgonzola, walnuts and sage
Supper in 10 minutes: what more could anyone ask on a chilly autumn night? The flavour here is deliberately mild and soothing. The pasta coheres gently with the sauce rather than swims in it. I usually make a chicory salad for afterwards, something crisp and slightly bitter. Even then, all I want to do is to drop off to sleep when I’ve eaten it. That’s what creamy pasta recipes are for.

serves 2
''Ingredients''
300g penne or other small tubular pasta
creamy gorgonzola - about 300g
walnuts - a dozen or more, freshly shelled
a few sage leaves, about six will do
''Preparation''
Put the pasta on to cook in a deep pan of generously salted boiling water. Test it throughout the cooking, but it should be ready after about 9 minutes. I like my pasta to have a bit of bite. Drain the penne in a colander, reserving a couple of tablespoonfuls of the cooking water. Put the empty pan immediately back on the stove and turn down the heat to low. Add the cheese and the reserved cooking water, then stir for a minute or less till the cheese starts to melt and you have an impromptu sauce. Tip the pasta back into the pan with the walnuts and sage leaves, then tip onto warm plates.
----
[[Probiotics]]
 Chinese chicken
Serves 4
21 November 2004
4 chicken breast fillets
11/2tsp sea salt
21/2tsp Chinese five-spice powder
1tbs peanut oil
Sprinkle both sides of the chicken with the salt and five-spice powder. Heat the oil in a frying pan over high heat. Place the chicken in the pan and cook for 4 minutes each side or until cooked through. Cut into pieces and serve with steamed snow peas (mange tout) tossed in hoisin sauce. 
Chicken patties with (or without) gorgonzola and rosemary
There are two possibilities here. Either serve the patties as they are, dry-fried in a non-stick pan till golden (in which case serve them with quarters of lemon) or stuff them with blue cheese and bake them instead. Whether you take the simple or the rich route, you end up with the most savoury little ‘burgers’ imaginable.
serves 3-4
a medium onion
garlic - 2 cloves
butter - 25g
cubed pancetta - 100g
rosemary - 3 bushy sprigs
minced chicken
for the optional stuffing:
gorgonzola - 75g
chicken stock - 250ml
Peel the onion and garlic and chop finely, then let them soften and colour lightly in the butter. Stir in the small cubes of pancetta. Strip the rosemary leaves from their stalks, chop finely then add them to the onion mixture, letting them cook for a few minutes till coloured. Let the mixture cool a little.
Add the minced chicken and season generously with black pepper and a little salt (the pancetta and gorgonzola will both contribute to the seasoning). Set the oven at 190 c/gas 5. Now, to make the simple patty, shape the mixture into six little burgers, about the size of a digestive biscuit, leave to settle for half an hour, then fry in a non-stick pan for 4 or 5 minutes each side and serve with lemon. Or, if you want something richer, make the stuffed patties.
Take a heaped tablespoon of the chicken mixture and push a hollow in it with your thumb. Tip a heaped teaspoon of cheese into the hollow then cover it with a second tablespoon of chicken mixture. Squash gently to form a patty and place on a baking sheet. Continue with this till you have used up the mixture - you will have about six - then refrigerate for 20-30 minutes.
Heat up a non-stick frying pan. When hot, brown the patties on both sides, a matter of three minutes on each, then transfer them to an oven-proof dish. Pour in the stock and bake for 25-30 minutes, till the patties are sizzling and the stock is bubbling. Serve two to three patties per person and spoon over some of the hot chicken stock.
When Susan Goodman placed an ad in local newspapers asking people to send her their childhood recollections of the Second World War, she was overwhelmed by the response. Now she has collected these stories in a remarkable book. This exclusive extract describes the terror of the Blitz and the evacuee experience. 

by SUSAN GOODMAN, You Magazine 
femail.co.uk - 4th April 2005 

Under attack 
The constant anxiety of being at risk from attack from the air caused untold stress. There were few places, however remote, which were free from the menace of droning planes or random bombs. 
The first, most terrifying raid on London occurred on the night of the 29th December 1940. Judy was ten at the time and remembers it as the moment she first began to question the random nature of survival amidst all the destruction. 
"I can still hear the screaming bombs and the Anderson rattling as they rained down on us. Hundreds of German bombers droned over, setting the city on fire. The scene that met us the next morning when we finally saw the light of day was horrendous. 
"We felt as though we were standing in the middle of hell. Fires were raging all around us, and I could see bodies smouldering among the rubble of houses. 
"The top part of our house had been completely demolished and yet my mother's beautiful ebony piano was still intact under the blankets she had covered it with. I wondered why the God that my mother was always praying to had taken our neighbours? lives but left a piano." 
Every raid left new damage. Nowhere, not even a corner shop, could be taken for granted. Dan, aged 13, remembers the bombing as both terrifying and exciting. 
"Shelter hopping during an air raid warning on the way to school and watching the fighter planes high in a cloudless sky was a macho thing to do. 
"I went out one morning after particularly heavy bombing and discovered that my much patronised neighbourhood sweet shop had been almost totally destroyed. All that was left was the end of the wall and on the shelves of that wall, miraculously untouched, were all the large jars of sweets. Even to this day I have a strong visual memory of those exposed sweet jars." 
Many adventurous children, not able to grasp the danger, revelled in all the fuss long past their bedtime. 
"Air raids were exciting," June from Kent recalls. "They disrupted the ordinariness of everyday life. You never knew whether you would be spending the night in your bed, in the air raid shelter or under the dining room table! 
"I used to lie in my bed and pray for an air raid so that we could go down to the shelter and have hot drinks and buttered toast in the middle of the night. What a treat!" 
But for others the noise and the fear of death had lasting effects. Rose was eight in 1939 and living with her parents in a house at Eton College. Her mother would drag her under the grand piano and read her poetry during an air raid. 
"There was a pervading sense of fear. I still react when I hear a siren, and I have never forgotten being woken from a nightmare where I was being pursued by motorcycles backfiring (the deafening ack-ack guns frightened her most). 
"I was also very aware of the sudden change of lifestyle as I watched my mother struggling to run the house and feed the boys." 
Evacuation 
The removal of children from the danger of their city homes to the safety of the countryside at a young, impressionable age was bound to be an emotional experience. Whatever their experience with their new families, enriching or unhappy, it stayed with them for the rest of their lives. 
Many evacuations were successful, greatly broadening a child's experience. Wendy discovered a life long love of the country when, aged six, she and her mother relocated from Liverpool to a rented cottage in North Wales. 
"No electricity, no running water, make do and mend at every turn, water fetched from a spring in the field, loo down the garden and such freedom! I left the city at the first opportunity and have lived in the country ever since." 
But for others it was a miserable time. Eva was 12 when she was evacuated from East London with her older sister to Norfolk. They ended up in the village church hall and were eventually paired off with an older, childless couple. 
"The man was awful and I hated him. We were given awful food and when my parents came to visit they wouldn't even let them come in the house and made them stand outside. They confiscated food and sweet parcels sent to us by our parents and they were really most unkind. 
"I remember sometimes I got so desperate that I walked down to the main road and sat on the kerb and tried to stop anyone in a car to give me a lift home." 
In every large city children were taken to school with their gas masks and boarded buses for the country. Often, their parents had no idea where they would end up and one can only guess at the feelings of parents as they waved goodbye, praying they had made the right decision and that their children would be safe. 
Kate was just four when she left London. "I clearly remember my grandfather putting me on a bus. I had a luggage label tied onto my coat and a small toy attaché case with a doll and a square of pink silk that I used to wrap her in. I had no idea what was happening." 
Minnie, aged 12, was evacuated with her younger brother from London to the south coast. The children's parting from their widowed mother made an indelible impression. 
"I vividly remember my mother's sadness. She had lost our father only two years before, so she had no one to advise her as to whether she was doing the right thing. She saw us off that Sunday morning with our gas masks, labels tied to our coats and our small cases, no knowing where we were going." 
Arrival at whatever town or village meant more herding and waiting until a billet with a local householder could be arranged. So we must picture these same children, by now thoroughly exhausted and bedraggled, waiting to be picked out by someone who wanted them. 
Phyllis who was 12 says that her 14 year old sister "was rather skinny and did not look too strong. I was a plump and pretty child. They came over to choose me but they did not want my sister. We told them that we could not be separated. Unfortunately we were left until the very end". 
In agricultural areas, strapping lads were quickly snapped up by local farmers looking for an extra pair of hands. Older girls were required to do all the housework. Many were badly treated. 
May was taken to a small village in Lancashire by her father when she was nine. "After the long journey up north my dad seemed pleased with the room I had been given and he left me there, bewildered and tearful. Once he had gone on his way I was made to sleep in a cold attic with a camp bed and bare boards. 
"Then I became aware of a lack of food. I stole some from the larder and ate the crusts that were put out for birds. As winter set in I had to wear all my clothes at once to keep from freezing. I was plagued with chilblains and suffered from bullying from the local children. 
"When they taunted me for my London accent, I had to chant to myself the dialect of Lancashire." 
When May's parents came to visit, although they were hardly left alone with her, they suspected that she was miserable and decided to take her home. But when she got home her bad memories turned into terrible nightmares, which persisted well into middle age. 
Rose, aged nine, came from a large family in a teeming industrial area of Clydeside and was evacuated to a remote village in the surrounding countryside. 
"I had to peel at least a bucket of potatoes a day. I was not allowed into the woman's house alone. She liked me to comb her hair and I had to cut her corns, which I hated. 
"Sometimes my Dad came to visit and he gave me pocket money. When it got too much I got my money out of the jar and left. I walked two and a half miles to the bus and found my way back home. I had been away over four years." 
Family life 
The family was the bedrock that underpinned nearly every child's experience during those six unsettling years - through the evacuations, wailing sirens, shortages and the proximity of death. 
For children crouched in an air-raid shelter dreading what sights the morning would bring, it was mums and dads and other relatives who counted. Most people who were then children believe that, whatever their circumstances, the strength and resilience of family life were paramount. 
A boy of seven from South London who was evacuated to Sussex for nearly four years said, "All that time, I never worried about my parents. I knew they would be all right - they were invincible. And I knew that deep down they were always there for me." 
Family reunions in wartime had a special poignancy. Mary was sent to stay with distant relatives and cried herself to sleep most nights. 
When her parents brought her back to Newcastle her relief was such that she never forgot it. She willingly put up with the frightening air raids because the "family was together and happy". 
For most reunited families the joys of picking up the threads of home life were immense. But for children who were long-term evacuees, reunion could be a more complex matter. 
"I never really settled," one man admitted. He added that it was his personal belief from what he had observed that long-term evacuees tended to become adults who bottled up emotions and had difficulty forming close relationships. 
Possibly a watchful, self-protective armour had become ingrained. Brothers and sisters who had stayed at home, or who had been born during the war were also strangers to the returning evacuee. 
The reunion could also be hard on parents, who easily resented the affection their child had developed for a foster parent or a different way of life. 
With a war on, the inevitable strains and bickering of family life were less important than before and families did their best to support one another. Tragedy lurked everywhere and few families were immune from the risk of sudden death. 
Peter was a schoolboy who worked delivering telegrams during the Christmas holidays of 1941. "I delivered a total of ninety-five telegrams in five days. I could tell immediately from the face of a recipient that some of them clearly brought the dreaded news of a husband or loved one. The expression on their faces said it all." 
And as the war eventually came to an end many children were faced with a returning father they scarcely recognised. During those six long years, the lives of many husbands and wives, parents and children had changed and grown apart. 
For all the joyful celebrations, there were hard knocks in store. Many children remember their fathers' homecoming as extremely exciting, and sometimes bittersweet. One woman recalled how she had been sent to the station at the age of nine to meet her father because her mother, felled by the emotion, preferred to stay at home. 
She had only seen him two or three times in six years and when a tall man in a khaki uniform stood in front of her on the platform and said "I'm Daddy," she did as she had been taught and put out her hand. 
This unsatisfactory meeting was the beginning of a difficult relationship, "Perhaps it would have been the case, or perhaps my father's absence during those years made it worse, there is no way of knowing. 
But I was a spirited child and deeply resented suddenly having this father ordering me about. After one of my many battles with my father soon after the war, I vividly remember overhearing my mother saying to him wearily, "oh do please stop treating us like the fourteenth army". 
It is fitting that a girl whose father was one of the last serviceman to return has the final words on homecoming of a child of war: "As the eldest, I remembered my father very well, though inevitably my two little brothers did not. The first phone call after he had landed in Southampton after nearly four years, was very special. We brought flags to celebrate his return home and all the neighbours decorated their houses too. Looking back at the photos of that time, his face was very gaunt and he was very thin. But I don?t think I noticed that. He was Daddy - and he was home." 
Children of War - The Second World War Through the Eyes of a Generation by Susan Goodman is published by John Murray on the 21st March at £20. Offer price. The Children's War - a major exhibition to mark the 60th anniversary of VE day will open at the Imperial War Museum in London on Friday. Tel: 020 74165320 

Find this story at: 
http://www.femail.co.uk/pages/standard/article.html?in_article_id=340999&in_page_id=25 
©2005 Associated New Media
!Vegetarian chilli
''Ingredients''
        4-6 portions rice
''For the sauce''

        175g/6oz green lentils

        2 tbsp sunflower oil

        1 large onion, chopped

        1-2 cloves garlic, crushed

        1-2 tsp chilli powder

        1 tsp cumin seeds

        1 red and 1 green pepper, stalk and seeds removed, and chopped

        2 carrots, peeled and chopped

        2 x 400g/14oz cans chopped tomatoes

        1 heaped tbsp tomato purée

        300ml/½ pint vegetable stock

        100g/4oz frozen peas

        175g/6oz mushrooms, wiped and quartered

        1 courgette, chopped

        salt and freshly ground black pepper

        1 can kidney beans, drained and cooked

''Preparation method''

    Place the green lentils in a large bowl and pour boiling water over them. Leave to soak for 30 minutes. (Alternatively, buy a tin of pre soaked lentils.) Drain.

    Heat the oil in a large saucepan and fry the onion and garlic together with the chilli and cumin, about ten minutes or until the onions are soft.

    Add the peppers, carrots and drained green lentils and cook for five minutes, stirring all the time. Add the tomatoes, purée, stock and peas, bring to the boil and simmer until the lentils are tender (about 30 minutes). Add the mushrooms and courgettes and simmer for five minutes more. Season to taste.

    Add the cooked kidney beans and simmer for five more minutes.

    Serve with cooked rice.

http://www.travelchinaguide.com/
http://www.seat61.com/China.htm
http://www.travellerspoint.com/
www.wendywutours.co.uk
!Chinese songs and singers
!!Qi Yu or yu chyi
*Olive Tree
<html>
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</html>

or a better recording - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrjQmZ8t8nQ&feature=related
<html><body>
<img src="http://media.mercola.com/assets/images/infographic/cholesterol-levels-infographic.png" alt="cholesterol levels infographic" border="0" style="max-width:100%; min-width:300px; margin: 0 auto 20px auto; display:block;" /><p style="max-width:800px; min-width:300px; margin:0 auto; text-align:center;"></body></html>
!Food that lower cholesterol
The following list are specific foods known to help cleanse cholesterol build-up in the arteries and heart. This is due to their high levels of fiber, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Lecithin, Vitamin E, C, Niacin and Rutin.
!!Legumes
beans, lentils, tofu, tempeh, mung and soybeans and their sprouts. (Non-GMO)
!!Whole Grains
buckwheat, rye, amaranth, quinoa rice, and sprouted hard winter wheat.
!!Vegetables
radish, horseradish, hot peppers, onions, garlic, leek, scallion, shallot, chive, leafy greens, cabbage, spinach, carrot greens, kale, broccoli, parsley, asparagus, bell pepper, celery, sea vegetables, cucumber, chlorella, mushrooms.
!!Fruits
citrus, tomato, rose hip, banana, and persimmon.
!!Nuts and Seeds
Almonds, hazelnut, flax seed, chia seed, pumpkin seed, poppy seed, walnut, sunflower sprouts.
!!Fish
sardine, salmon, mackerel, and deep/cold-water fish.
!!Raw honey and Bee Pollen
!!Herbs
Hawthorne berry, dandelion root, burdock root, chaparral, peppermint (for heart palpitations and strengthening heart muscle), cayenne pepper, ginger, rhubarb root, yarrow, chamomile, motherwort, valerian.
!!Oils
Naturally you will want to avoid the so-called “bad saturated fats” and focus on getting a balance of the “good fats”, such as the Omega-9, Olive, Hazelnut, Almond and Sesame oils; and the Omega-3 and 6, Walnut and Grapeseed oils. 

It has been proven that a balanced intake of Omega-3 and 6 oils along with high levels of Omega-9 significantly reduce the risk of dying from a cardiovascular related disease.
!!Supplements
http://www.healthmonthly.co.uk/swanson_traditional_red_yeast_rice
!Grilled chorizo with almonds, sherry vinegar and spring cabbage

Serves 4 as a main course

a medium-sized spring cabbage
8 chorizo sausages, about 80g-90g each
skinned almonds - 75g
for the dressing:
sherry vinegar - 1 tbs
olive oil - 3 tbs

Clean the cabbage, breaking off the leaves and discarding any that are not in good condition. Cut the chorizo sausages in half lengthways.

Toast the almonds in a non-stick pan until they are golden. Salt them lightly. Heat a shallow pan of boiling water for the cabbage. Put the sausages on the grill (or in a hot griddle pan), cut-side down, and cook till they are lightly crisp.

Plunge the cabbage into the boiling, lightly salted water. Leave for a couple of minutes till tender and jewel-bright in colour. Mix the sherry vinegar and olive oil, season lightly with salt and black pepper. Drain the cabbage and toss in the dressing.

Divide the dressed cabbage between four plates, then add the grilled chorizo and almonds.
!Christina Rosetti - some websites
http://falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/rossetti.htm
http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/landow/victorian/authors/crossetti/rossetti2.html
The Longing for Motherhood nd the Concept of Infertility in the Poetry of Christina Rossetti
http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/victorian/authors/crossetti/touche1.html
Interesting analysis that links its points of view to particular poems
Poetry collection

http://celtic.benderweb.net/cr/index.html

A long list

http://www.englishonline.co.uk/freesite_tour/resource/literature/rossettititles.html

Nice painintgs

http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/chris.html

Excellent site covering all aspects of her poetry and life

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/crossetti/crov.html

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/crossetti/harrison2/1.html

!Her writing style

Nearly a year before the 1862 issuance of Christina Rossetti's Goblin Market and other Poems, no less a respected critic than John Ruskin pronounced her work unpublishable. Her poems, he wrote, "are full of beauty and power but so full are they of quaintnesses and offences" that "no publisher... would take them." The unusual rhyme schemes and metrical irregularity of pieces like "Goblin Market" and "The Convent Threshold" were particularly disturbing to Ruskin, and he advised that, before she attempt to place her verses before an audience, Rossetti "exercise herself in the severest commonplace of metre until she can write as the public like. Then, if she puts in her observation and passion all will become precious. But she must have the Form first" 

+++*[Literature Biography]
http://www.bartleby.com/223/0512.html

The first number of The Germ published by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) contained, as well as Rossetti’s My Sister’s Sleep, a sonnet by his brother William Michael and two lyrics by his sister Christina Georgina Rossetti. Christina, born in 1830, produced her earlier work under the pseudonym Ellen Alleyn. The two lyrics in question, Dream Land and An End, are the natural outcome of a mind that instinctively translates its passing dreams into music as faint and clear as the horns of elf-land, such music as is heard at its perfection in the lyrics of Shelley. A song, Oh roses for the flush of youth, in the second number of The Germ, has the same unsought grace. Together with this appeared the more elaborate A Pause of Thought and A Testimony, the second of these founded on the recurrent theme of Ecclesiastes and employing scriptural language with the skill and ease manifested by Rossetti in The Burden of Nineveh and by Swinburne in countless poems. 
Unlike her brother, whose sympathy with religion was purely artistic, and still more unlike Swinburne, whose attitude to the orthodox conceptions of Christianity was openly hostile, Christina Rossetti was, to the end of her life, a devout Christian, finding the highest inspiration for her song in her faith and investing Anglican ideals of worship with a mystical beauty. Her volumes of collected verse, beginning with Goblin Market and other poems in 1862 and ending with New Poems, collected in 1896, two years after her death, by her brother William, are permeated, even when they deal with subjects not primarily religious, with this devotional feeling. Goblin Market and The Prince’s Progress, her two chief narrative poems, are both, in effect, allegories, the first obvious in its application, the second capable of more than one interpretation, of the soul in its struggle with earthly allurements. 
Her sequences of sonnets, Monna Innominata and Later Life, are filled with her sense of the claims of divine love over human passion. While her brother, in The Blessed Damozel, drew the picture of an immortal spirit yearning for the love it has left behind and translating the joys of heaven into concrete imagery, Christina Rossetti embodies the desire of the soul on earth to climb 
the stairs that mount above,
Stair after golden skyward stair
To city and to sea of glass,

and the heaven which she sees is the mystical city of The Revelation of S. John. 
In her Martyrs’ Song, the blessed ones who “lean over the golden bar” have no regret for earth: amid the welcoming angels, painted in verse that translates into words the visions wrought in tapestry and stained glass by Burne-Jones and Morris, they find “the rest which fulfils desire” in the light of the divine presence. Such verse has a natural kinship with the religious poetry of the seventeenth century, and especially with George Herbert and Henry Vaughan, where their excessive ingenuity in metaphor gives place to spontaneous lyric fervour. The clear notes of Herbert’s Easter Song and the calm rapture of Vaughan’s “My soul, there is a country” find their closest echo in Christina Rossetti’s devout songs, and she adopted instinctively the free metrical forms of rimed stanza in which they clothed their thought. While all her thoughts were drawn together towards one central ideal and her verse was ruled by the supreme conviction that 
in la sua volantade è nostra peace,
she expressed herself with a variety of metre and rhythm and a musical power unequalled by any other English poetess. If she had less intellectual force and a more confined range of subject than Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who certainly, by virtue of her more liberal sympathies, makes an appeal to a wider audience, Christina Rossetti unquestionably had the advantage in melodiousness. 
Goblin Market, written in paragraphs of varying length with short lines and rimes binding them together at irregular intervals, is an example of a form which, adapted by a careless writer even with considerable imagination, might easily become mere rhythmical prose. While the language is of the most simple kind and the lines run freely into one another, the music of the rimes, half unheard, is, nevertheless, strongly felt. Whether moving in these lightly fettered cadences or in the stricter confinement of the stanza, her lyric verse is always remarkable for its combination of strength and seriousness of sentiment with simplicity of expression. Mystic though she was, her thought never found refuge in complicated or obscure language, but translated itself into words with the clearness and definiteness which were among the aims of the pre-Raphaelite associates of her girlhood. In such short bursts of song as A Birthday, simile and coloured phrase came to her aid, without effort on her part, to adorn a crescendo which rises to a climax of innocent happiness.
Her A Christmas Carol cannot be matched among Christmas songs for its union of childlike devotion and pathos with pictorial directness: Morris’s “Outlanders, whence come ye last”? and Swinburne’s “Three damsels in the queen’s chamber” are not less beautiful and are more elaborately pictorial, but they are designedly archaic in style and are without her earnestness and concentration of feeling. It is true that there are poems by Christina Rossetti in which her sense of the necessity of simplicity is too apparent, either in the intrusion of too homely words or in occasional metrical weakness. 
Her ballads of everyday life, such as Maude Clare and Brandons Both, inevitably recall to their own disadvantage, the successes of Tennyson in the same field. On the other hand, where her imagination pursued a higher path, as in the allegorical visions of A Ballad of Boding, the note which she sounded was clear and unfaltering. In the third of her Old and New Year Ditties, the famous “Passing away,” she showed herself no less capable than Swinburne of wedding appropriately majestic music to her theme, varying the cadence of her verse upon the ground-work of a single sound, the passing bell which is heard at the end of each line, and gradually relieving the melancholy of her opening passage, until, in the last notes, new hope is heard. The range of her verse was, naturally, somewhat limited by her preoccupation with religious subjects. 
Contemporary movements touched her lightly, and it was seldom that, as in the two poems entitled The German-French Campaign, she referred to them. If this aloofness from the world precludes her from an uncontested claim to the position sometimes given to her as the greatest of English poetesses, no religious poet of the nineteenth century, even if we take into account the brilliant but more turbid genius of Francis Thompson, can be said to challenge comparison with her whose “shrine of holiest-hearted song” Swinburne approached with reverent admiration of her single-heartedness and purity of purpose 
===+++[Biography]
source: http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=3852
Born in 1830, in London, Christina was the fourth and youngest child of Gabriele and Frances Rossetti. Gabriele, an Italian political exile and poet, settled in England in 1824 and was appointed Professor of Italian at King’s College in 1831. Frances, the London-born daughter of Italian poet and translator Gaetano Polidori, married Gabriele in 1826. Although Christina was the first of their children to be publicly recognized for her literary accomplishments, her siblings were also writers: Maria Francesca, a member of the Anglican All Saint’s Sisterhood, authored a commentary on The Divine Comedy; painter and poet Dante Gabriel lead the Pre-Raphaelite movement; and William Michael was a critic, essayist and biographer. 
Rossetti’s earliest surviving poem dates from April 1842 and was written as a birthday present to her mother. Rossetti was educated by her mother, a former governess and a teacher. Rossetti also learnt Italian from her father and grandfather and took lessons in German. A commonplace book created by Frances Rossetti and her children offers insight into the family’s tastes and reading habits. It contains passages by contemporaries such as Tennyson and Dickens, Romantic poets such as Byron, as well as several eighteenth-century writers. 
Rossetti’s first collection, Verses, consists of 43 poems and was printed in 1847 on her grandfather’s private press. Dedicated to her mother and completed when Rossetti was 16, the volume contains numerous poems on martyrdom, death and unrequited love. In 1848, Rossetti began to publish her poems in magazines such as the Athenaeum and in collections such as the Ladies’ Daily Remembrancer and Lyra Messianica. Two of her poems, “Dreamland” and “An End”, appeared in the first edition of The Germ, the short-lived magazine of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 
Rossetti’s first major publication, Goblin Market and Other Poems was published by Macmillan in 1862. The title poem, her most famous, examines temptation, sensual pleasure, and the healing power of a sister’s sacrifice. Illustrated by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the book was lauded by its contemporary reviewers. Macmillan’s Magazine, who had already published several of Rossetti’s poems, commended the title poem’s “versatility, as well as the originality of genius” (August 1863, 401). The British Quarterly praised the collection for being “marked by beauty and tenderness” (qtd. in Kathleen Jones, Learning Not to be First, 112). Positive reviews also appeared in the Literary Gazette, London Review and Athenaeum. 
Four books of poetry followed: The Prince’s Progress and Other Poems (1866), Sing-Song (1872), A Pageant and Other Poems (1881) and Verses (1893). The title poem of The Prince’s Progress shares several themes with “Goblin Market”. An allegorical narrative about the extended separation of a prince from his fiancée, the poem examines the relationship between sensuality, morality, desire and duty. When the errant prince finally arrives to claim his bride, he finds her dead: 
Too late for love, too late for joy,
Too late, too late! 
You loitered on the road too long. 
You trifled at the gate: 
The enchanted dove upon her branch
Died without a mate; 
The enchanted princess in her tower
Slept, died, behind the grate; 
Her heart was starving all this while
You made it wait. (481-490) 
Sing-Song was, as its title suggests, written for children. Illustrated with 120 images by Arthur Hughes, it contains nursery rhymes, nature poems, instructional poems, and lullabies, as well as several nonsense poems. A representative poem demonstrates Rossetti’s interest in portraying animals and the compact, highly rhythmic character of the poems that make up this volume: 
A linnet in a gilded cage,- 
A linnet on the bough,- 
In frosty winter one might doubt
Which bird is luckier now. 

But let the trees burst out in leaf, 
And nests be on the bough, 
Which linnet is the luckier bird, 
Oh who could doubt it now? (1-8) 
Rossetti’s next book, A Pageant and Other Poems is most notable for the two sonnet sequences it contains. The first sequence, “Monna Innominata”, is prefaced by a brief discussion of Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Portuguese sonnets. In it Rossetti explains, “had the Great Poetess of our own day and nation only been unhappy instead of happy, her circumstances would have invited her to bequeath to us in lieu of the ‘Portuguese Sonnets,’ an inimitable ‘donna innominata’ drawn not from fancy but from feeling, and worthy to occupy a niche beside Beatrice and Laura.” Rossetti’s sonnet sequence features a female speaker who examines the relationship between hope, earthly love and spiritual longing. The second sequence in the collection, “Later Life”, is more explicitly devotional. 
Rossetti’s 1893 Verses is dedicated to religious themes. The poems contained in it are drawn from three earlier collections of devotional prose and poems, Called to be Saints (1881), The Face of the Deep: A Devotional Commentary on the Apocalypse (1892) and Time Flies: A Reading Diary (1885). In all, Rossetti wrote five books of devotional prose, all of them published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Rossetti also authored two collections of short stories, Commonplace and Other Short Stories (1870) and Speaking Likenesses (1874). A posthumous collection of unpublished poems, entitled New Poems, was edited by William Michael Rossetti and published in 1896. Maude, a novella written in 1850, was published in 1897. 
Editors and critics have classified Rossetti’s poems in various ways. Adam Roberts notes that Rossetti’s poems have frequently been divided into two generic categories: lyric poems and children’s verse. Roberts argues “that this two-fold division ignores a widespread of her poetry, including much powerful love poetry and a fine variety of sonnets” (Victorian Culture and Society, 194). Others have focused on the creation of thematic categories. Writing in 1931, Eleanor Thomas identified Rossetti’s poetry with “the romantic and the religious” and noted her interest in “personal confession, transcendentalism, [and] idealism” (Christina Georgina Rossetti, 1). In The Poetical Works of Christina Georgina Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti included an appendix entitled “Some Leading Themes, or Key-Notes of Feeling in the Poems of Christina Rossetti”. The seven themes he lists are personal experiences and emotions; death; aspiration for rest; vanity of vanities; love of animals; winter; and the loveliness of the rose. 
===
[[GOBLIN MARKET]] and [[Goblin Market Theories]]

+++[Remember]

Remember me when I am gone away, 
Gone far away into the silent land; 
When you can no more hold me by the hand, 
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay. 
Remember me when no more, day by day, 
You tell me of our future that you plann'd: 
Only remember me; you understand 
It will be late to counsel then or pray. 
Yet if you should forget me for a while 
And afterwards remember, do not grieve: 
For if the darkness and corruption leave 
A vestige of the thoughts that once I had, 
Better by far you should forget and smile 
Than that you should remember and be sad. 
===

+++[The Convent Threshold]
!!Commentary and Questions
Christina Rosset's "Convent Threshold" is a kind of love letter, addressed by a woman aspiring for an existence transcending this sinful world to her former earthbound lover. 
The woman admits that she was once in earthly love with her lover, but she has now renounced that love ("soiled with mud, / With scarlet mud") and aspires instead for a purified, spiritual love. The renunciation involves no less personal sacrifice with her than with her lover, but it brings ultimate spiritual joy to both.
http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/crossetti/kashtan6.html
Christina Rossetti's dramatic monologue "The Convent Threshold" presents a situation which resembles that of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's The Blessed Damozel but takes the opposite perspective on that situation. In the former poem the speaker's love for her beloved has somehow caused their relatives' blood to be shed, and accordingly, as the title of the poem indicates, the speaker has chosen to expiate her guilt by entering a convent. In her monologue she urges her beloved to do likewise: to turn away from the evanescent pleasures of this life and to repent his sins, thereby ensuring that the two of them can reunite in heaven if not on earth. She emphasizes that if he fails to repent and thus suffers spiritual death, her own afterlife reward will suffer as a result:
<<<
How shall I rest in Paradise,
Or sit on steps of heaven alone
If Saints and Angels spoke of love
Should I not answer from my throne:
Have pity upon me, ye my friends,
For I have heard the sound thereof:
Should I not turn with yearning eyes,
Turn earthwards with a pitiful pang?
Oh save me from a pang in heaven.
<<<
The speaker imagines herself in the same predicament as the blessed damozel: in heaven, but unable to enjoy it in the absence of her beloved. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's poem presented this situation from the viewpoint of the earthbound male beloved, who apparently imagined this vision in order to congratulate himself on how much the damozel loved him. By contrast, Christina Rossetti adopts the perspective of the female lover, who conjures up a similar hypothetical situation for a seemingly more altruistic purpose. In adopting the woman's perspective Christina Rossetti avoids the trap of objectifying the beloved, as her brother's poem had done. Furthermore, she permits he man to control his own destiny. Her speaker urges the beloved to repent and earn entry into heaven, suggesting that he can choose whether or not to do so. On the other hand, Dante Gabriel Rossetti presented the damozel as praying that God would allow the speaker into heaven, thus taking the choice of the speaker's afterlife destination out of his own hands.
!!Questions
<<<
1. Does it make sense to read "The Convent Threshold" as a feminist version of "The Blessed Damozel," assuming that one poem directly influenced the other? Or do both poems feature the same type of male chauvinism?
2. This poem's description of heaven focuses on its sensual beauty and its associated pleasures: "Beyond the gulf a gleaming strand / Of mansions where the righteous sup; / Who sleep at ease among their trees." Would Christina Rossetti's contemporaries have criticized her conception of heaven as overly materialistic?
3. Anglican convents were a relatively new phenomenon at the time of this poem, and some scholars believe that the act of entering a convent had feminist implications. Should we read the speaker's decision to enter a convent in this way? 
4. In lines 85-109 the speaker narrates a dream she has had, which she takes to signify that "Knowledge is strong, but love is sweet; [...] All is small / Save love, for love is all in all." How does this dream function in the overall scheme of the poem? What connection does it have to contemporary debates over science and religion?
<<<
===
All the Rossettis were fond of the handsome and impressive William Bell Scott (q.v.) and, eventually, his good-hearted chatterbox wife, Laetitia. The Scotts actually lived separately under the same roof, but the arrangement was amicable. William Rossetti, the financial mainstay of the family and editor of the Pre-Raphaelite journal The Germ, was the first to visit Scott in Newcastle in 1850. Dante Gabriel (q.v.) came in 1853, Christina in 1858 and Maria in 1860. It was through Bell Scott that Christina became acquainted with the Durham poet Dora Greenwell (q.v.) . Christina's work of the 1850s is pervaded by a sense of melancholy often associated with unhappy love, leading one modern biographer to suggest a frustrated passion for Bell Scott, whom she had first met in London in 1847. 
The year 1858 probably marked the high point of Christina's poetry. It was also the year of 'the great stink' in London, prompting a trip to see the Scotts. The party went on a picnic to Sunderland on 29 June 1858. The doggerel manuscript poem Christina wrote on the occasion is brightly cheerful: 
... from Newcastle to Sunderland
Upon a misty morn in June
We took the train: on either hand
Grimed streets were changed for meadows soon. 
Umbrellas, tarts and sandwiches
Sustained our spirits' temperate flow
With potted jam, and cold as snow
Rough-coated, sunburnt oranges. 
but on the same day Christina wrote the beautiful 'Up-Hill' and 'Today and Tomorrow', of all her poems the bleakest. Again it stresses her sad isolation while the world around her blossoms and rejoices. Her frustration is unendurable and she wishes for death. Alice Meynell thought the poem contained more passion 'than in any other poem written by a woman'. Christina's poem 'By the Sea' was also written in 1858 and may reflect her North East trip (the Scotts took her to Marsden Bay also). Christina spent a day at Wallington Hall with Laetitia Scott, visiting Lady Pauline and Sir Walter Trevelyan. She got on well with her hostess and admired Lady Pauline's social graces 
The unpublished version of the poem 'Parting after Parting' was titled 'Written in the train from Newcastle': 
Parting after parting
All one's life long:
It's a bitter pang, parting
While life and love are strong 
In October 1859, Christina travelled to Newcastle again in the company of Lady Pauline to stay with Laetitia Scott for a few weeks. The Scotts and Alice Boyd were now known as the Sun, Moon and Star, Alice having rather displaced Maria Rossetti in Bell Scott's affections, though all remained friends. After this visit, Christina wrote a number of poems concerning romantic triangles, female rivalry and unkind sisterhood - at odds with her famous Goblin Market, published in 1862. 
[source: http://www.csulb.edu/~csnider/c.rossetti.html]
[source: http://online.northumbria.ac.uk/faculties/art/humanities/cns/m-rosetti1.html]
[img[images\rossetti1.gif]]
|[img[images\rossetti2.gif]]||[img[images\rossetti3.gif]]
+++^[Useful dvd and video sites]
http://forums.afterdawn.com/
http://dvd.box.sk/
http://club.cdfreaks.com/
===
!Fred Astaire May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987
Dancing Lady (1933)
Flying Down to Rio (1933)
The Gay Divorcee (1934)
Roberta (1935)
Top Hat (1935)
Follow the Fleet (1936)
Swing Time (1936)
Shall We Dance (1937)
A Damsel in Distress (1937)
Carefree (1938)
The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle (1939)
Broadway Melody of 1940 (1940)
Second Chorus (1940)
You'll Never Get Rich (1941)
Holiday Inn (1942)
You Were Never Lovelier (1942)
The Sky's the Limit (1943)
Yolanda and the Thief (1945)
Ziegfeld Follies (1946)
Blue Skies (1946)
Easter Parade (1948)
The Barkleys of Broadway (1949)
Three Little Words (1950)
Let's Dance (1950)
Royal Wedding (1951)
The Belle of New York (1952)
The Band Wagon (1953)
Daddy Long Legs (1955)
Funny Face (1957)
Silk Stockings
On The Beach (1959)
Finian's Rainbow (1968)
That's Entertainment, Part II (1976) (narrator and performer)


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http://alternative-healthzine.com/magical-properties-of-coconut-oil/
----	
Clinical studies have shown that coconut oil has anti-microbial and anti-viral properties. 
Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid which is abundant in coconut oil, and considered responsible for many of its health benefits. Coconut oil is about 50% lauric acid. The only other abundant source found in nature is in human breast milk.	

A good therapeutic dosage is 3 to 4 tablespoons a day. This provides enough lauric acid to build the immune system.
!Coffee and walnut cake
Made with unsalted butter, unrefined sugar and free-range, organic eggs you will have something infinitely superior to any shop-bought cake. It will take about an hour from start to finish and will keep for several days if you keep it sealed.
serves 8-10
butter - 175g
unrefined golden caster sugar - 175g
walnut pieces - 65g
eggs - 3
self-raising flour - 175g
baking powder - 1 tsp
instant coffee granules - 2 tsp
for the filling:
butter - 200g
icing sugar - 400g
instant coffee granules - 2 tsp
walnut pieces - 60g
You will also need 2 x 20cm loose-bottomed sponge tins
Beat the butter and sugar till light, pale and fluffy. You could do this by hand but it is far easier and, frankly, better with an electric mixer. Set the oven at 180 c/gas 4. Meanwhile, line the base of two 20cm sponge tins with greaseproof paper and chop the walnuts. Crack the eggs into a bowl, break them up with a fork, then add them a little at a time to the butter and sugar, beating well after each addition.
Combine the flour and baking powder and mix into the butter and sugar, gently, with either the mixer on a slow speed or by hand with a large metal spoon. Dissolve the coffee granules in a tablespoon of boiling water, then stir into the cake. Chop the walnuts and fold gently into the cake.
Divide the cake mixture between the two cake tins, smooth lightly and bake for 20-25 minutes. I have noticed mine are pretty much consistently done after 23 minutes.
To make the frosting: beat the butter till soft and pale with an electric beater, then add the sugar and beat till smooth and creamy. Stir a tablespoon of boiling water into the coffee granules then mix it into the butter-cream. Fold in the walnut pieces. When cool, turn one half of the cake upside down on a plate, spread it with a good third of the butter-cream, then place the second half on top. Spread the remaining butter cream on top and around the sides. 
http://youtu.be/vnvOKXSLK8E
!Laser Classifications
Lasers are classified into four broad areas depending on the potential for causing biological damage. When you see a laser, it should be labeled with one of these four class designations:

    Class I - These lasers cannot emit laser radiation at known hazard levels.
    Class I.A. - This is a special designation that applies only to lasers that are "not intended for viewing," such as a supermarket laser scanner. The upper power limit of Class I.A. is 4.0 mW.
    Class II - These are low-power visible lasers that emit above Class I levels but at a radiant power not above 1 mW. The concept is that the human aversion reaction to bright light will protect a person.
    Class IIIA - These are intermediate-power lasers (cw: 1-5 mW), which are hazardous only for intrabeam viewing. Most pen-like pointing lasers are in this class.
    Class IIIB - Lasers that emit between 5mW and 500mW output power are in Class IIIb or IEC Class 3B.
    Class IV - These are high-power lasers (cw: 500 mW, pulsed: 10 J/cm2 or the diffuse reflection limit), which are hazardous to view under any condition (directly or diffusely scattered), and are a potential fire hazard and a skin hazard. Significant controls are required of Class IV laser facilities. 
''Almost all the laser research evidence for tissue repair inflammation and pain is with close 3B lasers and LEDs. ''
!Settings and wavelengths
*A very low power-level device is less than 30mW.
*''50mW'' seems to be best for deep tissue effects
http://www.aconitemedical.com/blogs/news/7713179-low-level-laser-therapy-treatment-protocol-for-fibromyalgia
!Wavelength
Different lasers emit light at different wavelengths which interact with different tissues. As mentioned earlier, the light energy needs to interact with chromphores or receptors in the tissues. In the infrared light spectrum, water is the major chromophore. When considering a cold laser for laser therapy we need to use a wavelength where water is not an efficient chromophore, so the light energy can penetrate tissue that is high in water content. 
*There is a narrow band of wavelengths in the light spectrum where this is the case. This wavelength, which is from ''600 to 1200 nanometers, is known as the therapeutic window''.
*All of the therapeutic lasers on the market have wavelengths between 600-1200nm. However, the penetration is not the same level. Lasers in the 600 to 730 nm range have less penetration and are better for more superficial applications. 90% of cold lasers operate in the 800nm to 980nm wavelength for therapeutic treatments. There are several manufacturers (Like Erchonia) that claim the best results are in the 600 to 680nm wavelength range.
----
Tissue regeneration, for instance, appears to benefit from relatively low fluence and long-time exposure. Pain reduction in acute conditions is achieved through inhibition of neural flow and high fluence, and greater power density is more effective. Wound healing and tissue regeneration requires fairly low intensity and long time (2-6 J/cm2); reduction of inflammation is more effective with higher fluence (6-10 J/cm2), whereas acute pain may require 20-50 J/cm2. http://www.bioopticsworld.com//articles/print/volume-3/issue-5/features/laser-dentistry-low-level-laser-therapy-therapeutic-lasers-expand-the-scope-of-dentistry.html
*Longer, lower power-level treatments get better healing while short high power bursts are better for pain control.
!!630nm to 635nm for scar and shallow treatments
630nm (for HeNe tube lasers) and 635nm (for semiconductor laser diodes). Total power output will be less than 5mW per laser. 635nm energy is visible so you always know if the unit is on and where it is pointed.
*the red wavelength (635 nm) is used to activate immune cells and increase circulation
http://preventdisease.com/news/12/110112_A-Ten-Dollar-Laser-Pointer-Will-Heal-Tissue-Faster-Than-Any-Medication.shtml
!!800nm to 980nm for deep penetration - debate if 810nm or 980nm is best?
+++[Wavelength Comparisons]
!!635 nM (Red) -The most common.
    The ''same wavelength produced inside the cells of the body'', so it is biologically compatible with the body.
    Stimulatory effect: increases ATP production in the cell.
    TONIFYING effect on an acupuncture point.
There are also reds in the 650 to 670 nm range, which are laser pointers that you buy at an office supply store for presentations. These are not particularly well suited to acupuncture and do not have the same biological effects as 635 nm lasers.
!!450 nM (Blue) -NEW on the market.
    The previous so called blue was really an ultraviolet. The NEW 450 nM is pure sapphire blue.
    SEDATES or calms the channel.
    Don't confuse this with the 405 violet/ultraviolet sometimes sold as blue/purple.
!!700-1000 nM -Infrared Lasers.
    Deep Penetrating.
    No visible beam.
    Produce heat.
    Deep wound healing and pain treatment.
    Not for typical acupuncture, although some studies have shown good results.
    These systems are on the expensive end.
!!532 nM (Green)
    Poor penetration of green wavelengths.
    Very little research to prove success rates.
===
!Energy
It has been determined that the optimum amount of energy needed to obtain therapeutic effects at the treated tissue should range from 0.5 to 6 joules per cm2.
!Power - A pulsed laser is best?
http://quantum-healing-lasers.com/super-pulsed-laser.html
Pulsing the lasers allows for higher power levels while still being safe. On the other side, continuous wave lasers allow for better pain control and they allow for saturation of a damaged area with photons?

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Partly because of her shyness and partly just because she was a woman, Christina Rossetti was never completely a part of the Pre- Raphaelite Brotherhood. Nevertheless, her Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862) was the first unalloyed literary success the Brotherhood enjoyed, and there is a loose parallel between her fondness for the rhythms of folk songs and the Pre-Raphaelite interest in things medieval. Since she began with such success, both her brother and her publisher were eager that she follow it up at once, but her next volume of poetry, The Prince's Progress and Other Poems, was not ready until 1866. It sold well, but the critics saw at once that the best poems in it were not quite the equal of the best in her first collection. In fact, "Goblin Market," one of her first poems, remains her best.

http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/victorian/authors/crossetti/rossetti5.html

Themes of frustrated love and an understated tension between desire and renunciation characterize her more serious work. Separated lovers often appear in her poems, and regret for life unfulfilled alternates with what one critic calls a death wish. But there is another strain in some of her poetry that can be called Gothic or even macabre--goblins, serpents, wombats, ratels, and lizards turn up in her verses. Growing up, the Rossetti siblings read Crabbe, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats, to be sure; but they also read with delight Ann Radcliffe (Christina at one time undertook to write a biography of Mrs. Radcliffe but was unable to gather the necessary materials) and Monk Lewis. Consider the following fragment:

 I have a friend in ghostland, --
 Early found, ah me how early lost! --
 Blood-red seaweed drips along that coastland
 By the strong sea wrenched and tost.

 If I wake he hunts me like a nightmare:
 I feel my hair stand up, my body creep:
 Without light I see a blasting sight there,
 See a secret I must keep.


Virginia Woolf's appreciation of her strikes the same notes:

 Death, oblivion, and rest lap round your songs with their dark wave. And then, incongruously, a sound of scurrying and laughter is heard. There is a patter of animals' feet and the odd guttural notes of rooks and the snufflings of obtuse furry animals grunting and nosing. For you were not a pure saint by any means. You pulled legs; you tweaked noses. You were at war with all humbug and pretence.

Perhaps she realized that she was unable to write anything better than "Goblin Market," or perhaps her "failure" to surpass herself is explained by her turn away from poetry to children's stories and religious materials. Sing-Song: A Nursery Rhyme Book came out in 1872, and after 1875 she was very much involved with the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, for whom she wrote several prose works, including Called to be Saints (1876). But she never entirely stopped writing poetry; A Pageant and Other Poems (1881) includes the "Monna Innominata" sonnets, which are among her best. 

http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/crit.97/C_Rossetti/Christina.htm#Women's

# Regarded as a Woman Poet-- "Though evidence of [C Rossetti's and Emily Dickenson's] creative process was available in the form of drafts of poems and worksheets, the image of the inspired child/woman who does not labor over her production was more congenial to male critics" (Leder 187) e.g. Christina considered as "at best a spontaneous and at worst a naive technician."
# Regarded as a Poet-Saint (1862-1899)--e.g. "Up-Hill"

 Arthur Symons's review in July 1887 sees "sincere piety" in this poem (Charles 27).

# the tradition of the Aesthetes--Christina Rossetti's medievalist combination of eros and agape, of the phenomenal and the ideal, of the sensual and the spiritual, became central to the art of the aesthetes in the 1880s and 1890s (Harrison 55). --decadent or religious?
# the tradition of Romantic love--Many of Rossetti's love poems, ...serve to expose misguided, that is, transient earthly ideals of love; in so doing, they savor love's absence, love's decay, or its demise; often they express the laments of love's deluded victim (Harrison 55-56)

# Throughout much Pre-Raphaelite love poetry, a dialectic of desire and renunciation is at work thematically. Whether a depicted passion is visceral or idealized, its object and therefore any fulfillment of desire are almost always unattainable. [In Christina Rossetti's poems,] renunciation, or at least withdrawal from teh active pursuit of love, follows disilusionment; often the speaker craves death, either as an anodyne or as a transposition to an afterlife of absolute Love..." (Harrison 92; 102). feminist readings--from poetry of renunciation and reticence, to that of exclusion, sexual fantary and social criticism.

http://www.gerardmanleyhopkins.org/lectures_2001/christina_rossetti.html
http://www.ageconcern.org.uk/ - Freephone Information Line 0800 00 99 66
http://www.helptheaged.org.uk/en-gb/
!Day services for disabled and older people
*http://www.newcastle.gov.uk/core.nsf/a/communitycentres?opendocument
*The Adult Social care Direct service is open Monday to Friday 8am till 6pm. Phone 0191 278 8377 Fax: 0191 278 8312 Textphone: 0191 278 8359 Email: scd@newcastle.gov.uk
!Transfer of Property and Assets
Transferring the title deeds of a property to someone else
http://www.fundingcare.org.uk/family_home/index.html
*Family Protection Trust Will £325 +VAT per person
+++[Help]
[[Buyer Beware|http://www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk/]]
===
|http://www.bestbuy.com/|US site but good for info and reviews|
http://www.pocket-lint.com/

Vit D and Calcium - http://www.myvitdtest.com/testing.aspx
//{{{
version.extensions.tableOfContents = {major: 2, minor: 3, revision: 2, date: new Date(2007,3,22)};
//}}}

// // 1.2.x compatibility
//{{{
if (!window.story) window.story=window;
if (!store.getTiddler) store.getTiddler=function(title){return store.tiddlers[title]}
if (!store.addTiddler) store.addTiddler=function(tiddler){store.tiddlers[tiddler.title]=tiddler}
if (!store.deleteTiddler) store.deleteTiddler=function(title){delete store.tiddlers[title]}
//}}}

//{{{
// define defaults for cookie-based option values
if (config.options.txtTOCSortBy==undefined) config.options.txtTOCSortBy="modified";
if (config.options.txtTOCListSize==undefined) config.options.txtTOCListSize=19;
if (config.options.chkTOCShow==undefined) config.options.chkTOCShow=true;
if (config.options.chkTOCIncludeHidden==undefined) config.options.chkTOCIncludeHidden=false;

config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkTOCIncludeHidden>> include hidden tiddlers in TableOfContents";

// define macro "tableOfContents" to render controls
config.macros.tableOfContents = { label: "contents" };
config.macros.tableOfContents.cmdMax=7; // index of maximum command item

config.macros.tableOfContents.css = '\
.TOC { padding:0.5em 1em 0.5em 1em; }\
.TOC a { padding:0em 0.25em 0em 0.25em; color:inherit; }\
.TOCList { width: 100%; font-size:8pt; margin:0em; }\
';

config.macros.tableOfContents.html = '\
<div style="text-align:right">\
 <span style="float:left">\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="TOCMenu" style="padding: 0em;"\
 onclick="onClickTOCMenu(this)" title="show/hide table of contents">%label%</a>\
 </span>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="TOCSmaller" style="display:inline"\
 onclick="resizeTOC(this)" title="reduce list size">&#150;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="TOCLarger"style="display:inline"\
 onclick="resizeTOC(this)" title="increase list size">+</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="TOCMaximize"style="display:inline"\
 onclick="resizeTOC(this)" title="maximize/restore list size">=</a>\
</div>\
';

config.macros.tableOfContents.handler = function(place,macroName,params) { 
 var parsedParams = new Array();
 parsedParams['label']=this.label;
 parsedParams['inline']=false;
 while (params.length>0) {
 if (params[0]=="label:none")
 parsedParams['label']="";
 else if (params[0].substr(0,6)=="label:")
 parsedParams['label']=params[0].substr(6);
 if (params[0].substr(0,7)=="prompt:")
 parsedParams['prompt']=params[0].substr(7);
 if (params[0].substr(0,8)=="padding:")
 parsedParams['padding']=params[0].substr(8);
 if (params[0].substr(0,7)=="margin:")
 parsedParams['margin']=params[0].substr(7);
 if (params[0].substr(0,5)=="sort:")
 parsedParams['sortby']=params[0].substr(5);
 if (params[0].substr(0,5)=="date:")
 parsedParams['date']=params[0].substr(5);
 if ((params[0]=="size:auto")||(params[0]=="size:0"))
 parsedParams['autosize']=true;
 else if (params[0] && (params[0].substr(0,5)=="size:"))
 parsedParams['requestedSize']=params[0].substr(5);
 if (params[0].substr(0,6)=="width:")
 parsedParams['width']=params[0].substr(6);
 if (params[0]=="hidelist")
 parsedParams['hidelist']=true;
 if (params[0]=="inline")
 parsedParams['inline']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-title")
 parsedParams['hide_title']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-date")
 parsedParams['hide_date']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-author")
 parsedParams['hide_author']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-tags")
 parsedParams['hide_tags']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-missing")
 parsedParams['hide_missing']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-orphans")
 parsedParams['hide_orphans']=true;
 if (params[0]=="-system")
 parsedParams['hide_system']=true;
 params.shift(); 
 }
 setStylesheet(config.macros.tableOfContents.css,"tableOfContents");
 var newTOC=createTiddlyElement(place,parsedParams['inline']?"span":"div",null,"TOC",null)
 if (parsedParams['margin']) { newTOC.style.margin=parsedParams['margin']; }
 if (parsedParams['padding']) { newTOC.style.padding=parsedParams['padding']; }
 if (parsedParams['label']!="") newTOC.innerHTML=config.macros.tableOfContents.html.replace(/%label%/,parsedParams['label']);
 var newTOCList=createTOCList(newTOC,parsedParams)
 refreshTOCList(newTOCList);
 store.addNotification(null,reloadTOCLists); // reload listbox after every tiddler change
}

// IE needs explicit global scoping for functions/vars called from browser events
window.onChangeTOCList=onChangeTOCList;
window.onClickTOCList=onClickTOCList;
window.onDblClickTOCList=onDblClickTOCList;
window.reloadTOCLists=reloadTOCLists;
window.refreshTOCList=refreshTOCList;
window.onClickTOCMenu=onClickTOCMenu;
window.resizeTOC=resizeTOC;
 
function createTOCList(place,params)
{
 var theList = createTiddlyElement(place,"select",null,"TOCList",params['prompt'])
 theList.params=params;
 theList.onchange=onChangeTOCList;
 theList.onclick=onClickTOCList;
 theList.ondblclick=onDblClickTOCList;
 theList.onkeyup=onKeyUpTOCList;
 theList.style.display=config.options.chkTOCShow ? "block" : "none" ;
 theList.sortBy=config.options.txtTOCSortBy;
 theList.dateFormat="DD MMM YYYY";
 theList.requestedSize=config.options.txtTOCListSize;
 theList.expandall=false;
 theList.cmdMax=config.macros.tableOfContents.cmdMax;
 if (params['hide_title']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_date']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_author']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_tags']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_missing']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_orphans']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['hide_system']) theList.cmdMax--;
 if (params['sortby'])
 { theList.sortBy=params['sortby']; theList.noSortCookie=true; }
 if (params['date'])
 { theList.dateFormat=params['date']; }
 if (params['autosize'])
 { theList.autosize=true; theList.noSizeCookie=true; }
 if (params['requestedSize'])
 { theList.requestedSize=params['requestedSize']; theList.noSizeCookie=true; }
 if (params['width'])
 { theList.style.width=params['width']; }
 if (params['hidelist'])
 { theList.style.display ="none" ; theList.noShowCookie=true; }
 if (params['expandall'])
 { theList.expandall=true; }
 return theList;
}

function onChangeTOCList()
{
 var thisTiddler=this.options[this.selectedIndex].value;
 if ((this.size==1)&&(thisTiddler!='')&&(this.selectedIndex>this.cmdMax))
 story.displayTiddler(null,thisTiddler,1);
 refreshTOCList(this);
 return false;
}

function onClickTOCList(e)
{

 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 if (this.size==1)
 return; // don't toggle display for droplist
 if (e.shiftKey)
 { this.expandall=!this.expandall; refreshTOCList(this);}
 e.cancelBubble = true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return true;
}

function onDblClickTOCList(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 var thisTiddler=this.options[this.selectedIndex].value;
 if ((thisTiddler!='')&&(this.selectedIndex>this.cmdMax))
 story.displayTiddler(null,thisTiddler,1);
 e.cancelBubble = true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return false;
}

function onKeyUpTOCList(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 if (e.keyCode!=13) return true;
 var thisTiddler=this.options[this.selectedIndex].value;
 if ((thisTiddler!='')&&(this.selectedIndex>this.cmdMax))
 story.displayTiddler(null,thisTiddler,1);
 e.cancelBubble = true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return false;
}

function reloadTOCLists()
{
 var all=document.all? document.all.tags("select") : document.getElementsByTagName("select");
 for (var i=0; i<all.length; i++)
 if (all[i].className=="TOCList")
 { all[i].selectedIndex=-1; refreshTOCList(all[i]); }
}
 
function refreshTOCList(theList)
{
 // DEBUG var starttime=new Date();
 var selectedIndex = theList.selectedIndex;
 if (selectedIndex==-1) selectedIndex=0;
 var sortBy = theList.sortBy;
 var showHidden = config.options.chkTOCIncludeHidden
 && !(config.options.chkHttpReadOnly && readOnly);

 if (selectedIndex==0) sortBy=theList.sortBy; // "nnn tiddlers" heading
 else if (selectedIndex<=theList.cmdMax)
 sortBy=theList.value;
 else {
 if (theList.options[theList.selectedIndex].value=='') expandTOC(theList);
 return;
 }
 theList.sortBy = sortBy;
 if (!theList.noSortCookie)
 { config.options.txtTOCSortBy=sortBy; saveOptionCookie("txtTOCSortBy"); }

 // get the list of tiddlers and filter out 'hidden' tiddlers (i.e., tagged with "excludeLists")
 var tiddlers = [];
 switch (sortBy) {
 case "missing":
 tiddlers = store.getMissingLinks();
 break;
 case "tags":
 tiddlers = store.getTags();
 break;
 case "orphans":
 var titles = store.getOrphans();
 for (var t = 0; t < titles.length; t++)
 if (showHidden || store.getTiddler(titles[t]).tags.find("excludeLists")==null)
 tiddlers.push(titles[t]);
 break;
 case "system":
 var temp = store.getTaggedTiddlers("systemTiddlers");
 for (var t = 0; t < temp.length; t++)
 if (showHidden || temp[t].tags.find("excludeLists")==null)
 tiddlers.pushUnique(temp[t].title,true);
 var temp = store.getTaggedTiddlers("systemConfig");
 for (var t = 0; t < temp.length; t++)
 if (showHidden || temp[t].tags.find("excludeLists")==null)
 tiddlers.pushUnique(temp[t].title,true);
 for (var t in config.shadowTiddlers) tiddlers.pushUnique(t,true);
 tiddlers.sort();
 break;
 default:
 var temp = store.getTiddlers(sortBy);
 for (var t = 0; t < temp.length; t++)
 if (showHidden || temp[t].tags.find("excludeLists")==null)
 tiddlers.push(temp[t]);
 }

 // clear current list contents
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
 theList.saved=null;

 // add heading and control items to list
 var i=0;
 var theHeading=tiddlers.length+' tiddlers:';
 if (sortBy=='missing') theHeading=tiddlers.length+' missing tiddlers:';
 if (sortBy=='orphans') theHeading=tiddlers.length+' orphaned tiddlers:';
 if (sortBy=='tags') theHeading=tiddlers.length+' tags:';
 if (sortBy=='system') theHeading=tiddlers.length+' system tiddlers:';
 var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
 var sel=">";
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(theHeading,'',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_title']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="title")?sel:indent)+' [by title]','title',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_date']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="modified")?sel:indent)+' [by date]','modified',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_author']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="modifier")?sel:indent)+' [by author]','modifier',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_tags']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="tags")?sel:indent)+' [by tags]','tags',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_missing']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="missing")?sel:indent)+' [missing]','missing',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_orphans']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="orphans")?sel:indent)+' [orphans]','orphans',false,false);
 if (!theList.params['hide_system']) 
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((sortBy=="system")?sel:indent)+' [system]','system',false,false);
 // output the tiddler list
 switch(sortBy)
 {
 case "title":
 for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);
 break;
 case "modified":
 // sort descending for newest date first
 tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a['modified'] == b['modified']) return(0); else return (a['modified'] > b['modified']) ? -1 : +1; });
 // continue with same logic as for 'modifier'...
 case "modifier":
 var lastSection = "";
 for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
 var theSection = "";
 if (sortBy=="modified") theSection = tiddler.modified.convertToLocalYYYYMMDDHHMM().substr(0,8);
 if (sortBy=="modifier") theSection = tiddler.modifier;
 if (theSection != lastSection)
 {
 lastSection = theSection;
 if (sortBy=="modified") theSection = tiddler.modified.formatString(theList.dateFormat);
 theList.options[i++] = new Option('+ '+theSection,"",false,false);
 }
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);
 }
 expandTOC(theList);
 break;
 case "tags":
 // tagged tiddlers, by tag
 var tagcount=0;
 var lastTag = null;
 for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) // actually a list of tags, not tiddlers...
 {
 var theTag = tiddlers[t][0];
 var tagged = new Array();
 var temp = store.getTaggedTiddlers(theTag);
 for(var r=0; r<temp.length; r++)
 if (showHidden || temp[r].tags.find("excludeLists")==null)
 tagged.push(temp[r]);
 if (tagged.length)
 {
 tagcount++;
 theList.options[i++]= new
 Option('+ '+theTag+" ("+tagged.length+")","",false,false);
 for(var r=0; r<tagged.length; r++)
 theList.options[i++] = new
 Option(indent+indent+tagged[r].title,tagged[r].title,false,false);
 }
 }
 // count untagged tiddlers
 var temp = store.getTiddlers("title");
 var c=0; for (var r=0; r<temp.length;r++) if (!temp[r].tags.length) c++;
 // create 'pseudo-tag' listing untagged tiddlers (if any)
 if (c>0)
 {
 theList.options[i++] = new Option("+ untagged ("+c+")","",false,false);
 for (var r=0; r<temp.length;r++) if (!temp[r].tags.length)
 theList.options[i++] = new
 Option(indent+indent+temp[r].title,temp[r].title,false,false);
 }
 theList.options[0].text=tagcount+' tags:';
 expandTOC(theList);
 break;
 case "missing":
 case "orphans":
 case "system":
 for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t],tiddlers[t],false,false);
 break;
 }
 theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item
 theList.size = (theList.autosize)?theList.options.length:theList.requestedSize;
 // DEBUG var endtime=new Date();
 // DEBUG alert("refreshTOC() elapsed time: "+(endtime-starttime)+" msec");
}

// show/hide branch of TOCList based on current selection
function expandTOC(theList)
{
 var selectedIndex = theList.selectedIndex;
 if (selectedIndex==-1) selectedIndex=0;
 var sortBy = theList.sortBy;

 // don't collapse/expand list for alpha-sorted "flatlist" TOC contents
 if ((sortBy=="title")||(sortBy=="missing")||(sortBy=="orphans")||(sortBy=="system"))
 return;
 // or list control items
 if ((selectedIndex>0)&&(selectedIndex<=theList.cmdMax))
 return;

 var theText = theList.options[selectedIndex].text;
 var theValue = theList.options[selectedIndex].value;
 // save fully expanded list contents (if not already saved)
 if (!theList.saved)
 {
 theList.saved = new Array();
 for (var i=0; i < theList.length; i++)
 {
 opt = theList.options[i];
 theList.saved[i] = new Option(opt.text, opt.value, opt.defaultSelected, opt.selected);
 }
 }
 // clear current list contents
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }

 // put back all items 
 if (theList.expandall)
 {
 var i=0;
 for (var t=0; t<theList.saved.length; t++)
 {
 var opt=theList.saved[t];
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(opt.text,opt.value,opt.defaultSelected,opt.selected);
 if (opt.text==theText) selectedIndex=i-1;
 }
 theList.selectedIndex = selectedIndex;
 theList.size = (theList.autosize)?theList.options.length:theList.requestedSize;
 return;
 }

 // put back heading items until item text matches current selected heading
 var i=0;
 for (var t=0; t<theList.saved.length; t++)
 {
 var opt=theList.saved[t];
 if ((opt.value=='')||(i<=theList.cmdMax))
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(opt.text,opt.value,opt.defaultSelected,opt.selected);
 if (opt.text==theText)
 break;
 }
 selectedIndex=i-1; // this is the NEW index of the current selected heading
 // put back items with value!='' until value==''
 for ( t++; t<theList.saved.length; t++)
 {
 var opt=theList.saved[t];
 if (opt.value!='')
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(opt.text,opt.value,opt.defaultSelected,opt.selected);
 if (opt.value=='')
 break;
 }
 // put back remaining items with value==''
 for ( ; t<theList.saved.length; t++)
 {
 var opt=theList.saved[t];
 if (opt.value=='')
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(opt.text,opt.value,opt.defaultSelected,opt.selected);
 }
 theList.selectedIndex = selectedIndex;
 theList.size = (theList.autosize)?theList.options.length:theList.requestedSize;
}

// these functions process clicks on the 'control links' that are displayed above the listbox
function getTOCListFromButton(which)
{
 var theList = null;
 switch (which.id)
 {
 case 'TOCMenu':
 var theSiblings = which.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.childNodes;
 var thePlace=which.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.id;
 break;
 case 'TOCSmaller':
 case 'TOCLarger':
 case 'TOCMaximize':
 var theSiblings = which.parentNode.parentNode.childNodes;
 var thePlace=which.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode.id;
 break;
 }
 for (var k=0; k<theSiblings.length; k++)
 if (theSiblings[k].className=="TOCList") { theList=theSiblings[k]; break; }
 // DEBUG if (theList) alert('found '+theList.className+' for '+which.id+' button in '+thePlace);
 return theList;
}

function onClickTOCMenu(which)
{
 var theList=getTOCListFromButton(which);
 if (!theList) return;
 var opening = theList.style.display=="none";
 if(config.options.chkAnimate)
 anim.startAnimating(new Slider(theList,opening,false,"none"));
 else
 theList.style.display = opening ? "block" : "none" ;
 if (!theList.noShowCookie)
 { config.options.chkTOCShow = opening; saveOptionCookie("chkTOCShow"); }
 return(false);
}

function resizeTOC(which)
{
 var theList=getTOCListFromButton(which);
 if (!theList) return;

 var size = theList.size;
 if (theList.style.display=="none") // make sure list is visible
 if(config.options.chkAnimate)
 anim.startAnimating(new Slider(theList,true,false,"none"));
 else
 theList.style.display = "block" ;
 switch (which.id)
 {
 case 'TOCSmaller': // decrease current listbox size
 if (theList.autosize) { theList.autosize=false; size=config.options.txtTOCListSize; }
 if (size==1) break;
 size -= 1; // shrink by one line
 theList.requestedSize = theList.size = size;
 break;
 case 'TOCLarger': // increase current listbox size
 if (theList.autosize) { theList.autosize=false; size=config.options.txtTOCListSize; }
 if (size>=theList.options.length) break;
 size += 1; // grow by one line
 theList.requestedSize = theList.size = size;
 break;
 case 'TOCMaximize': // toggle autosize
 theList.autosize = (theList.size!=theList.options.length);
 theList.size = (theList.autosize)?theList.options.length:theList.requestedSize;
 break;
 }
 if (!theList.noSizeCookie && !theList.autosize)
 { config.options.txtTOCListSize=size; saveOptionCookie("txtTOCListSize"); }
}
//}}}
http://www.convertunits.com
http://www.eating-for-england.com/conversions-and-equivalents/
https://www.lush.co.uk/ and http://www.lushusa.com/
<html><body>
<h2>How Much Does It Cost To Live In China?</h2>

<p>Here are my answers to questions posed on the forum:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Accommodation prices</strong>: For a decent sized, furnished, two bedroom apartment &#8211; 2000 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-0"></span> to 2500 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-1"></span> per month </li>
<li><strong>Transportation fares</strong>:
<ul>
<li>Anywhere on campus: 1 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-2"></span> for a trolley, 5 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-3"></span> for a taxi. </li>

<li>To Langfang (25 to 40 minutes away): 2 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-4"></span> for a bus, 20 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-5"></span> to 30 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-6"></span> for a taxi. </li>
<li>To Beijing (one to two hours away): 12 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-7"></span> for the slow bus, 16 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-8"></span> for the fast bus, 130 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-9"></span> for a taxi.</li>
</ul>

</li>
<li><strong>Food prices</strong>: You&#8217;d probably spend 1000 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-10"></span> per month at the supermarket. You could spend less if you wanted to, but equally you spend quite a but more if you really splurge on the expensive Western items. </li>
<li><strong>Electricity and water</strong>: On average we probably spent about 300 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-11"></span> per month. </li>
<li><strong>Internet</strong>: 750 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-12"></span> per year for cable Internet </li>

<li><strong>Mobile phone</strong>: depends on call frequency but maybe 100 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-13"></span> to 200 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-14"></span> per month for medium usage locally (not International, use Skype for that!). </li>
<li><strong>Decent traditional restaurant</strong>: 20 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-15"></span> to 30 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-16"></span> for the nice dishes. </li>
<li><strong>Beer or coffee</strong>: 12 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-17"></span> to 20 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-18"></span>. </li>

</ul>
<p>I can&#8217;t answer the questions about medical insurance, education and cinema costs, because I didn&#8217;t need to spend any money on those items.</p>
<p>All up, I found that you could live reasonably comfortably on about 5000 yuan<span id="localcurrency9000-19"></span> per month (or 3000 yuan <span id="localcurrency9000-20"></span>if the rent is paid for you, which is quite common). You could definitely do it cheaper if you had to &#8211; <strong>China is a cheap place to live</strong> although prices are rising.</p>
</body></html>

I found that you could live reasonably comfortably on about 5000 yuan (USD$732.00) per month (or 3000 yuan (USD$439.20)if the rent is paid for you, which is quite common).
----
- Cinema RMB50-80
- Fancy restaurant RMB150-200/person per meal

If you plan to own a car:

- Fuel RMB6.50-6.90 per lite
- Insurance from RMB4000 per year depending on what type of car you drive
- Parking from RMB5 per hour downtown
- Additional parking fees to park at your apartment car park RMB5/day
also see [[Herbal preparations]]
[[Skin allergies]]
[[Skin cream ingredients]]
[[Salves]]
[[Lotion bars]]
[[Carrier oils]]
[[Bonus oils]]
[[Essential oils]]
----
!Resources
http://www.rootsimple.com/2011/11/the-whip-a-homemade-moisturizer-how-to-from-making-it/
http://chemistscorner.com/where-to-find-free-cosmetic-formulas/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gkDoMNz8RQ
http://www.totalbeauty.com/how-tos/skin-care
http://www.rd.com/health/beauty/8-natural-recipes-for-amazing-skin-from-a-plastic-surgeon/
!Calendula

    1 cup Calendula infused oil
    1 ounce beeswax (4 Tbsp)
    Essential oils of your choice (I used lavender and tangerine)
    1 cup tepid water
    Jars or tins to hold 2 cups
!Anti-wrinkle
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2288955/Anti-wrinkle-creams-really-work--magic-ingredient.html
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2591451/Budget-Aldi-cream-promises-beat-wrinkles-just-3-99-really-work.html
https://www.youngliving.com/blog/boswellia-wrinkle-cream-six-ingredients-for-looking-younger/
No7 Protect & Perfect Intense Beauty Serum

----
Luxurious Easy Anti-wrinkle cream recipeIngredients
	* 1/2 cup cocoa butter (But it here)
	* 1/4 cup coconut oil (Buy it here)
	* 1/4 cup sweet almond oil (Buy it here) 
	* 50 drops of Young Living Frankincense essential oil (Buy it here) or learn how to save 24% wholesale here
Instructions
	1. In a glass jug, melt down your cocoa butter, coconut oil and almond oil until they become a liquid.
	2.  Put it in the freezer to harden, for about 20 minutes.
	3. Once the mixture is solid again, but not too hard, add the frankincense.  Whip it up using an electronic whisk, a food processor with a whisk attachment, a handheld whisk and a bit of elbow grease until the cream is soft and fluffy.
	4. Spoon it into a glass jar. It will keep for months.
	5. Put this on your face or other area of your body twice a day.  
!Muscles
http://coconutsandkettlebells.com/magnesium-body-butter/
!Avocado and shea
http://beautymunsta.com/whipped-shea-butter-avocado-oil-recipe/
Ingredients
• 6 tbsp of raw shea butter
• 2 tbsp of avocado oil
• 1 tsp of vegetable glycerine (optional)
• 5 drops of palma rosa essential oil *optional*
Directions
    Gently melt the raw shea butter using a double boiler. Make a make-shift boiler by placing a heat safe bowl in a pan of hot water and heat it using a low flame.
    Once melted, place it in the refrigerator for about 5 minutes to harden a bit.
    Get it out and whip it using a hand mixer for about 10 to 15 minutes until you end up with a thick whipped cream-like consistency.
    Scrape the mixture into clean jars or containers.
    Store in a clean dry place.
!Preservatives
[[Leucidal Liquid|http://activemicrotechnologies.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/M15008-Leucidal-Liquid-Technical-Data-Sheet-v14.pdf]]
Tabs are a way of displaying tiddlers in tabular form. Each tab is a separate tiddler; here's how it's done. NB There should be a double arrow bracket to start the code.

<tabs "cookie" "tab name" "tool tip" "tiddler to be displayed">> 

which looks like this:

<<tabs "cookie" "tab name" "tool tip" "tiddler to be displayed">>

The code:

<tabs tabsClass [[tab name]] "tool tip" [[tiddler to be displayed]][[Here is another tab <hr>]] "Another Tab" [[<hr>]] >>

----

!Display a listing from a tab - Tag popup
{{{
<<tag help>>
}}}
will result in <<tag help>>
<script>
var out=""
var tids=store.getTaggedTiddlers("Index");
for (var t=0; t<tids.length; t++) {
 var url=store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl");
 if (!url) url=document.location.href;
 var
permalink=encodeURIComponent(String.encodeTiddlyLink(tids[t].title));
 out+="[["+tids[t].title+"|"+url+"#"+permalink+"]]\n"; 
}
return out;
</script> 
My subject is imaginative writing: how it’s done and how to read it; how a writer develops his own distinctive voice and how the reader reacts to it; how the true voice and the public personality sometimes clash, confuse and contradict each other. My point of view is that of an endangered species that used to be called a man of letters, one of those unfortunate people who write not because they are Ancient Mariners with stories they are compelled to tell, or lessons they have to teach, still less because they are entranced by the sound of their own voices, but simply because, when they were young and impressionable, they fell in love with language as musicians fall in love with sound, and thereafter are doomed to explore this fatal attraction in as many ways as they can.
So what I have to say is based on a lifetime of trying to write in several genres: poems, novels and, above all, the kind of higher journalism that universities sometimes dignify as “the literature of fact”: non-fiction books on subjects that happened to interest me - anything from suicide to poker - several of which began as long pieces for The New Yorker. I have also written a great deal of literary criticism which, when I was starting out half a century ago, had not yet become just another arcane academic discipline with a technical vocabulary and specialised interests; it was thought of, instead, as a creative activity in its own right - a writer’s way of describing how other writers handle language and what it is that makes them unique.
Freelance writing is a precarious trade and I feel about it much the same as Mayakovsky felt about suicide: “I don’t recommend it to others,” he wrote, and then put a gun to his head.
Shifting from one literary form to another may mean you end up mastering none, but it has at least one advantage: it keeps you alert. The art of poetry is altogether different from that of prose, just as writing fiction is different from writing non-fiction, and literary criticism is different from them all. Fifty years of writing for a living have taught me that there is only one thing the four disciplines have in common: in order to write well you must learn how to listen. And that, in turn, is one thing writers have in common with readers.
What happens when you sit down with a book? Why do you do it? What’s the pleasure in it? Why do books, poems, even fragments go on being read years, sometimes centuries, after they were written, no matter how many times the death of literature is announced?
I’m not talking about transmitting or acquiring information. On the contrary, at this present moment of change, when the industrial revolution has been superseded by a revolution in information technology, facts and figures have never been easier to come by, although now they are packaged in an appropriately new form.
Yet although computers may be convenient and efficient, they are not quite the neutral instruments they seem to be, and the subtle deformations they create in our attitude to language are dangerous to literature: “A philologist and his wife for dinner... His ambition is to determine, by the use of electrical computation machines, the basic structure of language. Word values and evocations can be determined, he tells me, by machinery, and thus successful poetry can be written by machines. So we get back to the obsolescence of the sentiments. I think of my own sense of language, its intimacy, its mysteriousness, its power to evoke, in a catarrhal pronunciation, the sea winds that blow across Venice or in a hard ‘A’ the massif beyond Kitzbuhel. But this, he tells me, is all sentimentality. The importance of these machines, the drive to legislate, to calibrate words like ‘hope’, ‘courage’, all the terms we use for the spirit.”
John Cheever wrote this some time in the 1950s, long before computers were just another domestic accessory, even before they had a proper name. The philologist’s reductive arrogance and the author’s outraged response are opposing reactions to a simple truth that still applies: information and imaginative writing are different forms of knowledge, demanding different skills and wholly different attitudes to language.
To acquire facts efficiently, scan a synopsis or gut a newspaper, you have to master the art of reading diagonally. Real literature is about something else entirely and it’s immune to speed-reading. That is, it’s not about information, although you may gather information along the way. It’s not even about storytelling, although sometimes that is one of its greatest pleasures. Imaginative literature is about listening to a voice. When you read a novel the voice is telling you a story; when you read a poem it’s usually talking about what its owner is feeling; but neither the medium nor the message is the point. The point is that the voice is unlike any other voice you have heard and it is speaking directly to you, communing with you in private, right in your ear, and in its own distinctive way. It may be talking to you from centuries ago or from a few years back or, as it were, from across the room - bang up to date in the here-and-now. The historical details are secondary; all that really matters is that you hear it - an undeniable presence in your head, and still very much alive, no matter how long ago the words were spoken: “Western wind, when wilt thou blow That the small rain down can rain? Christ, if my love were in my arms And I in my bed again!”
Nobody knows who wrote that poem or even precisely when he wrote it (probably early in the 16th century). But whoever it was is still very much alive - lonely, miserable, hunkered down against the foul weather and a long way from home, yearning for spring and warmth and his girl. Across a gap of five centuries, the man is still our contemporary.
Writing is literally a lively art as well as a creative one. Writers don’t just “hold, as ‘twere, a mirror up to nature” by creating an imitation of life; they create a moment of life itself. That anonymous poet has left the sound of his voice on the air as distinctly as, say, Van Eyck fixed forever the tender marriage of Arnolfini and his wife in paint. The poem breathes from the page as vividly as the long-dead faces and their little dog breathe from the canvas. But it is a two-way pact: the writer makes himself heard and the reader listens in - or, more accurately, the writer works to find or create a voice that will stretch out to the reader, make him prick up his ears and attend.
I think this is something like what happens in psychoanalysis. Of course, there has always been a close connection between imaginative literature and the talking cure, not least because Freud himself read widely and wrote compelling prose. Both these accomplishments were unusual in a scientist and they generated in him an even more unusual respect for the arts. When, during the celebration of his 70th birthday, one of his disciples hailed Freud as “the discoverer of the unconscious” he answered, “The poets and philosophers before me discovered the unconscious. What I discovered was the scientific method by which the unconscious can be studied.”
In the early years, psychoanalysts often seemed to take this connection in a literal, straightforward way. Freud, with his interest in archaeology, laboured to dig up the past and recreate it, almost as a work of art. It was as if psychoanalysis were a kind of dual story-telling: the patient told his story from his point of view and the analyst told it back to him, using his interpretations to give it a new shape and meaning. Freud may have called his method scientific but, in practice, he worked more like a novelist than a researcher, creating form and significance out of the chaos of the unconscious, especially as it expresses itself in dreams, the one area in which the imagination of even the most unimaginative people reveals itself.
And because dreams, in their dotty way, seem creative, this led to a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of art, particularly in the early days of psychoanalysis, when the idea of sexual symbolism was fresh and exciting and subversive. Instead of reading, say, a poem as a work of art with a life of its own independent of the author - as something which, in Coleridge’s words, “contains in itself the reasons why it is so and not otherwise” - psychoanalysts with a taste for literature often used it as though it were mere dream-stuff, welling up uncensored and unbidden, another “royal road to the unconscious” of the unfortunate author.
A century later, many psychoanalysts tend to be less interested in telling stories or creating an archaeology of the unconscious by digging up the past. They have broadened their focus to study not just the patient’s self and his history but his whole inner world. Because this inner world includes both his self and what analysts call his “internal objects” - imaginative representations of other people, both past and present, with whom the patient is continually entangled - the therapist’s task is to study how these “phantasy” figures are projected in the transference and counter-transference - that is, in the minute changes in the relationship between the patient and the analyst as they occur, moment-by-moment, in the consulting room.
From this more modern perspective, the story matters less than how it is told. Instead of looking for clues, the therapist is listening, like a poet or a critic, to the overtones and undertones, alert to the false notes, to whatever is off-key or flat, distinguishing between the genuine emotions and the fake, monitoring when and how and why he is moved and - equally important - when and why he is bored. It’s about detail and nuance - the body-language and the silences, what is said and what is left unsaid. And as with literature, everything depends on the tone of voice.
D.H. Lawrence was wrong, I think, when he wrote, “One sheds one’s sicknesses in books - repeats and presents one’s emotions to be master of them.” Art is about more than compensation and self-therapy, just as psychoanalysis is about more than relieving symptoms, and cure is too narrow a concept for what either can do at its best. A good poem is as hard to find as a good analysis but, once found, the effect of both is to make you - the reader, the patient - more fully and pleasurably alive.
The writer discovers this liberating and oddly invigorating relationship between psychic reality and aesthetic pleasure when he finds his own voice: it picks the locks, opens the doors and enables him to begin to say what he wants to say. But in order to find his voice he must first have mastered style, and style, in this basic sense, is a discipline that you acquire by hard work, like grammar or punctuation.
Voice is altogether different: “I don’t mean style... “ Philip Roth wrote, in The Ghost Writer, “I mean voice: something that begins at around the back of the knees and reaches well above the head.” Voice, he means, is the vehicle by which a writer expresses his aliveness, and Roth himself is all voice. Style, in the formal or flowery sense, bores him; he has, he has written, “a resistance to plaintive metaphor and poeticised analogy”. His prose is immaculate yet curiously plain and unostentatious, at once unselfconscious and unmistakably his own. Someone once said that reading him is like opening a cellar door and hearing the boiler roar into life. It’s also like being pitched headfirst into a family quarrel, with everyone shouting to be heard; it makes your heart contract with outrage and excitement both at once.
By comparing writing and psychoanalysis, I’m implying that finding your own voice as a writer is like the tricky business of becoming an adult. For a writer, it’s also a basic instinct, like a bird marking out its territory, though not so straightforward or so musical. So how do you do it? First, you do what all young people do: you try on other people’s personalities for size and you fall in love. Young writers, in fact, are a peculiarly promiscuous lot; my schoolboy passions included Eliot, Auden, Housman, Aldous Huxley, one after the other with not a gap between them. Every so often serial promiscuity culminates in le coup de foudre: you hear a voice and recognise it and know it’s for you just as surely as you recognise Miss Right across the room before you’ve ever spoken to her, even when - or especially when - she is hand-in-hand with Mr Wrong.
First, the writer’s voice dazzles you and you read everything you can lay hands on. If that doesn’t cure you, the sickness goes critical and you become obsessed with the beloved’s whole take on life: what he did, where he went, even the kind of people he slept with. You don’t want to be like him, you want to be him. In retrospect, infatuation is as embarrassing as promiscuity, but for the writer it is a necessary part of the weary process of growing up. That’s what happened to me with Aldous Huxley when I was at school and with William Empson and D.H. Lawrence when I got to Oxford. But literary infatuation is the same as other youthful infatuations: it doesn’t last and it’s hard to be friends afterwards. These days, I still admire Empson in a guarded way, but, apart from a handful of stories and poems, I find Lawrence’s shrill nagging almost intolerable. As Auden wrote in The Sea and the Mirror: “I am very glad I shall never / Be twenty and have to go through the business again, / The hours of fuss and fury, the conceit, the expense.”
There are other writers whom you fall for and stay in love with. It happened to me when I was a schoolboy and was given a poem by John Donne to comment on. At that point I had never heard of Donne and I had to read the poem - “Witchcraft by a Picture” - several times before I began to understand it. But I was seduced, at first hearing, by the tone of voice. It was like listening to subtly charged talk, aroused, casual, witty and restlessly argumentative, a curious mixture of logic and tenderness - real tenderness for real women with appetites and sweaty palms and unreliable temperaments. This, I felt, was how poetry should be - alive with feeling yet utterly unsentimental, and with nothing conventionally poetical about it. For a lusty adolescent, shut away in a monkish, sports-mad boarding school where love of poetry was not a weakness you confessed to, it was a revelation, love at first sight, and I never really got over it.
This is an edited extract from “The Writer’s Voice” by Al Alvarez, published in the UK by Bloomsbury on January 17 at £12.99. 
Published: January 9 2005 16:04 | Last updated: January 9 2005 16:04
The best ever curries
The world’s top curry chefs have got together for a great new book of recipes to whet your appetite
!Britain
!!Chicken tikka masala
The popularity of chicken tikka masala is testament to Britain’s centuries-old love affair with Indian food. Don’t be shy with the garlic and ginger - this dish is big on bold flavours. For a vegetarian version, cut a block of paneer or tofu into large cubes and add the pieces, without marinating, to the tomato sauce at the end of cooking. Serves 4
675g boned chicken thighs, skinned
juice of 2 limes
1 tsp paprika
11/2 tsp cumin seeds
1/2 tsp coriander seeds
2 shallots, roughly chopped
4 large garlic cloves, roughly chopped
4cm piece fresh root ginger, roughly chopped
2 green chillies, deseeded and roughly chopped
125g plain Greek-style yogurt
1/2 tsp ground garam masala
1 tbs vegetable oil
!!!For the sauce
400g canned chopped tomatoes
1 rounded tsp tomato purée
handful of coriander leaves, roughly chopped
3cm piece fresh root ginger, grated
1 tsp lime juice
1/2 tsp caster sugar
50g unsalted butter
125ml single cream
Cut the chicken thighs into 3cm chunks. Combine the lime juice and paprika and mix with the chicken. Leave on one side. Heat a small heavy-based frying pan over a moderate heat. Add the cumin and coriander seeds and roast for about 1 minute, shaking the pan to prevent them scorching. As soon as they start to colour, tip them onto a plate to cool. Grind to a fine powder in a pestle and mortar, a spice mill or a coffee grinder.
Put the shallots, garlic, ginger and chillies into a food processor. Drain the lime juice and paprika mixture from the chicken and add to the onion mixture. Process until smooth. Tip into a mixing bowl and stir in the yogurt, garam masala and half the coriander and cumin powder. Pour the spiced yogurt mixture over the chicken, turning every piece so that it’s evenly coated. Cover with cling film and marinate overnight in the fridge. If you can, flip the chicken over once or twice while it’s marinating.
Preheat the grill, with the grill pan in place, to its hottest setting.
Take the chicken out of the yogurt marinade and arrange on the hot grill pan. Drizzle with the oil and grill for about 5 minutes on each side or until beginning to char around the edges. Pour any cooking juices into a bowl and skim off any fat. Keep the chicken warm while you make the sauce.
Combine the tomatoes, tomato purée, coriander leaves, ginger, lime juice, sugar and remaining cumin and coriander powder in a blender or food processor and process until smooth. Heat the butter in a saucepan and, when melted, add the spiced tomato mixture and cream. Bring to simmering point, then strain in the reserved cooking juices and add the cooked chicken pieces.
Reheat and serve piping hot, with Indian breads.
!Thailand
!!Green curry of prawns with aubergines and basil
This is quite a thin curry, commonly served with spiced salted beef. Kaffir lime leaves, fresh long chillies and Thai basil are essential garnishes, to give the dish its characteristic savour.
Tradition dictates that the prawns be added to the frying curry paste, but I feel that this can lead to such quick-cooking items being overcooked, as they then continue simmering after the coconut milk is added. I think it is better - and safer - to add the prawns once the curry is made, when adding the vegetables. Almost any meat or fish can be used in place of the prawns.
Serves 4
5 tbs cracked coconut cream
21/2 tbs green curry paste
11/2-3 tbs fish sauce, to taste
250ml coconut milk and/or chicken or prawn stock
3 apple aubergines, stalk removed and each cut into sixths (if cut in advance, keep in salted water to prevent discoloration)
100g picked pea aubergines
8-12 good quality large, raw prawns, cleaned and de-veined
3-4 kaffir lime leaves, torn
3 young green chillies, deseeded and thinly sliced at an elegant angle
handful of Thai basil leaves
1 rounded tbs shredded wild ginger
To make cracked coconut cream, simmer until most of the liquid has evaporated. It will then separate into thin oil and milk solids.
Heat the cracked coconut cream, add the curry paste and fry over a high heat for about 5 minutes, stirring regularly, until fragrant. Make sure the paste is quite oily.
Season with fish sauce, then moisten with the coconut milk or stock, or a mixture of the two. Bring to the boil, then add the apple and pea aubergines. Simmer for a few minutes to cook before adding the prawns. Continue to simmer until they too are cooked.
Finish with the remaining ingredients, then allow to rest for a minute or so before serving. The curry should have a dappling of separated coconut cream floating on top.
!!Jungle curry of chicken with vegetables and peppercorns
A jungle curry is a country curry that is simple and robust in flavour and technique. A green or a red curry paste can be its base. This version is perhaps the most common; however, there are many variations, using frog, game, freshwater fish and prawns as well as a myriad of vegetables reflecting the bounty of the local market. It can be served with pickled red shallots and dried fish or prawns.
Serves 4
200g boneless chicken thigh or breast, skinned if preferred
2 apple aubergines
11/2 tbs vegetable oil
21/2 tbs fish sauce
250-300ml light chicken stock
2 heaped tbs picked pea aubergines
2 heaped tbs snake beans cut into 2cm lengths
3 baby corn, cut into small pieces
a little sliced boiled bamboo (optional)
3 stalks wild ginger, julienned
1 long green chilli, thinly sliced at an angle
2 kaffir lime leaves, torn
handful of holy basil leaves
3 sprigs of fresh green peppercorns
!!!For the red jungle curry paste
10 dried red chillies, deseeded, soaked and chopped
3-4 dried small red chillies, soaked and chopped
a few bird’s eye chillies (optional)
good pinch of salt
2 tsp chopped galangal
21/2 tbs chopped lemongrass
1 rounded tbs chopped wild ginger
1 tsp chopped coriander root
1 tsp chopped kaffir lime zest
21/2 tbs chopped red shallots
21/2 tbs chopped garlic cloves
1 tsp Thai shrimp paste
!!!For the garlic and chilli paste
2 garlic cloves, peeled
pinch of salt
3 stalks wild ginger
3-5 bird’s eye chillies
Slice the chicken into pieces about 2cm long and 5mm thick. Remove the stalks from the apple aubergines, then cut each one into sixths; keep in salted water to prevent discoloration.
To make the garlic and chilli paste, grind all the ingredients with a pestle and mortar. Heat the oil in a wok or heavy saucepan and, when very hot, add the garlic and chilli paste. Fry over a high heat until golden and almost starting to burn. Quickly add 21/2 tbs of the curry paste and continue to fry, stirring to prevent scorching, until explosively fragrant. Season with the fish sauce, then add the stock and bring to the boil. Add the chicken and all the aubergines. Simmer for a minute or so or until cooked.
Add the remaining ingredients. Simmer for a few more moments. Check the seasoning, then serve.
!11Pakistan
Potato curry
When you are not sure what to cook, or you have to prepare a meal in a hurry, potato curry is always the answer. You can eat it for breakfast on toast, topped with a couple of fried eggs, lunch or dinner, alone or as part of a meal. It’s great as a left-over too. All varieties of potatoes can be used, even young. This is true comfort food. It can be made in advance and reheated in the pan on a low heat or in a microwave.
Serves 3-4
2 tbs sunflower oil
1 large onion, finely chopped
2 large plum tomatoes, skinned and chopped
8 red chillies
1/2 tsp red chilli powder
1 tsp cumin seeds
salt
500g potatoes, peeled and diced, or whole new potatoes
chopped coriander leaves to garnish
Heat the oil in a saucepan, add the onion and cook until slightly browned. Add the chopped tomatoes, then stir in the chillies, chilli powder, cumin seeds and salt to taste. Add 125ml water and cook, stirring, until excess liquid has evaporated.
Add the potatoes together with another 125ml water. Stir well to coat the potatoes with the spice mixture, then put the lid on the pan. Cook for 15-20 minutes or until the potatoes are tender but not breaking up.
Remove the lid and continue cooking until the oil separates out. Garnish with chopped coriander and serve hot.
!Indonesia
!!Hot and sour prawn curry
This is one of the wide variety of prawn curries that are popular all over Indonesia. There are hot and sour prawns and many more cooked in coconut milk and tamarind. The hotness, of course, comes from chillies, so reduce the quantity of these if you prefer your food less hot. The sourness comes from a combination of tamarind and tomatoes. There is no need to add any sugar, because the dish contains so much onion, and the tamarind itself is sweet as well as sour. For convenience, you can fry the prawns and make the sauce ahead of time. Then, before serving, reheat the sauce and, when hot, add the prawns to finish the cooking.
Serves 4
12-16 raw king or tiger prawns, peeled, with last tail section left on, and de-veined
1 tsp coarse sea salt
1/2 tsp ground turmeric
1/2 tsp chilli powder
3 tbs groundnut oil
!!!For the sauce
3 tbs groundnut oil
3 large red onions, chopped
4 garlic cloves, finely sliced
1 tbs finely chopped fresh root ginger
2-6 large green chillies, deseeded and thinly sliced diagonally
1 tsp ground coriander
6-8 large, red and ripe tomatoes, skinned and chopped
3-4 tbs tamarind water
salt
chopped spring onions and deep-fried shallots to garnish
Rub the prawns with the sea salt, turmeric and chilli powder, then set aside for 10-12 minutes. Heat the oil and, when hot, fry the prawns, in two batches, for not more than 2 minutes each batch. They will not be fully cooked at this point. Drain on kitchen paper.
To make the sauce, heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the onions and fry, stirring often, for 8-10 minutes or until they are soft and just starting to colour. Add the garlic, ginger and chillies and stir-fry for a minute or so, then add the ground coriander and stir for another minute. Put in the chopped tomatoes and the tamarind juice, stir them around and cook on a low heat for 3-4 more minutes. Adjust the seasoning.
Add the prawns to the sauce and stir them around for 2 minutes or until hot and cooked through. Slice the shallots thinly and evenly and deep fry in hot oil stirring constantly, until golden. Spread on kitchen paper to cool. Serve the curry immediately, with the spring onions and shallots scattered on top. As a main course dish, the accompaniment can be rice, noodles or bread, with salad or plain cooked vegetables.
!Rajasthan
!!Fiery lamb curry
As the name suggests, this is a very hot dish, not for people with a weak constitution. This is one of the few Indian dishes that contains heat in every sense - both ‘chilli hot’ and ‘spice hot’. You can decide the amount of heat you’d like. Discard most of the seeds from the chillies if you want to reduce the heat, or keep them in if you want it really hot.
Serves 4
25-35 dried red chillies, stalks removed
11/2 tsp cloves
150g ghee or vegetable oil
250g plain yogurt, whisked until smooth
2 tsp cumin seeds, roasted
20g ground coriander
1 tsp red chilli powder
2 tsp salt
3 cinnamon leaves or bay leaves
6 green cardamom pods
5 black cardamom pods
75g garlic cloves, finely chopped
250g onions, finely chopped
1kg leg of lamb or goat with bone chopped into 2.5cm cubes
750ml lamb stock or water
30g coriander leaves, finely chopped
Set aside 3 or 4 of the dried chillies to use later; put the remainder to soak in 125ml water. Also put aside 4-6 of the cloves and 1 tbs of the ghee. Mix the yogurt with the cumin seeds, ground coriander, chilli powder and salt in a bowl. Set aside.
Heat the rest of the ghee in a heavy-bottomed pan. Add the remaining cloves, the cinnamon leaves and the green and black cardamoms. When they begin to crackle and change colour, add the garlic. Sauté for 2 minutes or until the garlic begins to turn golden. Add the onions and cook for 10 minutes or until golden brown, stirring constantly. Stir in the meat and cook for 2-3 minutes. Drain the red chillies and add to the pan.
Continue cooking for 10-12 minutes or until the liquid has evaporated and the meat starts to brown. Now add the spiced yogurt and cook for another 10-12 minutes or until the liquid from the yogurt has evaporated. Add the stock or water and bring to the boil, then cover the pan, reduce the heat and simmer until the meat is tender. Check the seasoning. Remove from the heat and keep warm.
To prepare the tadka, or tempering, which boosts the flavours, heat up the reserved ghee or oil in a large ladle over a flame (or in a small pan) and add the reserved cloves and dried red chillies. Cook for 1-2 minutes or until the ghee changes colour and the spice flavours are released. Pour the contents of the ladle over the lamb curry, sprinkle with the chopped coriander and serve.
!South India
!!Vegetables with lentils
Sambar is the most famous accompaniment for the traditional pancake-like breads called dosas, and it is the curry always served first at any feast in southern India. It is the dish of the common man.
Serves 4
100g split yellow lentils (toor dal)
1 tsp ground turmeric
1 tsp chilli powder
2 onions, cut into small pieces
100g carrots, peeled and cut into 2.5cm (1in) pieces
100g green beans (frozen or fresh), cut into 2.5cm pieces
3 tomatoes, quartered
100g potatoes, peeled and cut into cubes
3-4 tbs tamarind water
salt
!!!For the sauce
100g freshly grated coconut or desiccated coconut
2 tsp coriander seeds
1 dried red chilli
!!!For tempering
1 tbs vegetable oil
1 tsp mustard seeds
10 curry leaves
3 dried red chillies
For the spice paste, roast the coconut and spices until brown. Leave to cool, then grind in a food processor, gradually adding about 250ml water to make a fine paste.
Bring 300ml of water to the boil and add the lentils, turmeric, chilli powder and onions. Simmer until the lentils are well cooked.
Add the carrots, beans, tomatoes and potatoes and stir well. Cover and cook for 10 minutes or until the vegetables are tender. Add the tamarind water and salt to taste. Cover and cook for 5 minutes.
Stir in the spice paste. Bring to the boil, then reduce the heat to moderate and cook, uncovered, for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally.
For tempering, heat the oil in a frying pan and add the mustard seeds. As they begin to pop, add the curry leaves and dried red chillies. Pour this over the curry and gently stir through. Serve hot.
!North India
!!Stir-fry of paneer cheese with peppers
A kadhai, or karahi, is the Indian wok, and this is the Indian answer to a stir-fry. This style of cooking is very versatile and quick if you prepare a basic sauce in advance, then it’s simply a question of choosing your meat, fish or vegetables and degree of spiciness. You may want to keep a jar of this basic kadhai sauce in your fridge.
The kadhai method is becoming particularly popular with youngsters and people who are learning to cook and want to try out different things without spending a lot of time in the kitchen.
Serves 4-6
1 tbs ghee or corn oil
1/2 tsp crushed dried chillies
2 red or yellow peppers, deseeded and cut into strips 1 x 3cm
1 red onion, sliced 1cm thick
600g paneer, cut into 3cm batons
20g coriander leaves, finely chopped
1/2 tsp dried fenugreek leaves, crumbled
juice of 1 lemon
5cm piece fresh root ginger, cut into julienne
!!!For the basic kadhai sauce
80g ghee or corn oil
30g garlic cloves, finely chopped
15g coriander seeds, coarsely pounded
8 red chillies, coarsely pounded in a mortar
2 onions, finely chopped
5cm piece fresh root ginger, finely chopped
3 green chillies, finely chopped
750g fresh ripe tomatoes, finely chopped
2 tsp salt
1 tsp ground garam masala
11/2 tsp dried fenugreek leaves, crumbled
1 tsp sugar (optional)
To make the sauce, heat the ghee in a pan, add the garlic and let it colour. Stir, then add the coriander seeds and red chillies. When they release their aromas, add the onions and cook until they start changing to light golden. Stir in the ginger, green chillies and tomatoes. Reduce the heat to low and cook until all excess moisture has evaporated and the fat starts to separate out. Add the salt, garam masala and fenugreek leaves and stir. Add some sugar, if needed.
For the stir-fry, heat the ghee in a kadhai, wok or large frying pan. Add the crushed chillies, pepper strips and red onion. Stir and sauté on a high heat for under a minute, then add the paneer and stir for another minute. Add the sauce and mix well. Once everything is heated through, check the seasoning. Finish with the fresh coriander, fenugreek leaves and lemon juice. Garnish with the ginger and serve with naan bread.
!Thailand
!!Coconut and turmeric curry of red snapper
Most southern curries are rich with coconut cream. This curry should be hot, salty and a little tart. Almost any seafood can be used in place of the snapper, especially crab. Serve with cucumber, mint and coriander, and rice.
Serves 4
500ml coconut milk
250ml light chicken stock or water
2 stalks lemongrass, bruised
white sugar
4 tbs tamarind water
4 tbs fish sauce, or to taste
200g red snapper fillet or a 400g whole red snapper, gutted and scaled
handful of torn ‘betel’ leaves (optional)
120ml coconut cream
5 kaffir lime leaves, finely shredded
!!!For the curry paste
6 dried long red chillies, soaked and chopped
3-4 dried small red chillies
pinch of salt
a few bird’s eye chillies
50g chopped lemongrass
4 tbs chopped red shallots
21/2 tbs chopped garlic
1 rounded tbs chopped red turmeric
1 rounded tbs Thai shrimp paste
To make the curry paste, put all the ingredients in a blender and blend for 3-4 minutes, stopping to scrape down the insides of the jug every so often.
Combine the coconut milk with the stock in a saucepan, add the lemongrass and bring to the boil.
Season with a little sugar, the tamarind water and fish sauce and add 4 tbs curry paste. Simmer for a minute before adding the fish and ‘betel’ leaves. Continue to simmer until the fish is cooked.
Check the seasoning, then finish by stirring in the coconut cream. Serve sprinkled with the shredded kaffir lime leaves.
!Laos
!!Green prawn curry with fresh dill
Fresh dill, sometimes referred to as Laotian coriander, is widely used in Laos for fish or other seafood dishes. The dill fronds are added at the last minute as a garnish. Eat this with steamed sticky rice.
Serves 4
3 tbs vegetable oil
5 tbs Thai curry paste
1 tbs shrimp paste
1 tbs palm or granulated sugar
500ml thick coconut milk
500ml chicken or vegetable stock
4-6 kaffir lime leaves, bruised
fish sauce to taste
2 large waxy potatoes, peeled and cut into 2.5cm pieces
675g raw tiger prawns, peeled and de-veined
1 bunch of dill
Heat the oil in a pot over a moderately high heat and stir-fry the curry paste for about 2 minutes or until just golden and fragrant. Add the shrimp paste (breaking it up) and palm sugar, and stir-fry for 1 minute or until fragrant. Reduce the heat and add the coconut milk, stock, kaffir lime leaves and fish sauce to taste. Add the potatoes, cover and cook for 20 minutes.
Add the prawns and stir well, then cover again and cook for about 5 minutes or until they turn pink. Serve hot, garnished with dill fronds.
!South India
!!Shallow-fried masala sardines
For a feast, this dry curried fish makes a fantastic combination with wetter chicken and meat dishes. It’s crunchy and has a delicious spicy flavour. Serve it as a dry side dish or with plain rice or a green salad as a main dish. Pomfret or any flat fish can be used instead of sardines.
Serves 2-4
4 sardines, about 300g in total
5 tbs vegetable oil
1 small onion, finely sliced
small handful of chopped coriander leaves
wedges of lemon
!!!For the spice paste
1 onion, chopped
2 green chillies, chopped
1cm piece fresh root ginger, finely chopped
10 curry leaves
10 black peppercorns
1/2tsp chilli powder
1/2 tsp ground turmeric
2 tbs wine or cider vinegar
1 tsp lemon juice
salt
Place all the ingredients for the spice paste in a food processor or blender. Process for 2-3 minutes to make a fine paste. Set aside.
Wash the fish under cold running water, then pat dry with kitchen paper. With a very sharp knife, make some slashes about 2.5cm apart along the whole length of the fish, on both sides. Don’t cut too deeply, just enough to break the skin and cut slightly into the flesh.
Place the fish on a baking tray and spread the spice paste all over the fish, ensuring that it penetrates well into the cuts. Leave to marinate for 15-20 minutes.
Heat 2 tbs of the oil in a large frying pan. Add the onion and cook for 5-6 minutes over a very high heat until the onion is well browned and crisp. Remove the onion from the pan and drain on kitchen paper.
Heat the remaining oil in the same pan over a low heat. Carefully place the fish in the pan, cover and cook for about 6 minutes on each side. Turn the fish once only during cooking to avoid breaking it up. Cook until the skin is brown and the flesh is cooked thoroughly.
Carefully remove the fish and place on a large serving dish. Sprinkle the crisp onions over the fish and garnish with coriander and lemon wedges.
Recipes by Roopa Gulati, David Thompson, Mahmood Akbar, Sri Owen, Vivek Singh, Das Sreedharan and Corinne Trang. 
• Extracted from Curry, published by Dorling Kindersley on 5 October 2006, price £16.99. ©Dorling Kindersley 2006. For a special advance publication offer for OFM readers of only £14.99, call the DK Bookshop now on 08700 707717 quoting reference CURRY and ISBN 1405315725. Allow up to 14 days for delivery. Offer open to UK residents only, subject to availability. Includes free P&P 
Guardian Unlimited © Guardian News and Media Limited 2007

 Police K-BAND:24.150GHz+/-175MHz 1200-2500M
Police X-BAND:10.525GHz+/-100MHz 1500-2500M
Police KA-BAND:34.700GHz+/-1300MHz 800-1500M
Tripod K-BAND:24.125GHz+/-175MHz 250-1200M
Tripod KU-BAND:13.450GHz+/-125MHz 450-1500M
Tripod KA-BAND:33.400GHz+/-1300MHz 200-600M
----
Power:12V 1:Margin of error:+/-10M 2:Distance:0-999M
Voltage:150-300mA
----
Laser Beam:904mn+/-33KMHz 1:Margin of error:+/-10M 2:Distance:0-999M
VG-2:11.150GHz+/-175MHz 1:Margin of error:+/-10M 2:Distance:0-999M
Wireless duplex transmission frequency:2.4GHz+/-410MHz 1:Margin of error:+/-10M 2:Distance:0-999M
!Operation
Two mode: city mode, to alert the motion signals,when "+" button is pressed, the vocal report will be reported every 10s,and it will turn to default setting when the motion signal disappeared; high way mode,
it is the default setting, it will report each time when receving signal with high sensitivity.

Press left button for adjusting volume

Press right button for shifting between city mode and high way mode
(pressing for 3 seconds to change the languague).
"Mode" button for increasing screen brightness
!What the bands mean
Most of today’s radar detectors detect signals across a variety of wavelength bands — usually X, K and Ka (as well as Ku, in Europe.)

!Useful DIY sites
http://www.ultimatehandyman.co.uk
http://www.fixfault.com
http://www.diynot.com
http://www.diydoctor.org.uk
http://www.familyhandyman.com/
http://www.handymanknowhow.co.uk/index.htm
http://www.afi-uplift.co.uk/wearaharness.asp
http://www.ereplacementparts.com/
!Find a tradesman
http://www.trustmark.org.uk/
http://www.mybuilder.com/
http://www.ratedpeople.com/
http://www.myhammer.co.uk/
http://www.trustatrader.com/
!!Chimney seeps
http://www.acleanchimneysweep.co.uk/chimney-cleans
----
[[Boilers and Central Heating]]
[[Tools of the Trade]]
----
http://shop.ukwhitegoods.co.uk/
!Reclamation shops
N E Reclamation Supplies Ltd.
Unit 9 Chainbridge Road Blaydon, Blaydon-On-Tyne Phone : 0191-4143487
 www.reclaimed.uk.net 
!Glazing
Glass, Acrylic (Perspex) or Polycarbonmate
http://www.theplasticshop.co.uk - clear polycarbonate andd perspex
http://www.theplasticpeople.co.uk
http://www.cutplasticsheeting.co.uk/faq/
https://plasticonline.co.uk/ - cheapest?
http://www.plasticstockist.com/ - Newcastle
*To saw plastic:
Use a saw of 32 teeth per inch for one-eighth of an inch and one-tenth of an inch plastic, and 14 to 18 teeth per inch for one-quarter of an inch or a scribing tool
smoothing can be done in several ways. Many use a fine-tooth file, or medium-grit sandpaper wrapped around a sanding block, but one of the quickest and neatest methods is by scraping the edges with a sharp-edged piece of metal. 
The rebate should be bedded with a non hardening compound (butyl) to provide a bed between the back rebate and glass of approximately 1mm to 1.5mm.
*Frosting clear plastic
Rust-oleum® Frosted Glass finish
http://www.decowall.co.uk/index.php/window-film/84055-flower-pattern-decorative-frosted-window-film.html
*Double glazing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQ1rDa_Heuo
International trafficker found dead in London flat was suspect in gangland killing of Colombian dealer 
Tony Thompson, crime correspondent
Sunday November 16, 2003
The Observer 

A British woman accused of taking part in a brutal and cold-blooded gangland killing has been found dead in her London home, prompting speculation that she may have been murdered by underworld enemies.
Bournemouth-born Beverley Storr, 44, was believed to have been responsible for the death of Colombian drug dealer Arturo Miranda, whose body was pulled from a canal 50 miles north of Copenhagen in January 2001. Miranda, 54, had his hands tied behind his back and his throat was cut. He is believed to have been tortured for hours before he was shot through the back of the head at point-blank range.
Storr, a leading figure in international drugs smuggling, vanished from her cottage in Denmark around the time of the murder. Neighbours saw her hurriedly cleaning the house soon before she disappeared. A forensics team found traces of blood, leading police to conclude that the killing took place there before the body was dumped. Witnesses said Miranda had been staying at the cottage.
A few days later, Storr's red British-registered Volvo car was found abandoned at a railway station near the German border. She and her then lover, Reginald Blythin, 55, from Chester, were put on Interpol's list of most wanted fugitives.
Storr spent years arranging for large quantities of drugs worth millions of pounds to be smuggled from Spain to Britain until she was caught in Malaga with 1.5 tons of cannabis worth £3 million. She was jailed for four years in 1997, and freed in January 2001.
She returned briefly to Britain before heading back to Spain and on to Denmark, where she set up home in the village of Hou.
After the murder she is believed to have used her international underworld contacts to keep ahead of police. However, she was arrested in in July 2002 after being surrounded by armed police acting on a tip-off as she tried to board a flight at Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, using a fake Spanish passport. Blythin is still on the run.
Storr was detained until last month, when she was released. She returned to London and moved into a flat in Newington Green Road, Islington, with a new boyfriend. It was he who returned home late on Sunday 3 November and found her dead in the living room.
Police officers called to the scene told the coroner her death was not suspicious, but they were not then aware of Storr's background. The coroner has promised to expedite his investigation in response to numerous requests for information from the Danish press.
Henrik Madsen, a journalist on Århus Stiftstidende, the newspaper that covers the village where Miranda's body was found, told The Observer that Storr had to be freed, even though she was charged with murder.
The Danish police wanted to try Storr and Blythin together, but he had disappeared, said Madsen. 'You can't keep people in custody for ever, and time went on and on. The Danish legal system says the police must give a judge good reasons to keep holding someone. They simply ran out of arguments.'
Instead of waiting for the court to order her release, the Danish police made a special request for her to be allowed to go on the grounds that they had obtained all the information they needed from her. Many Danes believe this was a ploy aimed at getting Storr to lead them to Blythin.
A leading Danish paper, Ekstra Bladet said the officer in charge of the murder inquiry, who contacted police in London to check the circumstances surrounding the death, had refused to say whether Storr had been under surveillance.
Storr was being treated for depression, and a bottle of pills was found near her body. It is not yet clear how many - if any - she had taken.
The Danish authorities believe Storr's medication may have been tampered with, or she could have been forced to take an overdose to stop her from talking.
Although Blythin is a potential suspect, Storr's criminal record and high-level connections with organised crime mean many other people could have been just as keen to silence her. The results of toxicology tests carried out on her body will not be available until the new year at the earliest. When The Observer called at the flat she shared with her last boyfriend there was no answer.
Storr was also suspected of involvement in the murder of a Briton, John McCormick, 47, who was shot at his flat in Copenhagen on New Year's Eve. His terrified girlfriend saw the shooting.
McCormick, a convicted drugs smuggler from Liverpool, is believed to have fled to Scandinavia after he 'ripped off' British drug dealers based in Spain. Fellow tenants say his flat had a lot of visitors, and police believe he was dealing drugs. He entered Denmark from Spain the previous summer on a false passport in the name of Ronald Carey.
One flatmate told the police that McCormick had become increasingly ill at ease before his death. He is believed to have had regular contact with Storr and Blythin.
Blythin has served time in Britain for drugs and robbery offences and has underworld contacts in Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Spain. He may be attempting to contact his family in the UK. He is on Scotland Yard's wanted list, but is believed to have visited this country several times since going on the run.
Go to source: ?T=12&D=439321
[[Latest news]]
[[Welcome to Keith's websites]]
[[TagCloud]]
Index

Useful dentistry websites
|E-learning|http://www.dentistry.bham.ac.uk/ecourse/|

+++^[Shopping]
http://www.therabreath.com/index.asp
===

!Root Canal treatment
http://www.medicinenet.com/root_canal/article.htm
!Tooth Abscess
!!Odd cures for an abscess
#Eat cashew nuts for 24 hours - http://charles_w.tripod.com/tooth.html
!Fillings
You can create a temporary seal (at least several weeks) with a mixture of zinc oxide and oil of eugenol (a complicated benzoic alcohol). There is a zinc oxide - calcium oxide composition called Biocalexwhich they claim is superior to zinc oxide since it is said to fill the tooth tubules and displace anaerobic bacteria, and thus make it also superior to gutta percha.
!250 calories or less
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/food-and-drink/features/52-diet-healthy-fasting-recipes-250-calories-or-less/
!Breakfast under 100 calories
http://www.goodtoknow.co.uk/recipes/pictures/34868/breakfast-under-100-calories/10
!Fill Power and the Down: Feather Ratio
The fill power is a measure of the loft, or ‘fluffiness’ of the jacket, which is related to its insulating ability per weight. A higher fill power also enables the jacket to be compressed more easily. Thus a higher fill power means that the jacket will be warmer than one of a lower fill power rating for the same weight. 500-550 is a good loft rating, 550-750 is very good, whilst 750 is excellent.
http://www.downjacket.org.uk/down-jacket-features
!Cleaning
1. Brush down the jacket to removed dried on mud and debris.

2 Once you have the correct machine /washing area arranged, you can start washing the jacket. First wash it in water with no detergent. You shoudl gently squeeze the jacket and kneed in water until saturated.

3. Remove the jacket from the washer or the bath, and squeeze until the water runs clear.

4. Wash the down jacket with a special detergent suitable for down. Use two thirds of a cup. Ideally use Nikwax or Granger s Direct wash in at this stage. Do not use a household detergent which may harm your jacket irreparibly.

5. If the down jacket has a DWR coating, you can reproof it at this point. (Again, a Nikwax reproofer or similar is reccommended.)

6. Dry your down jacket on a flat towel and let it dry naturally, or use a dryer on the lowest possible setting. A hotter heat will not dry it quickly, it may just break down the seams of the jacket.

7. Allow around 3-4 hours for full drying. Shaking the jacket will allow all areas of the down to gain access to air and heat, and will prevent cold clumps of down forming. hang the jacket on a padded hanger and allow access to natural air where possible.


Cleaning down can be a time consuming process, but if done correctly, your jacket should retain loft and effectiveness.
http://www.drugs.com/
!Consumer Information
http://www.drugdigest.org/DD/Home
!Example e-learning modules
http://www2.academee.com/html/elearning/demo/demo.html
!Hidden bargains
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/shopping/ebay-protection - lots of tips
http://www.watchcount.com/ and http://www.nobids.net/search.php - for 0 bids
http://www.goofbid.com/ - wrong spelling
http://www.lastminute-auction.com/uk/
[[MptwEditTemplate]]
The written word is a powerful medium…one of the most powerful in marketing. If you use it correctly you create valuable materials that your prospects will want to hang on to. And then when they need a service that you offer, they’re one step closer to choosing you.
When people think of copywriting, they often think of the typical brochure or flyer or newspaper ad. If you fall into that category, here are eight other ways you can use copywriting to build your business.
1) Write a sales letter 

Direct sales promotions gross over one and a half trillion dollars a year. It’s a proven medium and it’s easy to track so you can see just how well your marketing investment is doing.

2) Write a case study 

Case studies are a great credibility builder. They tell the story of how you solved a common problem for a client. They’re loaded with facts and figures and testimonials from the client. A good case study can be the tipping point for a prospect deciding to work with you.

3) Write a white paper 

A white paper is a semi-academic piece covering a general problem in the industry and how your product addresses and solves the problem. White papers range from a simple two-page explanation to a visually-rich multi-page discussion. They involve a lot of research and take an objective tone, giving the impression that you are both and expert and have the answers they’re looking for.

4) Write an article Articles are another expert-image-building tool. You can publish articles online, over email (like this one), in your local paper, or in a trade publication. A well-written article is worth its weight in name recognition, especially if you get it published in the right place.
5) Write a newsletter A regular newsletter is an ideal way to keep in touch with your existing clientele. Newsletters help generate repeat business and they add value to your services which means they build loyalty among your clients.
6) Write a report Do you have a wide range of products or services? Write a helpful and informative report to clarify for your clients how you can best be of service to them. Or, if you offer a service that takes prep work on the client’s part, provide them a report that will help them do what they need to do to get the most out of your services.
7) Write a booklet Write a booklet related to the product or service you offer. Do you sell digital cameras? Create a booklet explaining how to use different features. Do you run a restaurant? Make a booklet filled with recipes for past specials and include a coupon in the back. Do you do accounting? Create a booklet on getting organized for the tax year.
8) Write an ebook An ebook is like a booklet, but longer and because of the medium, more interactive. An ebook is usually rich in online resources as well as information on your chosen topic.
Copywriting is a great tool for building your business and something you should use in nearly every aspect of your marketing. If you don’t have the talent or the time for copywriting yourself, look around on the web-there are scores of talented copywriters waiting to be of service. 
Eight Ways to Use Copywriting to Build Your Business
by Heather R
American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) shrubs, often called simply American elders, produce an abundant amount of fruit each summer. The blue-black berries, each barely more than 1/8 inch in diameter, grow in large clusters and are a favorite of wildlife. Usually available in midsummer, the juicy clusters can be gathered by the bucketful and make excellent juice, jelly and wine. The plant grows in rich, moist soil of woodlands, stream and river banks, gullies, fencerows, and along margins of fields, right-of-ways and pastures. They grow from eastern Texas up to the southeastern corner of South Dakota, then eastward to the Atlantic and northeastward through New England and southern Canada.

Related cousins are the blue elder (Sambucus cerulea), Mexican elder (Sambucus mexicana), black berried elder (Sambucus melanocarpa)--all of which are edible. Also, the toxic red fruited elder (Sambucus pubens) and very bitter (but not poisonous) Pacific elder (Sambucus callicarpa). All produce white or yellowish-white flowers in late spring or early summer. These develop into light green berries which change color just before ripening. The blue elder grows in the western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific, although it is also seen in extreme West Texas and New Mexico.

The cooked ripe berries of the edible elders are harmless, but raw elderberries can cause nausea if eaten in quantity. Unripe berries and all parts of the elder plant itself are mildly toxic. The ripe berries are rather distasteful eaten raw, although I've heard you can develop a taste for them. Wine made from the uncooked berries is neither toxic nor distasteful. Indeed, it is delicious. Still, some people prefer to cook the berries before making wine. This renders the juice quite delicious as is, but it cerainly improves when made into wine. I do not believe there is any difference in taste between the wines made from uncooked and cooked berries, but the cooked berry wine seems more colorfast than the uncooked berry wine.

There are many recipes for fresh elderberry wine. I live in Texas, where elderberries are native but not as common as elsewhere, and so I always use dried, imported ones. Still, I have many recipes for fresh elderberry wine. I've included two of the better recipes below. The first recipe only uses 3 pounds of berries while the second uses 10 pounds. This is a huge difference and the wines reflect it, but both wines are very good. If at all possible, preserve the wonderful color of elderberry wine by placing the secondary fermentation vessel in a closet or other dark place. Similarly, either bottle the wine in dark bottles or store the bottles in a dark place. When you pour a glass, you'll be glad you did.



ELDERBERRY WINE (1)
3 lbs fresh, ripe elderberries 
2-1/2 lbs finely granulated sugar 
3-1/2 quarts water 
2 tsp acid blend 
1 tsp yeast nutrient 
1/2 tsp pectic enzyme 
1 crushed Campden tablet 
Montrachet wine yeast 
Bring water to boil and stir in sugar until dissolved. Meanwhile, wash, inspect and destem the elderberries. Put them in nylon straining bag, tie closed, and put in primary. Wearing sterilized rubber gloves, mash the elderberries and cover with the boiling sugar-water. Cover and set aside to cool. When lukewarm, add acid blend, yeast nutrient and crushed Campden tablet. Cover primary and wait 12 hours, then stir in pectic enzyme. Recover primary and wait another 12 hours, then add yeast. Cover and stir daily, gently squeezing the bag to extract flavor from the berries (don't forget the gloves or you'll be sorry). Ferment 14 days, then drip drain the elderberries (don't squeeze). Combine drippings with juice and set aside overnight. Rack into secondary and fit airlock. Put in dark place to protect the color from light. Ferment two months and rack, top up and refit airlock. Repeat two months later and again two months after that. Stabilize and wait 10 days. Rack, sweeten to taste and bottle. Store bottles in dark place for one year. Then enjoy. [Adapted from Terry Garey's The Joy of Home Winemaking]



ELDERBERRY WINE (2)
10 lbs fresh, ripe elderberries 
2-1/4 lbs finely granulated sugar 
6 pints water 
1 tsp acid blend 
1 tsp yeast nutrient 
1/2 tsp pectic enzyme 
Montrachet wine yeast 
Wash, destem and inspect the berries for ripeness and soundness. Put berries in a stainless steel or enameled pot with 3/4 pound of sugar and half the water. Slowly bring to boil while stirring occasionally and turn off heat. Cover and set aside to cool to room temperature. Strain berries over primary through a nylon straining bag and hang bag over primary to drip drain for two hours. Very gently press pulp to extract a little more juice, but do not overdo this. Stir in remaining sugar and dry ingredients (except yeast) and stir well to dissolve. Add enough water to bring to one gallon and add yeast. Cover primary and wait for active fermentation. Ferment 2 weeks and siphon off sediments into secondary. Top up and fit airlock. Ferment two months, rack, top up, and refit airlock. Repeat after additional two months. Stabilize, wait 10 days, rack, sweeten to taste, and bottle. Age one year before tasting. [Adapted from Julius H. Fessler's Guidelines to Practical Winemaking]
During today’s lesson you are going to look at the language used in newspaper reports. Once you have finished one worksheet, ask your teacher for the next one. Each worksheet is a little bit harder than the last one, but by the end of it you will be an expert! Do not worry if you do not get to the end. 

If something is emotive it makes people emotional. If you had just had your new mountain bike stolen then your friends might avoid boasting about their bikes: bikes are an emotive subject for you at the moment. You feel very emotional. Newspapers often choose emotive language (words) to get their readers to react emotionally to a story. If you call an event a ‘riot’ rather than a ‘disturbance’ you are much more likely to get your readers excited.

Task One:
Below are four pairs of headlines. Decide which one of the pair is most likely to excite the reader, (a) or (b)? Give reasons for your choice.

1. (a) Scabs thrown out of the union
(b) Strike breakers must leave union

2. (a) School blaze
(b) Fire at school

3. (a) Skilful Owen
(b) Owen magic

4. (a) Lennox Lewis injured
(b) Lennox Lewis agony

Task Two:
Now read the headlines below. Re-write them, replacing the words in bold with more emotive words. The first two have been done for you as examples. If you find this difficult, try using a thesaurus to find alternative words.

1. Man hit by robbers.
(Pensioner hit by muggers)

2. One hundred peasants killed by troops.
(One hundred peasants slaughtered by troops)

3. Argument closes factory.

4. Train seats cut by teenagers.

5. Supporters run onto pitch.

6. Shortage of money creates problems in schools.

7. Trouble on roads after snowfall.

8. Player hits referee.

9. House prices fall in Stevenage.

10. Political meeting ends in disturbance.

Task Three:
Now read the Daily Star’s report about the school ‘riot’. The report uses a lot of emotive language. For example, it uses ‘mob’ instead of ‘crowd’ or ‘group’; ‘refused’ instead of ‘decided not to’.

As you read the article, make a list of emotive words that the reporter uses. Next to each word write a couple of alternative words that mean almost the same but are less emotive. Set your ideas out in a chart like the one below. Use a thesaurus to help you find the words you need.

EMOTIVE
LESS EMOTIVE
NEUTRAL
mob
gang
crowd
raced
ran
hurried

Task Four:
Now answer the following questions.

1. What quieter, less emotive words could the report have used instead of ‘terrified’ (paragraph 4) and ‘frantic’ (paragraph 5)?

2. How do you feel about:
a. the ‘youngsters’, and
b. the teachers who ‘refused their dinner duties?

3. Explain how the writer’s choice of words makes us feel these things about the pupils and their teacher.

Bored pupils riot as staff walk out
A MOB of 300 youngsters ran riot through their school yesterday - because they were bored.
 It happened when teachers at the 100-staff comprehensive refused to do dinner duties and walked out in a union dispute.
 Only the headmaster and two teachers were on duty, and they wre powerless to act.
 People living nearby watched, terrified, as gangs of 15 and 16 year olds rampaged through the 1000-pupil school at Bideford, Devon, chanting "We want a riot" as they smashed windows.
 Police who rushed to the giant complex in seven cars calmed the frantic pupils.
Hammers
As the afternoon lessons ended the youngsters said they were protesting about being confined to one playground.
 "We were bored and had nothing to do," they said. "We will continue our action until the teachers dispute is over.
 "We brought screwdrivers and hammers to school and stole knives from the canteen."
The Star

Providing their source is acknowledged, the resources found on this site ( http://www.english-teaching.co.uk ) may be copied for use in the classroom. Any other use is strictly forbidden. Copyright © 2000 FRET - Free Resources for English Teaching. All rights reserved.
Go to source: Emotive Language: Fiona Duncan
Some articles on the Use and Abuse of the English Language
[[Instructions]]
[[Telegrams]]
[[Good English, Bad English]]
    Lavender (acne, oily, or even dry skin – lavender is healing, but a little, tiny bit goes a long way)
    Peppermint (like lavender, peppermint is great for oily and acneic skin, and like lavender don’t use much! It’s very astringent, but it might also tingle your skin right off its bones)
    Chamomile (my favorite chamomile is Roman – and roman chamomile is wonderfully healing and soothing, so it’s great for ALL skin types. Really. Very, very great, but also very expensive)
    Rose (wonderful for aging, dry and normal skin, it’s also pretty expensive, unless you find the “mixed with jojoba” kind, which just means it’s diluted and you can use more in your blend than if it were “neat”)
    Rose geranium (another great, all-around healing essential oil – this is especially good for dry, sensitive, aging, and normal skin)
    Palmarosa (my skin loooves this oil, and it’s great for any skin type, but it does seem to work well for breakouts, in addition to being softening and soothing for aging skin, which, yes, I have)
    Lemongrass (brightening and toning, this is a great oil for normal, oily, or acneic skin)
    Rosemary (got acne and oily skin? You might just want this)
!antifungal
https://healthyfocus.org/the-9-most-powerful-antifungal-essential-oils/
'Ethical sluts' develop new language of love for open relationships
They have turned their backs on monogamy and rejected traditional mores in their love lives - and now a group of "polyamorous" lovers have decided they need a new set of words to describe their lifestyle.
Polyamorous people live in open relationships where they may have several partners of either sex who are also in other relationships.
By Maxine Frith, Social Affairs Correspondent
04 April 2005
The movement began in California in the 1990s but has burgeoned in recent years, thanks, in part, to the internet and the publication of studies describing the phenomenon.
They see themselves as returning to a more natural state of living, where people do not have secret affairs behind their partners' backs and reject what they see as an artificial Western insistence on fidelity for life with one partner.
The polyamorous community's so-called bible is a 1997 book called The Ethical Slut that describes living with and loving multiple partners. The American author of the book urged women to reclaim the word slut as a positive term to describe the possibility of having simultaneous relationships with a number of people.
Since then internet chat rooms, mailing lists and other sites focusing on polyamory have sprung up across the world, particularly in the US and UK. A UK mailing list currently has more than 200 members, and Britain's first conference on the subject - called the "Poly-Day" - was held last November.
Meg Barker, a psychologist who also lives a polyamorous lifestyle, has researched the issue. She presented a paper at the British Psychological Society Conference in Manchester last week, at which she described how the movement was evolving an entirely new dictionary of words to describe the way in which its followers lived.
"The problem is that in Western culture a lot of the words we have to describe emotions are based on the concept of monogamous relationships.
"We have words like jealousy, which in polyamorous relationships you don't really get, but there is not a word to describe the warm feeling that a polyamorous person will get when they see one of their partners getting on with another of their partners.
"It is kind of the opposite of jealousy. A lot of importance is placed on being able to describe the emotions that we have and this is why the poly community has started to come up with its own words which are now rapidly being adopted."
The polyamorous community in America has evolved its own lexicon, but British adherents are now coming up with their own words, Ms Barker said.
These include "frubble" - to describe the feeling of warmth and happiness when seeing one of your partners getting on well with either one of your partners or one of their lovers.
Ms Barker said: "Some cultures, for instance, traditional Hawaiian cultures, have always had words like this because they have practised polygamy and have always been used to the idea.
"A lot of our words have been started on internet discussion sites where people have been frustrated that they can't express themselves and the way the live." She added: "Some people can be very judgemental but when you look at the figures of the number of people who have affairs and who are desperately unhappy in monogamous relationships it seems a bit strange."
She estimates that at least 2,000 people in Britain may be living polyamorous lifestyles, although many may be reluctant to admit it.
'Of course, I do get jealous, but it passes'
Meg Barker, 30, from south London, has been in polyamorous relationships for three years.
She lives part of the week with her girlfriend, Annie, and the rest with her boyfriend, Erich, and has two other lovers - a man and a woman.
Her partners also have other partners, and Ms Barker's sister lives a similar lifestyle.
Ms Barker, an academic, said: "I always knew I was capable of loving a lot of different people at the same time, but when I was growing up it was difficult to know how I could follow that kind of life."
She says the main problem is finding time to spend with all her lovers. "You have to be pretty organised and sometimes it can be difficult to see everyone you want, but all of my partners get on well and we have times when we all meet up."
Her parents, she says, are supportive, although she says other people can be judgemental.
"Some people, especially men, assume I am more open to offers...Some polyamorous people do have a lot of casual sex but for me it is about having loving relationships with a number of people at the same time.
"Of course, I do get jealous sometimes, especially when one of my partners has started a new relationship and you can see they are very excited about it, but [it] quickly passes when I realise they are not going to replace me in my partner's affections."
Maxine Frith
THE LEXICON OF (MULTIPLE) LOVE
*Frubble Describes the feeling of warmth and happiness when seeing one of your partners getting on well with one of your partners or one of their lovers
*Wibble The temporary feeling of insecurity when seeing a partner being loving or close with another of their partners
*Metamour Used to describe your relationship with one of your partner's partners
*NRE Short for "new relationship energy" - a phrase describing how one partner behaves when starting a new relationship with a new lover
*Polyamory Loving more than one person 
European Union Announcement .February 2008


European Commission has just announced an agreement whereby English
will be the official language of the European Union rather than German, 
which was the other possibility. 

As part of the negotiations, the British Government conceded that English 
spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a 5-year 
phase-in plan that would become known as "Euro-English". 

In the first year, "s" will replace the soft "c". Sertainly, this will make the 
sivil servants jump with joy. 

The hard "c" will be dropped in favour of "k". 

This should klear up konfusion, and keyboards kan have one less letter. 

There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year 
when the troublesome "ph" will be replaced with "f". 

This will make words like fotograf 20% shorter. 

In the 3rd year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted 
to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. 

Governments will enkourage the removal of double letters which have 
always ben a deterent to akurate speling. 

Also, al wil agre that the horibl mes of the silent "e" in the languag is 
disgrasful and it should go away. 

By the 4th yer people wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" 
with "z" and "w" with "v". 

During ze fifz yer, ze unesesary "o" kan be dropd from vords kontaining 
"ou" and after ziz fifz yer, ve vil hav a reil sensibl riten styl. 

Zer vil be no mor trubl or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech oza. 

Ze drem of a united urop vil finali kum tru. 

Und efter ze fifz yer, ve vil al be speking German like zey vunted in ze forst plas
/***
|Name|ExportTiddlersPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ExportTiddlersPlugin|
|Version|2.3.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|select and extract tiddlers from your ~TiddlyWiki documents and save them to a local file|

When many people edit copies of the same TiddlyWiki document, the ability to easily copy and share these changes so they can then be redistributed to the entire group is very important. This ability is also very useful when moving your own tiddlers from document to document (e.g., when upgrading to the latest version of TiddlyWiki, or 'pre-loading' your favorite stylesheets into a new 'empty' TiddlyWiki document.)

ExportTiddlersPlugin let you ''select and extract tiddlers from your ~TiddlyWiki documents and save them to a local file'' or a remote server (requires installation of compatible server-side scripting, still under development...). An interactive control panel lets you specify a destination, and then select which tiddlers to export. A convenient 'selection filter' helps you pick desired tiddlers by specifying a combination of modification dates, tags, or tiddler text to be matched or excluded. ''Tiddler data can be output as ~TiddlyWiki "storeArea ~DIVs" that can be imported into another ~TiddlyWiki or as ~RSS-compatible XML that can be published for RSS syndication.''

!!!!!Inline interface (live)
<<<
<<exportTiddlers inline>>
<<<
!!!!!Usage
<<<
Optional "special tiddlers" used by this plugin:
* SiteUrl^^
URL for official server-published version of document being viewed (used in XML export)
default: //none//^^
* SiteHost^^
host name/address for remote server (e.g., "www.server.com" or "192.168.1.27")
default: //none//^^
* SitePost^^
remote path/filename for submitting changes (e.g., "/cgi-bin/submit.cgi")
default: //none//^^
* SiteParams^^
arguments (if any) for server-side receiving script
default: //none//^^
* SiteNotify^^
addresses (if any) for sending automatic server-side email notices
default: //none//^^
* SiteID^^
username or other authorization identifier for login-controlled access to remote server
default: current TiddlyWiki username (e.g., "YourName")^^
* SiteDate^^
stored date/time stamp for most recent published version of document
default: current document.modified value (i.e., the 'file date')^^
<<<
!!!!!Example
<<<
<<exportTiddlers>>
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
Import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''ExportTiddlersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)

create/edit ''SideBarOptions'': (sidebar menu items) 
^^Add {{{<<exportTiddlers>>}}} macro^^
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.04.19 [2.3.0]'' in exportData(), pass SiteURL value as param to saveToRss(). Fixes 'undefined' appearing in tiddler link in XML output. Also, in refreshExportList(), added 'sort by tags'. Also, added 'group select'... selecting a heading (date,author,tag) auto-selects all tiddlers in that group.
''2007.03.02 [2.2.6]'' in onClickExportButton(), when selecting open tiddlers for TW2.2, look for "storyDisplay" instead of "tiddlerDisplay" but keep fallback to "tiddlerDisplay" for TW2.1 or earlier
''2007.03.01 [2.2.5]'' removed hijack of store.saveChanges() (was catching save on http:, but there are other solutions that do a much better job of handling save to server.
|please see [[ExportTiddlersPluginHistory]] for additional revision details|
''2005.10.09 [0.0.0]'' development started
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
// // version
//{{{
version.extensions.exportTiddlers = {major: 2, minor: 3, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,4,19)};
//}}}

// // macro handler
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers = {
 label: "export tiddlers",
 prompt: "Copy selected tiddlers to an export document",
 newdefault: "export.html",
 datetimefmt: "0MM/0DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss" // for "filter date/time" edit fields
};

config.macros.exportTiddlers.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
 if (params[0]!="inline")
 { createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickExportMenu); return; }
 var panel=createExportPanel(place);
 panel.style.position="static";
 panel.style.display="block";
}

function createExportPanel(place) {
 var panel=document.getElementById("exportPanel");
 if (panel) { panel.parentNode.removeChild(panel); }
 setStylesheet(config.macros.exportTiddlers.css,"exportTiddlers");
 panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"span","exportPanel",null,null)
 panel.innerHTML=config.macros.exportTiddlers.html;
 exportShowPanel(document.location.protocol);
 exportInitFilter();
 refreshExportList(0);
 return panel;
}

function onClickExportMenu(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 var parent=resolveTarget(e).parentNode;
 var panel = document.getElementById("exportPanel");
 if (panel==undefined || panel.parentNode!=parent)
 panel=createExportPanel(parent);
 var isOpen = panel.style.display=="block";
 if(config.options.chkAnimate)
 anim.startAnimating(new Slider(panel,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));
 else
 panel.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block" ;
 if (panel.style.display!="none") refreshExportList(0); // update list when panel is made visible
 e.cancelBubble = true;
 if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return(false);
}
//}}}

// // IE needs explicit scoping for functions called by browser events
//{{{
window.onClickExportMenu=onClickExportMenu;
window.onClickExportButton=onClickExportButton;
window.exportShowPanel=exportShowPanel;
window.exportShowFilterFields=exportShowFilterFields;
window.refreshExportList=refreshExportList;
//}}}

// // CSS for floating export control panel
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers.css = '\
#exportPanel {\
 display: none; position:absolute; z-index:12; width:35em; right:105%; top:6em;\
 background-color: #eee; color:#000; font-size: 8pt; line-height:110%;\
 border:1px solid black; border-bottom-width: 3px; border-right-width: 3px;\
 padding: 0.5em; margin:0em; -moz-border-radius:1em;\
}\
#exportPanel a, #exportPanel td a { color:#009; display:inline; margin:0px; padding:1px; }\
#exportPanel table { width:100%; border:0px; padding:0px; margin:0px; font-size:8pt; line-height:110%; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel tr { border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel td { color:#000; border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel select { width:98%;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%;}\
#exportPanel input { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%; }\
#exportPanel textarea { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;overflow:auto;font-size:8pt; }\
#exportPanel .box { border:1px solid black; padding:3px; margin-bottom:5px; background:#f8f8f8; -moz-border-radius:5px; }\
#exportPanel .topline { border-top:2px solid black; padding-top:3px; margin-bottom:5px; }\
#exportPanel .rad { width:auto;border:0 }\
#exportPanel .chk { width:auto;border:0 }\
#exportPanel .btn { width:auto; }\
#exportPanel .btn1 { width:98%; }\
#exportPanel .btn2 { width:48%; }\
#exportPanel .btn3 { width:32%; }\
#exportPanel .btn4 { width:24%; }\
#exportPanel .btn5 { width:19%; }\
';
//}}}

// // HTML for export control panel interface
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers.html = '\
<!-- output target and format -->\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td width=50%>\
 export to\
 <select size=1 id="exportTo" onchange="exportShowPanel(this.value);">\
 <option value="file:" SELECTED>this computer</option>\
 <option value="http:">web server (http)</option>\
 <option value="https:">secure web server (https)</option>\
 <option value="ftp:">file server (ftp)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width=50%>\
 output format\
 <select id="exportFormat" size=1>\
 <option value="DIV">TiddlyWiki export file</option>\
 <option value="TW">TiddlyWiki document</option>\
 <option value="XML">RSS feed (XML)</option>\
 </select>\
</td></tr></table>\
\
<!-- export to local file -->\
<div id="exportLocalPanel" style="margin-top:5px;">\
local path/filename<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportFilename" size=40 style="width:93%"><input \
 type="button" id="exportBrowse" value="..." title="select or enter a local folder/file..." style="width:5%" \
 onclick="this.previousSibling.value=window.promptForExportFilename(this);">\
<!--<input type="file" id="exportFilename" size=57 style="width:100%"><br>-->\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- export to http server -->\
<div id="exportHTTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-top:5px;">\
<table><tr><td align=left>\
 server location, script, and parameters<br>\
</td><td align=right>\
 <input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportNotify"\
 onClick="document.getElementById(\'exportSetNotifyPanel\').style.display=this.checked?\'block\':\'none\'"> notify\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="text" id="exportHTTPServerURL" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
<div id="exportSetNotifyPanel" style="display:none">\
 send email notices to<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportNotifyTo" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</div>\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- export to ftp server -->\
<div id="exportFTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-top:5px;">\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="32%"><tr valign="top"><td>\
 host server<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportFTPHost" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td><td width="32%">\
 username<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportFTPID" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td><td width="32%">\
 password<br>\
 <input type="password" id="exportFTPPW" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td></tr></table>\
FTP path/filename<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportFTPFilename" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- notes -->\
notes<br>\
<textarea id="exportNotes" rows=3 cols=40 style="height:4em;margin-bottom:5px;" onfocus="this.select()"></textarea> \
\
<!-- list of tiddlers -->\
<table><tr align="left"><td>\
 select:\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectAll"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select all tiddlers">\
 &nbsp;all&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectChanges"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers changed since last save">\
 &nbsp;changes&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectOpened"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers currently being displayed">\
 &nbsp;opened&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportToggleFilter"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="show/hide selection filter">\
 &nbsp;filter&nbsp;</a> \
</td><td align="right">\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListSmaller"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="reduce list size">\
 &nbsp;&#150;&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListLarger"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="increase list size">\
 &nbsp;+&nbsp;</a>\
</td></tr></table>\
<select id="exportList" multiple size="10" style="margin-bottom:5px;"\
 onchange="refreshExportList(this.selectedIndex)">\
</select><br>\
</div><!--box-->\
\
<!-- selection filter -->\
<div id="exportFilterPanel" style="display:none">\
<table><tr align="left"><td>\
 selection filter\
</td><td align="right">\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportHideFilter"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="hide selection filter">hide</a>\
</td></tr></table>\
<div class="box">\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterStart" value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> starting date/time<br>\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">\
 <select size=1 id="exportFilterStartBy" onchange="exportShowFilterFields(this);">\
 <option value="0">today</option>\
 <option value="1">yesterday</option>\
 <option value="7">a week ago</option>\
 <option value="30">a month ago</option>\
 <option value="site">SiteDate</option>\
 <option value="file">file date</option>\
 <option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width="50%">\
 <input type="text" id="exportStartDate" onfocus="this.select()"\
 onchange="document.getElementById(\'exportFilterStartBy\').value=\'other\';">\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterEnd" value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> ending date/time<br>\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">\
 <select size=1 id="exportFilterEndBy" onchange="exportShowFilterFields(this);">\
 <option value="0">today</option>\
 <option value="1">yesterday</option>\
 <option value="7">a week ago</option>\
 <option value="30">a month ago</option>\
 <option value="site">SiteDate</option>\
 <option value="file">file date</option>\
 <option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width="50%">\
 <input type="text" id="exportEndDate" onfocus="this.select()"\
 onchange="document.getElementById(\'exportFilterEndBy\').value=\'other\';">\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterTags value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> match tags<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportTags" onfocus="this.select()">\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterText value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> match titles/tiddler text<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportText" onfocus="this.select()">\
</div> <!--box-->\
</div> <!--panel-->\
\
<!-- action buttons -->\
<div style="text-align:center">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportFilter" value="apply filter">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportStart" value="export tiddlers">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportClose" value="close">\
</div><!--center-->\
';
//}}}

// // initialize interface
// // exportShowPanel(which)
//{{{
function exportShowPanel(which) {
 var index=0; var panel='exportLocalPanel';
 switch (which) {
 case 'file:':
 case undefined:
 index=0; panel='exportLocalPanel'; break;
 case 'http:':
 index=1; panel='exportHTTPPanel'; break;
 case 'https:':
 index=2; panel='exportHTTPPanel'; break;
 case 'ftp:':
 index=3; panel='exportFTPPanel'; break;
 default:
 alert("Sorry, export to "+which+" is not yet available");
 break;
 }
 exportInitPanel(which);
 document.getElementById('exportTo').selectedIndex=index;
 document.getElementById('exportLocalPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById('exportHTTPPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById('exportFTPPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById(panel).style.display='block';
}
//}}}

// // exportInitPanel(which)
//{{{
function exportInitPanel(which) {
 switch (which) {
 case "file:": // LOCAL EXPORT PANEL: file/path:
 // ** no init - security issues in IE **
 break;
 case "http:": // WEB EXPORT PANEL
 case "https:": // SECURE WEB EXPORT PANEL
 // url
 if (store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_download")) {
 var theURL=store.getTiddlerText("unawiki_download");
 theURL=theURL.replace(/\[\[download\|/,'').replace(/\]\]/,'');
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_host"))?"unawiki_host":"SiteHost";
 var theHost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=document.location.host;
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=title;
 }
 // server script/params
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_host"))?"unawiki_host":"SiteHost";
 var theHost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=document.location.host;
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=title;
 // get POST
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_post"))?"unawiki_post":"SitePost";
 var thePost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!thePost || !thePost.length) thePost="/"+title;
 // get PARAMS
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_params"))?"unawiki_params":"SiteParams";
 var theParams=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theParams|| !theParams.length) theParams=title;
 var serverURL = which+"//"+theHost+thePost+"?"+theParams;
 document.getElementById("exportHTTPServerURL").value=serverURL;
 // get NOTIFY
 var theAddresses=store.getTiddlerText("SiteNotify");
 if (!theAddresses|| !theAddresses.length) theAddresses="SiteNotify";
 document.getElementById("exportNotifyTo").value=theAddresses;
 break;
 case "ftp:": // FTP EXPORT PANEL
 // host
 var siteHost=store.getTiddlerText("SiteHost");
 if (!siteHost || !siteHost.length) siteHost=document.location.host;
 if (!siteHost || !siteHost.length) siteHost="SiteHost";
 document.getElementById("exportFTPHost").value=siteHost;
 // username
 var siteID=store.getTiddlerText("SiteID");
 if (!siteID || !siteID.length) siteID=config.options.txtUserName;
 document.getElementById("exportFTPID").value=siteID;
 // password
 document.getElementById("exportFTPPW").value="";
 // file/path
 document.getElementById("exportFTPFilename").value="";
 break;
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportInitFilter()
//{{{
function exportInitFilter() {
 // start date
 document.getElementById("exportFilterStart").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportStartDate").value="";
 // end date
 document.getElementById("exportFilterEnd").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportEndDate").value="";
 // tags
 document.getElementById("exportFilterTags").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportTags").value="";
 // text
 document.getElementById("exportFilterText").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportText").value="";
 // show/hide filter input fields
 exportShowFilterFields();
}
//}}}

// // exportShowFilterFields(which)
//{{{
function exportShowFilterFields(which) {
 var show;

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterStart').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportFilterStartBy').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 var val=document.getElementById('exportFilterStartBy').value;
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').value
 =getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate').formatString(config.macros.exportTiddlers.datetimefmt);
 if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterStartBy') && (val=='other'))
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').focus();

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterEnd').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportFilterEndBy').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 var val=document.getElementById('exportFilterEndBy').value;
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').value
 =getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate').formatString(config.macros.exportTiddlers.datetimefmt);
 if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterEndBy') && (val=='other'))
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').focus();

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterTags').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportTags').style.display=show?"block":"none";

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterText').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportText').style.display=show?"block":"none";
}
//}}}

// // onClickExportButton(which): control interactions
//{{{
function onClickExportButton(which)
{
 // DEBUG alert(which.id);
 var theList=document.getElementById('exportList'); if (!theList) return;
 var count = 0;
 var total = store.getTiddlers('title').length;
 switch (which.id)
 {
 case 'exportFilter':
 count=filterExportList();
 var panel=document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel');
 if (count==-1) { panel.style.display='block'; break; }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage("filtered "+formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) { alert("No tiddlers were selected"); panel.style.display='block'; }
 break;
 case 'exportStart':
 exportTiddlers();
 break;
 case 'exportHideFilter':
 case 'exportToggleFilter':
 var panel=document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel')
 panel.style.display=(panel.style.display=='block')?'none':'block';
 break;
 case 'exportSelectChanges':
 var lastmod=new Date(document.lastModified);
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 var tiddler=store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value); if (!tiddler) continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=(tiddler.modified>lastmod);
 count += (tiddler.modified>lastmod)?1:0;
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) alert("There are no unsaved changes");
 break;
 case 'exportSelectAll':
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count += 1;
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,count));
 break;
 case 'exportSelectOpened':
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) theList.options[t].selected=false;
 var tiddlerDisplay = document.getElementById("tiddlerDisplay"); // for TW2.1-
 if (!tiddlerDisplay) tiddlerDisplay = document.getElementById("storyDisplay"); // for TW2.2+
 for (var t=0;t<tiddlerDisplay.childNodes.length;t++) {
 var tiddler=tiddlerDisplay.childNodes[t].id.substr(7);
 for (var i = 0; i < theList.options.length; i++) {
 if (theList.options[i].value!=tiddler) continue;
 theList.options[i].selected=true; count++; break;
 }
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) alert("There are no tiddlers currently opened");
 break;
 case 'exportListSmaller': // decrease current listbox size
 var min=5;
 theList.size-=(theList.size>min)?1:0;
 break;
 case 'exportListLarger': // increase current listbox size
 var max=(theList.options.length>25)?theList.options.length:25;
 theList.size+=(theList.size<max)?1:0;
 break;
 case 'exportClose':
 document.getElementById('exportPanel').style.display='none';
 break;
 }
}
//}}}

// // list display
//{{{
function formatExportMessage(count,total)
{
 var txt=total+' tiddler'+((total!=1)?'s':'')+" - ";
 txt += (count==0)?"none":(count==total)?"all":count;
 txt += " selected for export";
 return txt;
}

function refreshExportList(selectedIndex)
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList");
 var sort;
 if (!theList) return;
 // get the sort order
 if (!selectedIndex) selectedIndex=0;
 if (selectedIndex==0) sort='modified';
 if (selectedIndex==1) sort='title';
 if (selectedIndex==2) sort='modified';
 if (selectedIndex==3) sort='modifier';
 if (selectedIndex==4) sort='tags';

 // unselect headings and count number of tiddlers actually selected
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (!theList.options[t].selected) continue;
 if (theList.options[t].value!="")
 count++;
 else { // if heading is selected, deselect it, and then select and count all in section
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 for ( t++; t<theList.options.length && theList.options[t].value!=""; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count++;
 }
 }
 }

 // disable "export" button if no tiddlers selected
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 // show selection count
 var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers('title');
 if (theList.options.length) { clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,tiddlers.length)); }

 // if a [command] item, reload list... otherwise, no further refresh needed
 if (selectedIndex>4) return;

 // clear current list contents
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
 // add heading and control items to list
 var i=0;
 var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(tiddlers.length+" tiddlers in document", "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="title" )?">":indent)+' [by title]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="modified")?">":indent)+' [by date]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="modifier")?">":indent)+' [by author]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="tags" )?">":indent)+' [by tags]', "",false,false);
 // output the tiddler list
 switch(sort)
 {
 case "title":
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);
 break;
 case "modifier":
 case "modified":
 var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers(sort);
 // sort descending for newest date first
 tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[sort] == b[sort]) return(0); else return (a[sort] > b[sort]) ? -1 : +1; });
 var lastSection = "";
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
 var theSection = "";
 if (sort=="modified") theSection=tiddler.modified.toLocaleDateString();
 if (sort=="modifier") theSection=tiddler.modifier;
 if (theSection != lastSection)
 {
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(theSection,"",false,false);
 lastSection = theSection;
 }
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);
 }
 break;
 case "tags":
 var theTitles = {}; // all tiddler titles, hash indexed by tag value
 var theTags = new Array();
 for(var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) {
 var title=tiddlers[t].title;
 var tags=tiddlers[t].tags;
 if (!tags || !tags.length) {
 if (theTitles["untagged"]==undefined) { theTags.push("untagged"); theTitles["untagged"]=new Array(); }
 theTitles["untagged"].push(title);
 }
 else for(var s=0; s<tags.length; s++) {
 if (theTitles[tags[s]]==undefined) { theTags.push(tags[s]); theTitles[tags[s]]=new Array(); }
 theTitles[tags[s]].push(title);
 }
 }
 theTags.sort();
 for(var tagindex=0; tagindex<theTags.length; tagindex++) {
 var theTag=theTags[tagindex];
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(theTag,"",false,false);
 for(var t=0; t<theTitles[theTag].length; t++)
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(indent+indent+theTitles[theTag][t],theTitles[theTag][t],false,false);
 }
 break;
 }
 theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item
}
//}}}

// // list filtering
//{{{
function getFilterDate(val,id)
{
 var result=0;
 switch (val) {
 case 'site':
 var timestamp=store.getTiddlerText("SiteDate");
 if (!timestamp) timestamp=document.lastModified;
 result=new Date(timestamp);
 break;
 case 'file':
 result=new Date(document.lastModified);
 break;
 case 'other':
 result=new Date(document.getElementById(id).value);
 break;
 default: // today=0, yesterday=1, one week=7, two weeks=14, a month=31
 var now=new Date(); var tz=now.getTimezoneOffset()*60000; now-=tz;
 var oneday=86400000;
 if (id=='exportStartDate')
 result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val)*oneday+tz);
 else
 result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val+1)*oneday+tz-1);
 break;
 }
 // DEBUG alert('getFilterDate('+val+','+id+')=='+result+"\nnow="+now);
 return result;
}

function filterExportList()
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList"); if (!theList) return -1;

 var filterStart=document.getElementById("exportFilterStart").checked;
 var val=document.getElementById("exportFilterStartBy").value;
 var startDate=getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate');

 var filterEnd=document.getElementById("exportFilterEnd").checked;
 var val=document.getElementById("exportFilterEndBy").value;
 var endDate=getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate');

 var filterTags=document.getElementById("exportFilterTags").checked;
 var tags=document.getElementById("exportTags").value;

 var filterText=document.getElementById("exportFilterText").checked;
 var text=document.getElementById("exportText").value;

 if (!(filterStart||filterEnd||filterTags||filterText)) {
 alert("Please set the selection filter");
 document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel').style.display="block";
 return -1;
 }
 if (filterStart&&filterEnd&&(startDate>endDate)) {
 var msg="starting date/time:\n"
 msg+=startDate.toLocaleString()+"\n";
 msg+="is later than ending date/time:\n"
 msg+=endDate.toLocaleString()
 alert(msg);
 return -1;
 }

 // scan list and select tiddlers that match all applicable criteria
 var total=0;
 var count=0;
 for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
 // get item, skip non-tiddler list items (section headings)
 var opt=theList.options[i]; if (opt.value=="") continue;
 // get tiddler, skip missing tiddlers (this should NOT happen)
 var tiddler=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!tiddler) continue; 
 var sel=true;
 if ( (filterStart && tiddler.modified<startDate)
 || (filterEnd && tiddler.modified>endDate)
 || (filterTags && !matchTags(tiddler,tags))
 || (filterText && (tiddler.text.indexOf(text)==-1) && (tiddler.title.indexOf(text)==-1)))
 sel=false;
 opt.selected=sel;
 count+=sel?1:0;
 total++;
 }
 return count;
}
//}}}

//{{{
function matchTags(tiddler,cond)
{
 if (!cond||!cond.trim().length) return false;

 // build a regex of all tags as a big-old regex that 
 // OR's the tags together (tag1|tag2|tag3...) in length order
 var tgs = store.getTags();
 if ( tgs.length == 0 ) return results ;
 var tags = tgs.sort( function(a,b){return (a[0].length<b[0].length)-(a[0].length>b[0].length);});
 var exp = "(" + tags.join("|") + ")" ;
 exp = exp.replace( /(,[\d]+)/g, "" ) ;
 var regex = new RegExp( exp, "ig" );

 // build a string such that an expression that looks like this: tag1 AND tag2 OR NOT tag3
 // turns into : /tag1/.test(...) && /tag2/.test(...) || ! /tag2/.test(...)
 cond = cond.replace( regex, "/$1\\|/.test(tiddlerTags)" );
 cond = cond.replace( /\sand\s/ig, " && " ) ;
 cond = cond.replace( /\sor\s/ig, " || " ) ;
 cond = cond.replace( /\s?not\s/ig, " ! " ) ;

 // if a boolean uses a tag that doesn't exist - it will get left alone 
 // (we only turn existing tags into actual tests).
 // replace anything that wasn't found as a tag, AND, OR, or NOT with the string "false"
 // if the tag doesn't exist then /tag/.test(...) will always return false.
 cond = cond.replace( /(\s|^)+[^\/\|&!][^\s]*/g, "false" ) ;

 // make a string of the tags in the tiddler and eval the 'cond' string against that string 
 // if it's TRUE then the tiddler qualifies!
 var tiddlerTags = (tiddler.tags?tiddler.tags.join("|"):"")+"|" ;
 try { if ( eval( cond ) ) return true; }
 catch( e ) { displayMessage("Error in tag filter '" + e + "'" ); }
 return false;
}
//}}}

// // output data formatting
// // exportHeader(format)
//{{{
function exportHeader(format)
{
 switch (format) {
 case "TW": return exportTWHeader();
 case "DIV": return exportDIVHeader();
 case "XML": return exportXMLHeader();
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportFooter(format)
//{{{
function exportFooter(format)
{
 switch (format) {
 case "TW": return exportDIVFooter();
 case "DIV": return exportDIVFooter();
 case "XML": return exportXMLFooter();
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportTWHeader()
//{{{
function exportTWHeader()
{
 // Get the URL of the document
 var originalPath = document.location.href;
 // Check we were loaded from a file URL
 if(originalPath.substr(0,5) != "file:")
 { alert(config.messages.notFileUrlError); return; }
 // Remove any location part of the URL
 var hashPos = originalPath.indexOf("#"); if(hashPos != -1) originalPath = originalPath.substr(0,hashPos);
 // Convert to a native file format assuming
 // "file:///x:/path/path/path..." - pc local file --> "x:\path\path\path..."
 // "file://///server/share/path/path/path..." - FireFox pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 // "file:///path/path/path..." - mac/unix local file --> "/path/path/path..."
 // "file://server/share/path/path/path..." - pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 var localPath;
 if(originalPath.charAt(9) == ":") // pc local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(8)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file://///") == 0) // FireFox pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(10)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:///") == 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(7));
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:/") == 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(5));
 else // pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(7)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 // Load the original file
 var original = loadFile(localPath);
 if(original == null)
 { alert(config.messages.cantSaveError); return; }
 // Locate the storeArea div's
 var posOpeningDiv = original.indexOf(startSaveArea);
 var posClosingDiv = original.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
 if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1))
 { alert(config.messages.invalidFileError.format([localPath])); return; }
 return original.substr(0,posOpeningDiv+startSaveArea.length)
}
//}}}

// // exportDIVHeader()
//{{{
function exportDIVHeader()
{
 var out=[];
 var now = new Date();
 var title = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode());
 var subtitle = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode());
 var user = convertUnicodeToUTF8(config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode());
 var twver = version.major+"."+version.minor+"."+version.revision;
 var pver = version.extensions.exportTiddlers.major+"."
 +version.extensions.exportTiddlers.minor+"."+version.extensions.exportTiddlers.revision;
 out.push("<html><body>");
 out.push("<style type=\"text/css\">");
 out.push("#storeArea {display:block;margin:1em;}");
 out.push("#storeArea div");
 out.push("{padding:0.5em;margin:1em;border:2px solid black;height:10em;overflow:auto;}");
 out.push("#javascriptWarning");
 out.push("{width:100%;text-align:left;background-color:#eeeeee;padding:1em;}");
 out.push("</style>");
 out.push("<div id=\"javascriptWarning\">");
 out.push("TiddlyWiki export file<br>");
 out.push("Source"+": <b>"+convertUnicodeToUTF8(document.location.href)+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Title: <b>"+title+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Subtitle: <b>"+subtitle+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Created: <b>"+now.toLocaleString()+"</b> by <b>"+user+"</b><br>");
 out.push("TiddlyWiki "+twver+" / "+"ExportTiddlersPlugin "+pver+"<br>");
 out.push("Notes:<hr><pre>"+document.getElementById("exportNotes").value.replace(regexpNewLine,"<br>")+"</pre>");
 out.push("</div>");
 out.push("<div id=\"storeArea\">");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportDIVFooter()
//{{{
function exportDIVFooter()
{
 var out=[];
 out.push("</div><!--POST-BODY-START-->\n<!--POST-BODY-END--></body></html>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportXMLHeader()
//{{{
function exportXMLHeader()
{
 var out=[];
 var now = new Date();
 var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl",null);
 var title = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode());
 var subtitle = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode());
 var user = convertUnicodeToUTF8(config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode());
 var twver = version.major+"."+version.minor+"."+version.revision;
 var pver = version.extensions.exportTiddlers.major+"."
 +version.extensions.exportTiddlers.minor+"."+version.extensions.exportTiddlers.revision;
 out.push("<" + "?xml version=\"1.0\"?" + ">");
 out.push("<rss version=\"2.0\">");
 out.push("<channel>");
 out.push("<title>" + title + "</title>");
 if(u) out.push("<link>" + convertUnicodeToUTF8(u.htmlEncode()) + "</link>");
 out.push("<description>" + subtitle + "</description>");
 out.push("<language>en-us</language>");
 out.push("<copyright>Copyright " + now.getFullYear() + " " + user + "</copyright>");
 out.push("<pubDate>" + now.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");
 out.push("<lastBuildDate>" + now.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");
 out.push("<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>");
 out.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki "+twver+" plus ExportTiddlersPlugin "+pver+"</generator>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportXMLFooter()
//{{{
function exportXMLFooter()
{
 var out=[];
 out.push("</channel></rss>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportData()
//{{{
function exportData(theList,theFormat)
{
 // scan export listbox and collect DIVs or XML for selected tiddler content
 var out=[];
 for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
 // get item, skip non-selected items and section headings
 var opt=theList.options[i]; if (!opt.selected||(opt.value=="")) continue;
 // get tiddler, skip missing tiddlers (this should NOT happen)
 var thisTiddler=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!thisTiddler) continue; 
 if (theFormat=="TW") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.saveToDiv()));
 if (theFormat=="DIV") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.title+"\n"+thisTiddler.saveToDiv()));
 if (theFormat=="XML") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.saveToRss(store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl",""))));
 }
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportTiddlers(): output selected data to local or server
//{{{
function exportTiddlers()
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList"); if (!theList) return;

 // get the export settings
 var theProtocol = document.getElementById("exportTo").value;
 var theFormat = document.getElementById("exportFormat").value;

 // assemble output: header + tiddlers + footer
 var theData=exportData(theList,theFormat);
 var count=theData.length;
 var out=[]; var txt=out.concat(exportHeader(theFormat),theData,exportFooter(theFormat)).join("\n");
 var msg="";
 switch (theProtocol) {
 case "file:":
 var theTarget = document.getElementById("exportFilename").value.trim();
 if (!theTarget.length) msg = "A local path/filename is required\n";
 if (!msg && saveFile(theTarget,txt))
 msg=count+" tiddler"+((count!=1)?"s":"")+" exported to local file";
 else if (!msg)
 msg+="An error occurred while saving to "+theTarget;
 break;
 case "http:":
 case "https:":
 var theTarget = document.getElementById("exportHTTPServerURL").value.trim();
 if (!theTarget.length) msg = "A server URL is required\n";
 if (document.getElementById('exportNotify').checked)
 theTarget+="&notify="+encodeURIComponent(document.getElementById('exportNotifyTo').value);
 if (document.getElementById('exportNotes').value.trim().length)
 theTarget+="&notes="+encodeURIComponent(document.getElementById('exportNotes').value);
 if (!msg && exportPost(theTarget+encodeURIComponent(txt)))
 msg=count+" tiddler"+((count!=1)?"s":"")+" exported to "+theProtocol+" server";
 else if (!msg)
 msg+="An error occurred while saving to "+theTarget;
 break;
 case "ftp:":
 default:
 msg="Sorry, export to "+theLocation+" is not yet available";
 break;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(msg,theTarget);
}
//}}}

// // exportPost(url): cross-domain post uses hidden iframe to submit url and capture responses
//{{{
function exportPost(url)
{
 var f=document.getElementById("exportFrame"); if (f) document.body.removeChild(f);
 f=document.createElement("iframe"); f.id="exportFrame";
 f.style.width="0px"; f.style.height="0px"; f.style.border="0px";
 document.body.appendChild(f);
 var d=f.document;
 if (f.contentDocument) d=f.contentDocument; // For NS6
 else if (f.contentWindow) d=f.contentWindow.document; // For IE5.5 and IE6
 d.location.replace(url);
 return true;
}
//}}}

// // promptForFilename(msg,path,file) uses platform/browser specific functions to get local filespec
//{{{
function promptForExportFilename(here)
{
 var msg=here.title; // use tooltip as dialog box message
 var path=getLocalPath(document.location.href);
 var slashpos=path.lastIndexOf("/"); if (slashpos==-1) slashpos=path.lastIndexOf("\\"); 
 if (slashpos!=-1) path = path.substr(0,slashpos+1); // remove filename from path, leave the trailing slash
 var file=config.macros.exportTiddlers.newdefault;
 var result="";
 if(window.Components) { // moz
 try {
 netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege('UniversalXPConnect');
 var nsIFilePicker = window.Components.interfaces.nsIFilePicker;
 var picker = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/filepicker;1'].createInstance(nsIFilePicker);
 picker.init(window, msg, nsIFilePicker.modeSave);
 var thispath = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/file/local;1'].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
 thispath.initWithPath(path);
 picker.displayDirectory=thispath;
 picker.defaultExtension='html';
 picker.defaultString=file;
 picker.appendFilters(nsIFilePicker.filterAll|nsIFilePicker.filterText|nsIFilePicker.filterHTML);
 if (picker.show()!=nsIFilePicker.returnCancel) var result=picker.file.persistentDescriptor;
 }
 catch(e) { alert('error during local file access: '+e.toString()) }
 }
 else { // IE
 try { // XP only
 var s = new ActiveXObject('UserAccounts.CommonDialog');
 s.Filter='All files|*.*|Text files|*.txt|HTML files|*.htm;*.html|';
 s.FilterIndex=3; // default to HTML files;
 s.InitialDir=path;
 s.FileName=file;
 if (s.showOpen()) var result=s.FileName;
 }
 catch(e) { var result=prompt(msg,path+file); } // fallback for non-XP IE
 }
 return result;
}
//}}}
/***
|Name|ExportTiddlersPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ExportTiddlersPlugin|
|Version|2.3.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|select and extract tiddlers from your ~TiddlyWiki documents and save them to a local file|

When many people edit copies of the same TiddlyWiki document, the ability to easily copy and share these changes so they can then be redistributed to the entire group is very important. This ability is also very useful when moving your own tiddlers from document to document (e.g., when upgrading to the latest version of TiddlyWiki, or 'pre-loading' your favorite stylesheets into a new 'empty' TiddlyWiki document.)

ExportTiddlersPlugin let you ''select and extract tiddlers from your ~TiddlyWiki documents and save them to a local file'' or a remote server (requires installation of compatible server-side scripting, still under development...). An interactive control panel lets you specify a destination, and then select which tiddlers to export. A convenient 'selection filter' helps you pick desired tiddlers by specifying a combination of modification dates, tags, or tiddler text to be matched or excluded. ''Tiddler data can be output as ~TiddlyWiki "storeArea ~DIVs" that can be imported into another ~TiddlyWiki or as ~RSS-compatible XML that can be published for RSS syndication.''

!!!!!Inline interface (live)
<<<
<<exportTiddlers inline>>
<<<
!!!!!Usage
<<<
Optional "special tiddlers" used by this plugin:
* SiteUrl^^
URL for official server-published version of document being viewed (used in XML export)
default: //none//^^
* SiteHost^^
host name/address for remote server (e.g., "www.server.com" or "192.168.1.27")
default: //none//^^
* SitePost^^
remote path/filename for submitting changes (e.g., "/cgi-bin/submit.cgi")
default: //none//^^
* SiteParams^^
arguments (if any) for server-side receiving script
default: //none//^^
* SiteNotify^^
addresses (if any) for sending automatic server-side email notices
default: //none//^^
* SiteID^^
username or other authorization identifier for login-controlled access to remote server
default: current TiddlyWiki username (e.g., "YourName")^^
* SiteDate^^
stored date/time stamp for most recent published version of document
default: current document.modified value (i.e., the 'file date')^^
<<<
!!!!!Example
<<<
<<exportTiddlers>>
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
Import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''ExportTiddlersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)

create/edit ''SideBarOptions'': (sidebar menu items) 
^^Add {{{<<exportTiddlers>>}}} macro^^
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.04.19 [2.3.0]'' in exportData(), pass SiteURL value as param to saveToRss(). Fixes 'undefined' appearing in tiddler link in XML output. Also, in refreshExportList(), added 'sort by tags'. Also, added 'group select'... selecting a heading (date,author,tag) auto-selects all tiddlers in that group.
''2007.03.02 [2.2.6]'' in onClickExportButton(), when selecting open tiddlers for TW2.2, look for "storyDisplay" instead of "tiddlerDisplay" but keep fallback to "tiddlerDisplay" for TW2.1 or earlier
''2007.03.01 [2.2.5]'' removed hijack of store.saveChanges() (was catching save on http:, but there are other solutions that do a much better job of handling save to server.
|please see [[ExportTiddlersPluginHistory]] for additional revision details|
''2005.10.09 [0.0.0]'' development started
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
// // version
//{{{
version.extensions.exportTiddlers = {major: 2, minor: 3, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,4,19)};
//}}}

// // macro handler
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers = {
 label: "export tiddlers",
 prompt: "Copy selected tiddlers to an export document",
 newdefault: "export.html",
 datetimefmt: "0MM/0DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss" // for "filter date/time" edit fields
};

config.macros.exportTiddlers.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
 if (params[0]!="inline")
 { createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickExportMenu); return; }
 var panel=createExportPanel(place);
 panel.style.position="static";
 panel.style.display="block";
}

function createExportPanel(place) {
 var panel=document.getElementById("exportPanel");
 if (panel) { panel.parentNode.removeChild(panel); }
 setStylesheet(config.macros.exportTiddlers.css,"exportTiddlers");
 panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"span","exportPanel",null,null)
 panel.innerHTML=config.macros.exportTiddlers.html;
 exportShowPanel(document.location.protocol);
 exportInitFilter();
 refreshExportList(0);
 return panel;
}

function onClickExportMenu(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 var parent=resolveTarget(e).parentNode;
 var panel = document.getElementById("exportPanel");
 if (panel==undefined || panel.parentNode!=parent)
 panel=createExportPanel(parent);
 var isOpen = panel.style.display=="block";
 if(config.options.chkAnimate)
 anim.startAnimating(new Slider(panel,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));
 else
 panel.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block" ;
 if (panel.style.display!="none") refreshExportList(0); // update list when panel is made visible
 e.cancelBubble = true;
 if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return(false);
}
//}}}

// // IE needs explicit scoping for functions called by browser events
//{{{
window.onClickExportMenu=onClickExportMenu;
window.onClickExportButton=onClickExportButton;
window.exportShowPanel=exportShowPanel;
window.exportShowFilterFields=exportShowFilterFields;
window.refreshExportList=refreshExportList;
//}}}

// // CSS for floating export control panel
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers.css = '\
#exportPanel {\
 display: none; position:absolute; z-index:12; width:35em; right:105%; top:6em;\
 background-color: #eee; color:#000; font-size: 8pt; line-height:110%;\
 border:1px solid black; border-bottom-width: 3px; border-right-width: 3px;\
 padding: 0.5em; margin:0em; -moz-border-radius:1em;\
}\
#exportPanel a, #exportPanel td a { color:#009; display:inline; margin:0px; padding:1px; }\
#exportPanel table { width:100%; border:0px; padding:0px; margin:0px; font-size:8pt; line-height:110%; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel tr { border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel td { color:#000; border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#exportPanel select { width:98%;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%;}\
#exportPanel input { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%; }\
#exportPanel textarea { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;overflow:auto;font-size:8pt; }\
#exportPanel .box { border:1px solid black; padding:3px; margin-bottom:5px; background:#f8f8f8; -moz-border-radius:5px; }\
#exportPanel .topline { border-top:2px solid black; padding-top:3px; margin-bottom:5px; }\
#exportPanel .rad { width:auto;border:0 }\
#exportPanel .chk { width:auto;border:0 }\
#exportPanel .btn { width:auto; }\
#exportPanel .btn1 { width:98%; }\
#exportPanel .btn2 { width:48%; }\
#exportPanel .btn3 { width:32%; }\
#exportPanel .btn4 { width:24%; }\
#exportPanel .btn5 { width:19%; }\
';
//}}}

// // HTML for export control panel interface
//{{{
config.macros.exportTiddlers.html = '\
<!-- output target and format -->\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr><td width=50%>\
 export to\
 <select size=1 id="exportTo" onchange="exportShowPanel(this.value);">\
 <option value="file:" SELECTED>this computer</option>\
 <option value="http:">web server (http)</option>\
 <option value="https:">secure web server (https)</option>\
 <option value="ftp:">file server (ftp)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width=50%>\
 output format\
 <select id="exportFormat" size=1>\
 <option value="DIV">TiddlyWiki export file</option>\
 <option value="TW">TiddlyWiki document</option>\
 <option value="XML">RSS feed (XML)</option>\
 </select>\
</td></tr></table>\
\
<!-- export to local file -->\
<div id="exportLocalPanel" style="margin-top:5px;">\
local path/filename<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportFilename" size=40 style="width:93%"><input \
 type="button" id="exportBrowse" value="..." title="select or enter a local folder/file..." style="width:5%" \
 onclick="this.previousSibling.value=window.promptForExportFilename(this);">\
<!--<input type="file" id="exportFilename" size=57 style="width:100%"><br>-->\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- export to http server -->\
<div id="exportHTTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-top:5px;">\
<table><tr><td align=left>\
 server location, script, and parameters<br>\
</td><td align=right>\
 <input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportNotify"\
 onClick="document.getElementById(\'exportSetNotifyPanel\').style.display=this.checked?\'block\':\'none\'"> notify\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="text" id="exportHTTPServerURL" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
<div id="exportSetNotifyPanel" style="display:none">\
 send email notices to<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportNotifyTo" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</div>\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- export to ftp server -->\
<div id="exportFTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-top:5px;">\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="32%"><tr valign="top"><td>\
 host server<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportFTPHost" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td><td width="32%">\
 username<br>\
 <input type="text" id="exportFTPID" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td><td width="32%">\
 password<br>\
 <input type="password" id="exportFTPPW" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</td></tr></table>\
FTP path/filename<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportFTPFilename" onfocus="this.select()"><br>\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- notes -->\
notes<br>\
<textarea id="exportNotes" rows=3 cols=40 style="height:4em;margin-bottom:5px;" onfocus="this.select()"></textarea> \
\
<!-- list of tiddlers -->\
<table><tr align="left"><td>\
 select:\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectAll"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select all tiddlers">\
 &nbsp;all&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectChanges"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers changed since last save">\
 &nbsp;changes&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectOpened"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers currently being displayed">\
 &nbsp;opened&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportToggleFilter"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="show/hide selection filter">\
 &nbsp;filter&nbsp;</a> \
</td><td align="right">\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListSmaller"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="reduce list size">\
 &nbsp;&#150;&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListLarger"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="increase list size">\
 &nbsp;+&nbsp;</a>\
</td></tr></table>\
<select id="exportList" multiple size="10" style="margin-bottom:5px;"\
 onchange="refreshExportList(this.selectedIndex)">\
</select><br>\
</div><!--box-->\
\
<!-- selection filter -->\
<div id="exportFilterPanel" style="display:none">\
<table><tr align="left"><td>\
 selection filter\
</td><td align="right">\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportHideFilter"\
 onclick="onClickExportButton(this)" title="hide selection filter">hide</a>\
</td></tr></table>\
<div class="box">\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterStart" value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> starting date/time<br>\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">\
 <select size=1 id="exportFilterStartBy" onchange="exportShowFilterFields(this);">\
 <option value="0">today</option>\
 <option value="1">yesterday</option>\
 <option value="7">a week ago</option>\
 <option value="30">a month ago</option>\
 <option value="site">SiteDate</option>\
 <option value="file">file date</option>\
 <option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width="50%">\
 <input type="text" id="exportStartDate" onfocus="this.select()"\
 onchange="document.getElementById(\'exportFilterStartBy\').value=\'other\';">\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterEnd" value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> ending date/time<br>\
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">\
 <select size=1 id="exportFilterEndBy" onchange="exportShowFilterFields(this);">\
 <option value="0">today</option>\
 <option value="1">yesterday</option>\
 <option value="7">a week ago</option>\
 <option value="30">a month ago</option>\
 <option value="site">SiteDate</option>\
 <option value="file">file date</option>\
 <option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>\
 </select>\
</td><td width="50%">\
 <input type="text" id="exportEndDate" onfocus="this.select()"\
 onchange="document.getElementById(\'exportFilterEndBy\').value=\'other\';">\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterTags value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> match tags<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportTags" onfocus="this.select()">\
<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterText value="1"\
 onclick="exportShowFilterFields(this)"> match titles/tiddler text<br>\
<input type="text" id="exportText" onfocus="this.select()">\
</div> <!--box-->\
</div> <!--panel-->\
\
<!-- action buttons -->\
<div style="text-align:center">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportFilter" value="apply filter">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportStart" value="export tiddlers">\
<input type=button class="btn3" onclick="onClickExportButton(this)"\
 id="exportClose" value="close">\
</div><!--center-->\
';
//}}}

// // initialize interface
// // exportShowPanel(which)
//{{{
function exportShowPanel(which) {
 var index=0; var panel='exportLocalPanel';
 switch (which) {
 case 'file:':
 case undefined:
 index=0; panel='exportLocalPanel'; break;
 case 'http:':
 index=1; panel='exportHTTPPanel'; break;
 case 'https:':
 index=2; panel='exportHTTPPanel'; break;
 case 'ftp:':
 index=3; panel='exportFTPPanel'; break;
 default:
 alert("Sorry, export to "+which+" is not yet available");
 break;
 }
 exportInitPanel(which);
 document.getElementById('exportTo').selectedIndex=index;
 document.getElementById('exportLocalPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById('exportHTTPPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById('exportFTPPanel').style.display='none';
 document.getElementById(panel).style.display='block';
}
//}}}

// // exportInitPanel(which)
//{{{
function exportInitPanel(which) {
 switch (which) {
 case "file:": // LOCAL EXPORT PANEL: file/path:
 // ** no init - security issues in IE **
 break;
 case "http:": // WEB EXPORT PANEL
 case "https:": // SECURE WEB EXPORT PANEL
 // url
 if (store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_download")) {
 var theURL=store.getTiddlerText("unawiki_download");
 theURL=theURL.replace(/\[\[download\|/,'').replace(/\]\]/,'');
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_host"))?"unawiki_host":"SiteHost";
 var theHost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=document.location.host;
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=title;
 }
 // server script/params
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_host"))?"unawiki_host":"SiteHost";
 var theHost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=document.location.host;
 if (!theHost || !theHost.length) theHost=title;
 // get POST
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_post"))?"unawiki_post":"SitePost";
 var thePost=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!thePost || !thePost.length) thePost="/"+title;
 // get PARAMS
 var title=(store.tiddlerExists("unawiki_params"))?"unawiki_params":"SiteParams";
 var theParams=store.getTiddlerText(title);
 if (!theParams|| !theParams.length) theParams=title;
 var serverURL = which+"//"+theHost+thePost+"?"+theParams;
 document.getElementById("exportHTTPServerURL").value=serverURL;
 // get NOTIFY
 var theAddresses=store.getTiddlerText("SiteNotify");
 if (!theAddresses|| !theAddresses.length) theAddresses="SiteNotify";
 document.getElementById("exportNotifyTo").value=theAddresses;
 break;
 case "ftp:": // FTP EXPORT PANEL
 // host
 var siteHost=store.getTiddlerText("SiteHost");
 if (!siteHost || !siteHost.length) siteHost=document.location.host;
 if (!siteHost || !siteHost.length) siteHost="SiteHost";
 document.getElementById("exportFTPHost").value=siteHost;
 // username
 var siteID=store.getTiddlerText("SiteID");
 if (!siteID || !siteID.length) siteID=config.options.txtUserName;
 document.getElementById("exportFTPID").value=siteID;
 // password
 document.getElementById("exportFTPPW").value="";
 // file/path
 document.getElementById("exportFTPFilename").value="";
 break;
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportInitFilter()
//{{{
function exportInitFilter() {
 // start date
 document.getElementById("exportFilterStart").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportStartDate").value="";
 // end date
 document.getElementById("exportFilterEnd").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportEndDate").value="";
 // tags
 document.getElementById("exportFilterTags").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportTags").value="";
 // text
 document.getElementById("exportFilterText").checked=false;
 document.getElementById("exportText").value="";
 // show/hide filter input fields
 exportShowFilterFields();
}
//}}}

// // exportShowFilterFields(which)
//{{{
function exportShowFilterFields(which) {
 var show;

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterStart').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportFilterStartBy').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 var val=document.getElementById('exportFilterStartBy').value;
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').value
 =getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate').formatString(config.macros.exportTiddlers.datetimefmt);
 if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterStartBy') && (val=='other'))
 document.getElementById('exportStartDate').focus();

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterEnd').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportFilterEndBy').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').style.display=show?"block":"none";
 var val=document.getElementById('exportFilterEndBy').value;
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').value
 =getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate').formatString(config.macros.exportTiddlers.datetimefmt);
 if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterEndBy') && (val=='other'))
 document.getElementById('exportEndDate').focus();

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterTags').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportTags').style.display=show?"block":"none";

 show=document.getElementById('exportFilterText').checked;
 document.getElementById('exportText').style.display=show?"block":"none";
}
//}}}

// // onClickExportButton(which): control interactions
//{{{
function onClickExportButton(which)
{
 // DEBUG alert(which.id);
 var theList=document.getElementById('exportList'); if (!theList) return;
 var count = 0;
 var total = store.getTiddlers('title').length;
 switch (which.id)
 {
 case 'exportFilter':
 count=filterExportList();
 var panel=document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel');
 if (count==-1) { panel.style.display='block'; break; }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage("filtered "+formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) { alert("No tiddlers were selected"); panel.style.display='block'; }
 break;
 case 'exportStart':
 exportTiddlers();
 break;
 case 'exportHideFilter':
 case 'exportToggleFilter':
 var panel=document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel')
 panel.style.display=(panel.style.display=='block')?'none':'block';
 break;
 case 'exportSelectChanges':
 var lastmod=new Date(document.lastModified);
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 var tiddler=store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value); if (!tiddler) continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=(tiddler.modified>lastmod);
 count += (tiddler.modified>lastmod)?1:0;
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) alert("There are no unsaved changes");
 break;
 case 'exportSelectAll':
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count += 1;
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,count));
 break;
 case 'exportSelectOpened':
 for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) theList.options[t].selected=false;
 var tiddlerDisplay = document.getElementById("tiddlerDisplay"); // for TW2.1-
 if (!tiddlerDisplay) tiddlerDisplay = document.getElementById("storyDisplay"); // for TW2.2+
 for (var t=0;t<tiddlerDisplay.childNodes.length;t++) {
 var tiddler=tiddlerDisplay.childNodes[t].id.substr(7);
 for (var i = 0; i < theList.options.length; i++) {
 if (theList.options[i].value!=tiddler) continue;
 theList.options[i].selected=true; count++; break;
 }
 }
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,total));
 if (count==0) alert("There are no tiddlers currently opened");
 break;
 case 'exportListSmaller': // decrease current listbox size
 var min=5;
 theList.size-=(theList.size>min)?1:0;
 break;
 case 'exportListLarger': // increase current listbox size
 var max=(theList.options.length>25)?theList.options.length:25;
 theList.size+=(theList.size<max)?1:0;
 break;
 case 'exportClose':
 document.getElementById('exportPanel').style.display='none';
 break;
 }
}
//}}}

// // list display
//{{{
function formatExportMessage(count,total)
{
 var txt=total+' tiddler'+((total!=1)?'s':'')+" - ";
 txt += (count==0)?"none":(count==total)?"all":count;
 txt += " selected for export";
 return txt;
}

function refreshExportList(selectedIndex)
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList");
 var sort;
 if (!theList) return;
 // get the sort order
 if (!selectedIndex) selectedIndex=0;
 if (selectedIndex==0) sort='modified';
 if (selectedIndex==1) sort='title';
 if (selectedIndex==2) sort='modified';
 if (selectedIndex==3) sort='modifier';
 if (selectedIndex==4) sort='tags';

 // unselect headings and count number of tiddlers actually selected
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (!theList.options[t].selected) continue;
 if (theList.options[t].value!="")
 count++;
 else { // if heading is selected, deselect it, and then select and count all in section
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 for ( t++; t<theList.options.length && theList.options[t].value!=""; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count++;
 }
 }
 }

 // disable "export" button if no tiddlers selected
 document.getElementById("exportStart").disabled=(count==0);
 // show selection count
 var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers('title');
 if (theList.options.length) { clearMessage(); displayMessage(formatExportMessage(count,tiddlers.length)); }

 // if a [command] item, reload list... otherwise, no further refresh needed
 if (selectedIndex>4) return;

 // clear current list contents
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
 // add heading and control items to list
 var i=0;
 var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(tiddlers.length+" tiddlers in document", "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="title" )?">":indent)+' [by title]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="modified")?">":indent)+' [by date]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="modifier")?">":indent)+' [by author]', "",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=
 new Option(((sort=="tags" )?">":indent)+' [by tags]', "",false,false);
 // output the tiddler list
 switch(sort)
 {
 case "title":
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);
 break;
 case "modifier":
 case "modified":
 var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers(sort);
 // sort descending for newest date first
 tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[sort] == b[sort]) return(0); else return (a[sort] > b[sort]) ? -1 : +1; });
 var lastSection = "";
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
 var theSection = "";
 if (sort=="modified") theSection=tiddler.modified.toLocaleDateString();
 if (sort=="modifier") theSection=tiddler.modifier;
 if (theSection != lastSection)
 {
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(theSection,"",false,false);
 lastSection = theSection;
 }
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);
 }
 break;
 case "tags":
 var theTitles = {}; // all tiddler titles, hash indexed by tag value
 var theTags = new Array();
 for(var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) {
 var title=tiddlers[t].title;
 var tags=tiddlers[t].tags;
 if (!tags || !tags.length) {
 if (theTitles["untagged"]==undefined) { theTags.push("untagged"); theTitles["untagged"]=new Array(); }
 theTitles["untagged"].push(title);
 }
 else for(var s=0; s<tags.length; s++) {
 if (theTitles[tags[s]]==undefined) { theTags.push(tags[s]); theTitles[tags[s]]=new Array(); }
 theTitles[tags[s]].push(title);
 }
 }
 theTags.sort();
 for(var tagindex=0; tagindex<theTags.length; tagindex++) {
 var theTag=theTags[tagindex];
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(theTag,"",false,false);
 for(var t=0; t<theTitles[theTag].length; t++)
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(indent+indent+theTitles[theTag][t],theTitles[theTag][t],false,false);
 }
 break;
 }
 theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item
}
//}}}

// // list filtering
//{{{
function getFilterDate(val,id)
{
 var result=0;
 switch (val) {
 case 'site':
 var timestamp=store.getTiddlerText("SiteDate");
 if (!timestamp) timestamp=document.lastModified;
 result=new Date(timestamp);
 break;
 case 'file':
 result=new Date(document.lastModified);
 break;
 case 'other':
 result=new Date(document.getElementById(id).value);
 break;
 default: // today=0, yesterday=1, one week=7, two weeks=14, a month=31
 var now=new Date(); var tz=now.getTimezoneOffset()*60000; now-=tz;
 var oneday=86400000;
 if (id=='exportStartDate')
 result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val)*oneday+tz);
 else
 result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val+1)*oneday+tz-1);
 break;
 }
 // DEBUG alert('getFilterDate('+val+','+id+')=='+result+"\nnow="+now);
 return result;
}

function filterExportList()
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList"); if (!theList) return -1;

 var filterStart=document.getElementById("exportFilterStart").checked;
 var val=document.getElementById("exportFilterStartBy").value;
 var startDate=getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate');

 var filterEnd=document.getElementById("exportFilterEnd").checked;
 var val=document.getElementById("exportFilterEndBy").value;
 var endDate=getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate');

 var filterTags=document.getElementById("exportFilterTags").checked;
 var tags=document.getElementById("exportTags").value;

 var filterText=document.getElementById("exportFilterText").checked;
 var text=document.getElementById("exportText").value;

 if (!(filterStart||filterEnd||filterTags||filterText)) {
 alert("Please set the selection filter");
 document.getElementById('exportFilterPanel').style.display="block";
 return -1;
 }
 if (filterStart&&filterEnd&&(startDate>endDate)) {
 var msg="starting date/time:\n"
 msg+=startDate.toLocaleString()+"\n";
 msg+="is later than ending date/time:\n"
 msg+=endDate.toLocaleString()
 alert(msg);
 return -1;
 }

 // scan list and select tiddlers that match all applicable criteria
 var total=0;
 var count=0;
 for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
 // get item, skip non-tiddler list items (section headings)
 var opt=theList.options[i]; if (opt.value=="") continue;
 // get tiddler, skip missing tiddlers (this should NOT happen)
 var tiddler=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!tiddler) continue; 
 var sel=true;
 if ( (filterStart && tiddler.modified<startDate)
 || (filterEnd && tiddler.modified>endDate)
 || (filterTags && !matchTags(tiddler,tags))
 || (filterText && (tiddler.text.indexOf(text)==-1) && (tiddler.title.indexOf(text)==-1)))
 sel=false;
 opt.selected=sel;
 count+=sel?1:0;
 total++;
 }
 return count;
}
//}}}

//{{{
function matchTags(tiddler,cond)
{
 if (!cond||!cond.trim().length) return false;

 // build a regex of all tags as a big-old regex that 
 // OR's the tags together (tag1|tag2|tag3...) in length order
 var tgs = store.getTags();
 if ( tgs.length == 0 ) return results ;
 var tags = tgs.sort( function(a,b){return (a[0].length<b[0].length)-(a[0].length>b[0].length);});
 var exp = "(" + tags.join("|") + ")" ;
 exp = exp.replace( /(,[\d]+)/g, "" ) ;
 var regex = new RegExp( exp, "ig" );

 // build a string such that an expression that looks like this: tag1 AND tag2 OR NOT tag3
 // turns into : /tag1/.test(...) && /tag2/.test(...) || ! /tag2/.test(...)
 cond = cond.replace( regex, "/$1\\|/.test(tiddlerTags)" );
 cond = cond.replace( /\sand\s/ig, " && " ) ;
 cond = cond.replace( /\sor\s/ig, " || " ) ;
 cond = cond.replace( /\s?not\s/ig, " ! " ) ;

 // if a boolean uses a tag that doesn't exist - it will get left alone 
 // (we only turn existing tags into actual tests).
 // replace anything that wasn't found as a tag, AND, OR, or NOT with the string "false"
 // if the tag doesn't exist then /tag/.test(...) will always return false.
 cond = cond.replace( /(\s|^)+[^\/\|&!][^\s]*/g, "false" ) ;

 // make a string of the tags in the tiddler and eval the 'cond' string against that string 
 // if it's TRUE then the tiddler qualifies!
 var tiddlerTags = (tiddler.tags?tiddler.tags.join("|"):"")+"|" ;
 try { if ( eval( cond ) ) return true; }
 catch( e ) { displayMessage("Error in tag filter '" + e + "'" ); }
 return false;
}
//}}}

// // output data formatting
// // exportHeader(format)
//{{{
function exportHeader(format)
{
 switch (format) {
 case "TW": return exportTWHeader();
 case "DIV": return exportDIVHeader();
 case "XML": return exportXMLHeader();
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportFooter(format)
//{{{
function exportFooter(format)
{
 switch (format) {
 case "TW": return exportDIVFooter();
 case "DIV": return exportDIVFooter();
 case "XML": return exportXMLFooter();
 }
}
//}}}

// // exportTWHeader()
//{{{
function exportTWHeader()
{
 // Get the URL of the document
 var originalPath = document.location.href;
 // Check we were loaded from a file URL
 if(originalPath.substr(0,5) != "file:")
 { alert(config.messages.notFileUrlError); return; }
 // Remove any location part of the URL
 var hashPos = originalPath.indexOf("#"); if(hashPos != -1) originalPath = originalPath.substr(0,hashPos);
 // Convert to a native file format assuming
 // "file:///x:/path/path/path..." - pc local file --> "x:\path\path\path..."
 // "file://///server/share/path/path/path..." - FireFox pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 // "file:///path/path/path..." - mac/unix local file --> "/path/path/path..."
 // "file://server/share/path/path/path..." - pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 var localPath;
 if(originalPath.charAt(9) == ":") // pc local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(8)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file://///") == 0) // FireFox pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(10)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:///") == 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(7));
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:/") == 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(5));
 else // pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(7)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 // Load the original file
 var original = loadFile(localPath);
 if(original == null)
 { alert(config.messages.cantSaveError); return; }
 // Locate the storeArea div's
 var posOpeningDiv = original.indexOf(startSaveArea);
 var posClosingDiv = original.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
 if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1))
 { alert(config.messages.invalidFileError.format([localPath])); return; }
 return original.substr(0,posOpeningDiv+startSaveArea.length)
}
//}}}

// // exportDIVHeader()
//{{{
function exportDIVHeader()
{
 var out=[];
 var now = new Date();
 var title = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode());
 var subtitle = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode());
 var user = convertUnicodeToUTF8(config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode());
 var twver = version.major+"."+version.minor+"."+version.revision;
 var pver = version.extensions.exportTiddlers.major+"."
 +version.extensions.exportTiddlers.minor+"."+version.extensions.exportTiddlers.revision;
 out.push("<html><body>");
 out.push("<style type=\"text/css\">");
 out.push("#storeArea {display:block;margin:1em;}");
 out.push("#storeArea div");
 out.push("{padding:0.5em;margin:1em;border:2px solid black;height:10em;overflow:auto;}");
 out.push("#javascriptWarning");
 out.push("{width:100%;text-align:left;background-color:#eeeeee;padding:1em;}");
 out.push("</style>");
 out.push("<div id=\"javascriptWarning\">");
 out.push("TiddlyWiki export file<br>");
 out.push("Source"+": <b>"+convertUnicodeToUTF8(document.location.href)+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Title: <b>"+title+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Subtitle: <b>"+subtitle+"</b><br>");
 out.push("Created: <b>"+now.toLocaleString()+"</b> by <b>"+user+"</b><br>");
 out.push("TiddlyWiki "+twver+" / "+"ExportTiddlersPlugin "+pver+"<br>");
 out.push("Notes:<hr><pre>"+document.getElementById("exportNotes").value.replace(regexpNewLine,"<br>")+"</pre>");
 out.push("</div>");
 out.push("<div id=\"storeArea\">");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportDIVFooter()
//{{{
function exportDIVFooter()
{
 var out=[];
 out.push("</div><!--POST-BODY-START-->\n<!--POST-BODY-END--></body></html>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportXMLHeader()
//{{{
function exportXMLHeader()
{
 var out=[];
 var now = new Date();
 var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl",null);
 var title = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode());
 var subtitle = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode());
 var user = convertUnicodeToUTF8(config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode());
 var twver = version.major+"."+version.minor+"."+version.revision;
 var pver = version.extensions.exportTiddlers.major+"."
 +version.extensions.exportTiddlers.minor+"."+version.extensions.exportTiddlers.revision;
 out.push("<" + "?xml version=\"1.0\"?" + ">");
 out.push("<rss version=\"2.0\">");
 out.push("<channel>");
 out.push("<title>" + title + "</title>");
 if(u) out.push("<link>" + convertUnicodeToUTF8(u.htmlEncode()) + "</link>");
 out.push("<description>" + subtitle + "</description>");
 out.push("<language>en-us</language>");
 out.push("<copyright>Copyright " + now.getFullYear() + " " + user + "</copyright>");
 out.push("<pubDate>" + now.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");
 out.push("<lastBuildDate>" + now.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");
 out.push("<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>");
 out.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki "+twver+" plus ExportTiddlersPlugin "+pver+"</generator>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportXMLFooter()
//{{{
function exportXMLFooter()
{
 var out=[];
 out.push("</channel></rss>");
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportData()
//{{{
function exportData(theList,theFormat)
{
 // scan export listbox and collect DIVs or XML for selected tiddler content
 var out=[];
 for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
 // get item, skip non-selected items and section headings
 var opt=theList.options[i]; if (!opt.selected||(opt.value=="")) continue;
 // get tiddler, skip missing tiddlers (this should NOT happen)
 var thisTiddler=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!thisTiddler) continue; 
 if (theFormat=="TW") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.saveToDiv()));
 if (theFormat=="DIV") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.title+"\n"+thisTiddler.saveToDiv()));
 if (theFormat=="XML") out.push(convertUnicodeToUTF8(thisTiddler.saveToRss(store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl",""))));
 }
 return out;
}
//}}}

// // exportTiddlers(): output selected data to local or server
//{{{
function exportTiddlers()
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("exportList"); if (!theList) return;

 // get the export settings
 var theProtocol = document.getElementById("exportTo").value;
 var theFormat = document.getElementById("exportFormat").value;

 // assemble output: header + tiddlers + footer
 var theData=exportData(theList,theFormat);
 var count=theData.length;
 var out=[]; var txt=out.concat(exportHeader(theFormat),theData,exportFooter(theFormat)).join("\n");
 var msg="";
 switch (theProtocol) {
 case "file:":
 var theTarget = document.getElementById("exportFilename").value.trim();
 if (!theTarget.length) msg = "A local path/filename is required\n";
 if (!msg && saveFile(theTarget,txt))
 msg=count+" tiddler"+((count!=1)?"s":"")+" exported to local file";
 else if (!msg)
 msg+="An error occurred while saving to "+theTarget;
 break;
 case "http:":
 case "https:":
 var theTarget = document.getElementById("exportHTTPServerURL").value.trim();
 if (!theTarget.length) msg = "A server URL is required\n";
 if (document.getElementById('exportNotify').checked)
 theTarget+="&notify="+encodeURIComponent(document.getElementById('exportNotifyTo').value);
 if (document.getElementById('exportNotes').value.trim().length)
 theTarget+="&notes="+encodeURIComponent(document.getElementById('exportNotes').value);
 if (!msg && exportPost(theTarget+encodeURIComponent(txt)))
 msg=count+" tiddler"+((count!=1)?"s":"")+" exported to "+theProtocol+" server";
 else if (!msg)
 msg+="An error occurred while saving to "+theTarget;
 break;
 case "ftp:":
 default:
 msg="Sorry, export to "+theLocation+" is not yet available";
 break;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(msg,theTarget);
}
//}}}

// // exportPost(url): cross-domain post uses hidden iframe to submit url and capture responses
//{{{
function exportPost(url)
{
 var f=document.getElementById("exportFrame"); if (f) document.body.removeChild(f);
 f=document.createElement("iframe"); f.id="exportFrame";
 f.style.width="0px"; f.style.height="0px"; f.style.border="0px";
 document.body.appendChild(f);
 var d=f.document;
 if (f.contentDocument) d=f.contentDocument; // For NS6
 else if (f.contentWindow) d=f.contentWindow.document; // For IE5.5 and IE6
 d.location.replace(url);
 return true;
}
//}}}

// // promptForFilename(msg,path,file) uses platform/browser specific functions to get local filespec
//{{{
function promptForExportFilename(here)
{
 var msg=here.title; // use tooltip as dialog box message
 var path=getLocalPath(document.location.href);
 var slashpos=path.lastIndexOf("/"); if (slashpos==-1) slashpos=path.lastIndexOf("\\"); 
 if (slashpos!=-1) path = path.substr(0,slashpos+1); // remove filename from path, leave the trailing slash
 var file=config.macros.exportTiddlers.newdefault;
 var result="";
 if(window.Components) { // moz
 try {
 netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege('UniversalXPConnect');
 var nsIFilePicker = window.Components.interfaces.nsIFilePicker;
 var picker = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/filepicker;1'].createInstance(nsIFilePicker);
 picker.init(window, msg, nsIFilePicker.modeSave);
 var thispath = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/file/local;1'].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
 thispath.initWithPath(path);
 picker.displayDirectory=thispath;
 picker.defaultExtension='html';
 picker.defaultString=file;
 picker.appendFilters(nsIFilePicker.filterAll|nsIFilePicker.filterText|nsIFilePicker.filterHTML);
 if (picker.show()!=nsIFilePicker.returnCancel) var result=picker.file.persistentDescriptor;
 }
 catch(e) { alert('error during local file access: '+e.toString()) }
 }
 else { // IE
 try { // XP only
 var s = new ActiveXObject('UserAccounts.CommonDialog');
 s.Filter='All files|*.*|Text files|*.txt|HTML files|*.htm;*.html|';
 s.FilterIndex=3; // default to HTML files;
 s.InitialDir=path;
 s.FileName=file;
 if (s.showOpen()) var result=s.FileName;
 }
 catch(e) { var result=prompt(msg,path+file); } // fallback for non-XP IE
 }
 return result;
}
//}}}
Yí dìng​
duì - right, exactly
bù​shì​ma​	isn't that so?
----
http://www.standardmandarin.com/chinesephrases/
哦 = Oh!
|之乎者也|zhī​hū​zhě​yě​|four common characters of classical Chinese (idiom); fig. semi-incomprehensible talk / double Dutch / all Greek to me|
----
biǎo​zi​	prostitute / whore/bitch
----
jinshì​
Short-sighted
----
súi xīn sŭo yù
Follow your heart; do as you please.
súi  = follow
xīn  = heart
sŭo  = that
yù = desire, wish
----
''Yŏu zhì jìng chéng''
 Where there’s a will there’s a way.
 ''zhì '' = will
 jìng	= in the end
 chéng = succeed
/***
| Name:|ExtentTagButtonPlugin|
| Description:|Adds a New tiddler button in the tag drop down|
| Version:|3.0 ($Rev: 1845 $)|
| Date:|$Date: 2007-03-16 15:19:22 +1000 (Fri, 16 Mar 2007) $|
| Source:|http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#ExtendTagButtonPlugin|
| Author:|Simon Baird <simon.baird@gmail.com>|
| License|http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#TheBSDLicense|
***/
//{{{

// can't hijack a click handler. must redefine this entirely.
// would be good to refactor in the core...
// this version copied from 2.1.3 core

// Event handler for clicking on a tiddler tag
function onClickTag(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);
 var popup = Popup.create(this);
 var tag = this.getAttribute("tag");
 var title = this.getAttribute("tiddler");
 if(popup && tag)
 {
 var tagged = store.getTaggedTiddlers(tag);
 var titles = [];
 var li,r;
 for(r=0;r<tagged.length;r++)
 if(tagged[r].title != title)
 titles.push(tagged[r].title);
 var lingo = config.views.wikified.tag;

 wikify("<<newTiddler label:'New tiddler' tag:"+tag+">>",createTiddlyElement(popup,"li")); // <---- the only modification

 if(titles.length > 0)
 {
 var openAll = createTiddlyButton(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),lingo.openAllText.format([tag]),lingo.openAllTooltip,onClickTagOpenAll);
 openAll.setAttribute("tag",tag);
 createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li",null,"listBreak"),"div");
 for(r=0; r<titles.length; r++)
 {
 createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),titles[r],true);
 }
 }
 else
 createTiddlyText(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li",null,"disabled"),lingo.popupNone.format([tag]));
 createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li",null,"listBreak"),"div");
 var h = createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),tag,false);
 createTiddlyText(h,lingo.openTag.format([tag]));
 }
 Popup.show(popup,false);
 e.cancelBubble = true;
 if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return(false);
}

//}}}

!_ListMacroExtension
*Use this to create an ordered list of tiddlers tagged with a specific tag. It extends the existing core list Macro.
<<<
''Syntax'' 
{{{
<<list tagged [existingTag] [sortField]>>
}}}
Where ''[existingTag]'' is the name of an existing tag present and being used in your TiddlyWiki.
Where ''[sortField]'' is the name of a tiddler attribute. If none or incorrect attribute supplied, ''title'' is used as the default.
*title
*text
*modifier
*modified
*created
*links
*tags
*Need the GetPluginInfo addon as well
Displays the following information - version, date, source and author about plugins in this collection using the ''version.extensions.[pluginName]'' attributes. All other plugins use this macro to display plugin details.
Examples :
{{{<<list tagged systemConfig>>: uses modified title, which is the default case, to sort results for tiddlers tagged as systemConfig.}}}
{{{<<list tagged systemConfig modified>>: uses modified date to sort results for tiddlers tagged as systemConfig.}}}


//{{{
// WebSnapr - Preview Bubble Javascript
// Written by Juan Xavier Larrea
// Adapted for TW by Saq Imtiaz
// requires [[this image|bg.png]]

function applyStyleString(obj,str) {
 if(document.all && !window.opera) {
 obj.style.setAttribute("cssText",str);
 } else {
 obj.setAttribute("style",str);
 }
}

// Point this variable to the correct location of the bg.png file
var bubbleImagePath = 'bg.png';

function getElementsByClassName(oElm, strTagName, strClassName){
 var arrElements = (strTagName == "*" && oElm.all)? oElm.all : oElm.getElementsByTagName(strTagName);
 var arrReturnElements = new Array();
 strClassName = strClassName.replace(/\-/g, "\\-");
 var oRegExp = new RegExp("(^|\\s)" + strClassName + "(\\s|$)");
 var oElement;
 for(var i=0; i<arrElements.length; i++){
 oElement = arrElements[i]; 
 if(oRegExp.test(oElement.className)){
 arrReturnElements.push(oElement);
 } 
 }
 return (arrReturnElements)
}

function bindBubbles(e){
 lbActions=getElementsByClassName(document,"a","externalLink");
 for(i=0;i<lbActions.length;i++){
 addEvent(lbActions[i],"mouseover",attachBubble,false);
 addEvent(lbActions[i],"mouseout",detachBubble,false);
 lbActions[i].title = '';
 }
}

function attachBubble(_b){
 var _c;
 if(_b["srcElement"]){
 _c=_b["srcElement"];
 }else{
 _c=_b["target"];
 }
 if (_c.href == undefined){
 _c=_c.parentNode;
 }
 var _d=_c.href;
 var _e=findPosX(_c) +5;
 var _f=findPosY(_c) +17; 
 var _10=document.createElement("div");
 document.getElementsByTagName("body")[0].appendChild(_10);
 _10.className="previewbubble";
 applyStyleString(_10,"text-align: center; z-index: 99999; position: absolute; top: "+_f+"px ; left: "+_e+"px ; width: 240px; height: 190px; padding: 0; margin: 0;");
 if (config.browser.isIE)
 _10.style.filter="progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader(src='" + bubbleImagePath + "',sizingMethod='image')";
 else
 _10.style.background= "url("+ bubbleImagePath +") no-repeat";
 var img=document.createElement("img");
 _10.appendChild(img);

 applyStyleString(img,"padding-top: 0; padding-left: 0; padding-right: 0; padding-bottom: 0; margin-top: 27px; margin-left: 12px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-right: 0; border: 0");
 img.setAttribute("src","http://images.websnapr.com/?url="+_d);
 img.setAttribute("width",202);
 img.setAttribute("height",152);
 img.setAttribute("alt","Snapshot");
}

function detachBubble(_12){
 lbActions=getElementsByClassName(document,"div","previewbubble");
 for(i=0;i<lbActions.length;i++){
 lbActions[i].parentNode.removeChild(lbActions[i]);
 }
}

old_websnapr_refreshTiddler = Story.prototype.refreshTiddler;
Story.prototype.refreshTiddler = function(title,template,force)
{
 var tiddlerElem = old_websnapr_refreshTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
 bindBubbles();
 return tiddlerElem;
}
//}}}
Cotton French Terry (100% CO)
    Cotton fabric with a jersey look outside and terry loops inside. Ensures comfort for sports and leisure activities. Popular in sporty or casual clothing.
Cotton French Terry Elastane (95% CO/ 5% EL)
    Light weight French Terry fabric with elasticity through Elastane for enhanced movement and additional comfort.
Cotton Jersey (100% CO)
    Knitted natural fiber which is soft and comfortable to wear.
Cotton Jersey Elastane (95% CO/ 5% EL)
    Cotton fabric that offers elasticity through Elastane for more comfort and movement.
Mesh Fabrics
    Knitted Fabric with small holes in its structure ensures enhanced breathability where it is needed.
PES Woven Peach
    Soft touch woven material which is used for men’s training pants. It gives a sportive and leisure look at the same time and is comfortable to wear.
Polyamide (92% PA/ 8% EL)
    Functional and stretchable fabric with Elastane which transports moisture away from the body. Together with its soft touch it stands for comfort during all kinds of active sports.
Polyester 895% PES/ 5% EL)
    Functional and stretchable fabric with Elastane which transports moisture away from the body. A brushed finish gives the fabric a soft cotton hand feel.
Polyester Woven (100% PES)
    Soft touch woven material which is used for different kid’s of feminine woven suits. Light and comfortable.
Polyester Woven Stretch (95% PES/ 5% EL)
    Stretchable woven fabric with Elastane which ensures freedom of movement during sports activities.
Velour’s (80% Co/ 20% PES)
    This soft material with a natural stretch function provides you with a cozy and warm feeling for enhanced well-being.
Viscose (95% Viscose / 5% EL or 90% Viscose/ 10% EL)
    Modern fiber from regenerated cellulose. Light eight, soft and flowing material with is comfortable and easy to wear.
!Fabric abbreviations
AF – Other Fibers
CLY – Lyocell
CMD – Modal
CO – Cotton / Baumwolle
CV – Viscose
EA – elastane
EL – Elastane aka spandex
HA – Hemp / Hanf
LI – Flax / Linen
ME – Metallic
PA – Nylon / Polyamid
PBT -polyester
PC – acrylic
PES – Polyester
PM – polyester
PUR – Polyurethane
SE – Silk / Seide
!!Some Italian Translations and Abbreviations:
VI – also means viscose
WA – angora wool
WK – camel hair wool
WL – Lama Wool
WM – Mohair (Goat) Wool
WO – Wool (Sheep by default)
WP – Alpaca Wool
WP – can also mean baby alpaca Wool
WS – Cashmere Goat aka Kaschmir and Cachemire and (incorrectly) Kashmir
WV – Virgin Fleece Wool
!!Softshell
http://www.backcountry.com/store/newsletter/a127/What-THE-HECK-is-Soft-Shell.html
[[Oscar Wilde]]
// //''Name:'' FAQ List
// //''Version:'' 1.4 for TW 2.0.0
// //''Author:'' AlanHecht
// //''Type:'' [[Macro|Macros]]

// //''Description:'' FAQ List lets you compile a list of Frequently Asked Questions and present them in a cascading style for the viewer. Each question is turned into a link that will toggle the view of the answer text. The list can be compiled either from all tiddlers containing a certain tag or from a single tiddler that contains all the needed questions and answers.

// //''Syntax:'' << {{{ faqlist mode source sortBy hrSeparator }}} >>
// // ''faqlist:'' the macro call (required)
// // ''mode:'' either "byTag" or "byTitle" (required)
// // ''source:'' the associated tag or tiddler title (required)
// // ''sortBy:'' if byTag, sort can be "title," "modifier," "modified." If byTitle, sort can be "question" and will reorder the questions in alphabetical order. (this parameter is optional; use "null" if you don't want a sort order, but want to use "hr" as the last paramter)
// // ''hrSeparator:'' if "hr" is included at the end of the call string, each question/answer set will be separated by a horizontal rule.
// //Examples: (edit these two tiddlers to see the syntax used for each)
// // • [[FAQ Method One]] (compiled from tiddlers tagged with a certain tag)
// // • [[FAQ Method Two]] (compiled using the content of a single tiddler)
// // • @@color(#ff0000):''New!''@@ [[FAQ Method Three]] (uses the {{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro to pull the faq questions from a single tiddler and the answers from other tiddlers...very cool!)

// //''Directions:'' <<tiddler StartupBehaviorDirections>> <<tiddler MacroDirections>>

// //''Notes:'' If you choose to use byTitle mode where the entire set of questions/answers comes from a single tiddler, the syntax for the tiddler content is as follows:
// // • Each question must be a single line (i.e. no hard returns) but can wrap as needed
// // • The answer to a question begins on the next line after the question and can be as long as needed. It can also include hard returns as part of the answer text, but it cannot include empty lines (i.e. an empty line is the result of pressing enter twice).
// // • Each question/answer set must be seperated by two hard returns (i.e. must have a single, blank line between them.
// // Refer to [[FAQ Tiddler Sample]] for an example.

// //''Known Issues:'' If a user clicks too quickly to toggle a FAQ entry on/off, they will go into tiddler edit mode. This should be corrected in the future by allowing web-hosted versions of the faq to disable double-clicking.

// //''Revision History:''
// // v0.1.0 (01 August 2005): initial release
// // v0.1.1 (04 August 2005): Fixed an endless loop bug (thanks to Kevin Kleinfelter).
// // v0.1.2 (19 October 2005): Fixed TW compatibility .32 bugs (newline for block quote and e.preventDefault by Clint Checketts)
// // v0.1.3 (01 November 2005): Thanks to Clint's work, I fixed a similar "jump to top" problem when using the expand & collapse buttons. Also added the description for [[FAQ Method Three]]
// // v0.1.4 (05 January 2006): Created a special version of FaqList to work with TW v2.0.0


// //''Code section:''
version.extensions.faqlist = {major: 0, minor: 1, revision: 4, date: new Date("Jan 05, 2006")};
config.macros.faqlist = {
 bulletCollapse: "",
 bulletExpand: "*",
 expandButton: {title: "Expand All", tooltip: "Open all items for reading"},
 collapseButton: {title: "Collapse All", tooltip: "Close all items"}
};
config.macros.faqlist.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
 lingo = config.macros.faqlist;
 var mode = params[0].toLowerCase();
 var list = [];
 switch(mode)
 {
 case "bytag":
 var tagged = store.getTaggedTiddlers(params[1], params[2]);
 for(t=0; t<tagged.length; t++)
 {
 var title = tagged[t].title;
 list[t] = [title,store.getTiddlerText(title)];
 }
 var subTitle = store.fetchTiddler(title).getSubtitle();
 break;
 case "bytitle":
 var faqText = store.getTiddlerText(params[1]);
 var faqItems = faqText.split("\n\n");
 if(params[2] == "question")
 faqItems.sort();
 for(t=0; t<faqItems.length; t++)
 {
 list[t] = [faqItems[t].substring(0,faqItems[t].indexOf("\n")),faqItems[t].substring(faqItems[t].indexOf("\n")+1)];
 }
 var subTitle = null;
 break;
 }
 
 var faqHeading = place.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
 faqHeading.appendChild(createTiddlyButton(faqHeading,lingo.expandButton.title,lingo.expandButton.tooltip,faqExpandAll));
 faqHeading.appendChild(createTiddlyButton(faqHeading,lingo.collapseButton.title,lingo.collapseButton.tooltip,faqCollapseAll));
 faqHeading.appendChild(document.createElement("p"));
 var faqBody = place.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
 for(var t=0; t<list.length; t++)
 {
 var title = list[t][0];

 var content = "<<<\n" + list[t][1] + "=\n<<<\n";
 var theClass = "tiddlyLinkExisting tiddlyLink";
 var itemHeading = faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
 itemHeading.appendChild(document.createTextNode(config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " "));
 createTiddlyButton(itemHeading,title,subTitle,faqToggleThis,theClass);
 var itemBody = faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
 itemBody.style.display = "none";
 itemBody.className = "itemBody";
 wikify(content,itemBody,null,null);
 faqBody.appendChild(itemBody);
 faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("p"));
 if(params[3] == "hr")
 faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("hr"));
 }
}

function faqToggleThis(e)
{
 var content = this.parentNode.nextSibling;
 var shown = content.style.display;
 if(shown == "none")
 {
 content.style.display = "inline";
 this.previousSibling.nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletExpand + " ";
 }
 else
 {
 content.style.display = "none";
 this.previousSibling.nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " ";
 }
}

function faqExpandAll(e)
{
 for(t=0; t<this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes.length; t++)
 {
 if(this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].className == "itemBody")
 {
 this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].style.display = "inline";
 this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].previousSibling.childNodes[0].nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletExpand + " ";
 }
 }
// e.preventDefault();
}

function faqCollapseAll(e)
{
 for(t=0; t<this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes.length; t++)
 {
 if(this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].className == "itemBody")
 {
 this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].style.display = "none";
 this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].previousSibling.childNodes[0].nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " ";
 }
 }
// e.preventDefault();
}
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturated_fat_and_cardiovascular_disease_controversy
[[UltraShape Power (Syneron Candela)|http://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/fda-clears-non-invasive-fat-destruction-device]]
!Some original sources
+++[Fats that heal, fats that kill]
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2l9OcyLYy8sC&lpg=PA62&dq=lecithin&pg=PA243#v=onepage&q=lecithin&f=true
----
<html><body>
<iframe frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2l9OcyLYy8sC&lpg=PA62&dq=lecithin&pg=PA243&output=embed" width=500 height=500></iframe>
</body></html>
===
!What is fat?
!Good fats
[[Coconut]]
[[Fat fighters]]
!General car maintenance information
Fiat Punto 1.2 Active 3DR - NG03 DVF 2003
----
http://www.carbasics.co.uk
!Fiat forums and help
http://www.fiatforum.com/punto-guides/
http://www.fiatforum.com/punto/
http://forums.preloved.co.uk/fuseaction-forums.listthreads/sec-Motoring/category-Fiat/e2a08aa3.html
http://www.diynot.com/forums/
!Fiat spare parts
http://www.thehappymotorist.co.uk/
http://www.247spares.co.uk/fiat
http://fiat-punto.sgpetch.co.uk/pages/parts
http://www.fiatparts4u.co.uk/
http://www.expresscarparts.co.uk - good diagrams
http://www.mister-auto.co.uk
!Breakers or Auto dismantlers
M&J Modern Car Spares - Wallsend Road, North Shields, NE29 7SH 0191 2961616 http://www.mjautosalvage.com
----
+++[Batteries]
Calcium based is better for lots of short journeys.
----
Always be sure to check the ground wire first as most ground systems are connected to the negative terminal. 
----
http://www.atbatt.com/car-battery/faq
----
http://www.thebatteryguys.co.uk/12-solite-202.html?category=Fiat&car=Punto%201.1,%201.2%20Petrol
===
+++[Oil and filter]
Synthetic based multigrade oil - SAE 5W/30 to 10W/40
===
+++[Windscreen wipers]
part number 51704326
*Fiat Punto 03-07 Wiper Motor Linkage Windscreen New GEN - £66 from Ebay - http://myworld.ebay.co.uk/parts-direct-uk/
*Wipex who supply a new set of linkage arms - http://www.puntowipers.com/ - £30
*A temporary [[clip|http://www.askthemechanic.co.uk/puntowipers/]] for £5
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRxaZwOSwEI
http://www.askthemechanic.co.uk/puntowipers/index.html
http://www.fiatforum.com/punto/280319-cheapest-punto-1-8-wiper-motor-linkage.html#post2844492
*Removal and replace video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgsN3Fj6Ypg
http://www.fiatforum.com/punto-mk2-2b-guides/348504-how-replace-front-wiper-motor.html
===
+++[Induction Kit]
http://www.europerformance.co.uk/pages/products/product_info.mhtml?product=12569649
===
+++[Fiat Punto Gas Struts]
http://www.bootstruts.co.uk/boot-gas-struts-fitting-guide
Most struts have two part numbers, a force rating and a batch code printed on them.
46744596 UM 050201
''6986MG 0330N''
===
+++[Exhaust parts]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjRjZ7OEddU
Fiat Punto 2003 188 1.2 60
Holts Gun Gum Flexiwrap
Exhaust bandage

===
!Car parts Wallsend
Daves Auto Parts - Car Accessories And Parts NE28 8HZ - 0191 263 0596
!!(car and vehicle dismantlers = scrapyards)
Norman Marshall Ltd, Unit 12, Newburn Industrial Estate, Shelley Rd, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE15 9RT Tel: ''0191 2645066 ''
M and J, Wallsend Rd, North Shields, Tyne And Wear NE29 7SH ''0191 296 1616''
Backworth auto dismantlers, West Hollywell, NE270HZ ''0191 2684203''
Rowley's auto dismantlers, 73-74 Hudson Street, N Shields NE30 1DL ''0191 2579697''
!Garages Newcastle
New Princess Motors - NE61QU 01912652757 - Adrian and Arthur
ATS - Mark for exhaust repairs
----
!Steering
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY4LG_ThAGc&feature=youtube_gdata_player
!Lamb baked on figs and fennel
Serves 4
21 November 2004
4 baby or small fennel bulbs, sliced
6 figs, halved
2tbsp olive oil
Sea salt and cracked black pepper
¼ cup (2fl oz) white wine vinegar
2tbsp brown sugar
2 x 6-cutlet lamb racks, trimmed
Preheat the oven to 200C (390F). Line a baking tray with baking paper. Place the fennel and figs on the tray. Combine the oil, salt, pepper, vinegar and sugar, pour over the fennel and figs and bake for 10 minutes. Sprinkle the lamb with salt and pepper and add to the pan. Cook for a further 20 minutes or until the lamb is cooked to your liking. To serve, place the fennel mixture on serving plates, slice the lamb into cutlets, place on the fennel, then spoon over the pan juices. 
A simple fig tart
Fruit, pastry and a bit of fruit jelly. What could be simpler? A little cream, served in a jug, would be in order here. Serve the tart warm, not cold. Serves 4-6.
a 400g block of puff pastry
8-10 figs, depending on their size
200g apple or redcurrant jelly
Set the oven at 220C/gas mark 8. Roll the pastry into a long thin rectangle, roughly 22 x 30cm. It should be really quite thin. Trim the edges neatly and lift it onto a non-stick baking sheet.
Cut each fig into 4 or 5 flat slices. Lay these over the pastry, each one slightly overlapping the next, leaving a small rim around the edge of the pastry.
Bake until the pastry is golden and risen (15-20 minutes). Melt the jelly in a small saucepan. Remove the tart from the oven, then spoon the jelly over. Return it to the oven for a few minutes, then remove and leave to cool a bit before serving. Eat warm. 
Marsala figs with sable biscuits
This wonderful combination of flavours and textures makes a truly delightful light summer dessert.
serves 4
8 ripe figs, halved
good splash of Marsala
sprinkling of sugar
juice of lemon
juice of orange
for the sable biscuits:
75g shelled and skinned hazelnuts
575g plain flour
300g butter
225g icing sugar
a pinch of salt
1 vanilla pod, crushed using a mortar and pestle
3 eggs, lightly beaten
First, gently toss the fig halves in the other ingredients and leave to macerate for at least an hour, preferably overnight, turning them carefully from time to time.
To make the sable biscuits, preheat the oven to 140 C/275 F/gas mark 1 and line a baking tray with baking paper. Grind two-thirds of the nuts finely in a blender or food processor. Add the rest of the nuts with all the remaining ingredients except the eggs and blend until the mixture has the consistency of fine crumbs. Add the eggs and knead lightly to a loose paste. Leave to rest for 20 minutes (it will stiffen up in that time). Spoon the paste into rounds onto the prepared baking tray to make biscuits, spaced well apart to allow for spreading. Cook for 15-20 minutes, until the biscuits are lightly browned around the edges and coming away readily from the baking paper. Leave to cool, then carefully lift from the paper.
Serve two fig halves with each biscuit and drizzle with the Marsala syrup.
Cut each dried fig in half, spread on some honey and then top with a small piece of orange rind and a few slices of walnut, pistachio, or almond. Cover with the other fig half and bake in the oven for about 15 minutes at about 350 F. The combination of the figs, honey, nuts and orange rind will give your home a wonderful scent. 
Almonds can be substituted for the walnuts, but I prefer black walnuts as they have a rich nutty flavor. I also like to add a little chopped chocolate to the filling which gives a sweetnes to the cookie. To complete the cookie, you can either use an egg wash before baking, with colored sprinkles, or simply dust with confectioner’s sugar before serving as is shown in the photo. These cookies keep well in an airtight tin for two to three weeks.
!!Dough:
2 ½ Cups All-purpose Flour
½ Cup Sugar
2 Teaspoons Baking Powder
½ Teaspoon Salt
6 Tablespoons Unsalted, Soft Butter (About ¾ Of A Stick)
2 Large Eggs
1 Teaspoon Vanilla Extract
!!Filling:
2 Cups Moist Dried Figs (Either Dark Or Light)
½ Cup Raisins
1 Cup Walnuts, Toasted And Chopped
½ Cup Dark Chocolate, Chopped
1/3 Cup Honey
1/3 Cup Orange Juice
1 Teaspoon Cinnamon
¼ Teaspoon Nutmeg
¼ Teaspoon Cloves
1 Teaspoon Orange Zest, Finely Chopped
!!To Complete:
*Confectioner’s Sugar
To prepare the dough, place the figs, raisins and chocolate in a food processor and pulse until finely chopped. Add the walnuts and pulse briefly again. Transfer to a bowl, and add the remaining filling ingredients. Stir well and set aside while you make the dough.
To make the dough, combine the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt in a large bowl. Cut the butter into the flour mixture until the mixture becomes pea sized pieces. Whisk together the eggs and vanilla, and mix this into the flour mixture. Knead very briefly to create a smooth dough, adding a little ice water if the dough is too dry to work. Bring the dough into a ball, wrap in plastic wrap, and refrigerate for 1 hour.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Butter two baking sheets, or cover with silicon sheets. Cut the dough into 6 equal sized pieces, and place one on a lightly floured surface. Roll this dough into a 9 X 5 inch rectangle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife, and spoon a strip of filling down the center about 1 inch in width. Lightly wet the edges of the dough with water, and then close, by folding one edge over the filling, and then the other, pressing the edges to seal. Roll the log over on the seam, and cut it into 3 pieces. With a sharp knife, make three slits into one side of each piece, about ¾ inches long. Curve the pieces to open the slits and reveal the filling, and place the cookies on a baking sheet about 1 inch apart. Continue using up the remaining dough in this manner. Bake for about 25 minutes, or until the cookies are lightly browned. Cool, and lightly dust with the icing sugar before serving. Store in airtight containers. 
!Gingered Figs
Ingredients
20 dried figs
3 cups cold water
1 tbsp light molasses
2 tsp powdered ginger
½ cup sugar
Instructions
Place figs and water in saucepan. Bring to hard boil, then lower heat and simmer. Cover figs and cook for 20 minutes. Add molasses, ginger and sugar. Stir gently in order to avoid breaking figs. Simmer for 15 minutes more or until figs are plumped and tender. Wonderful with ham, pork, chicken, steak or roast beef.
Makes 5 to 6 servings 
http://www.the-mausoleum-club.org.uk/xmb/index.php
http://thedvdforums.com/forums/index.php
!Job Search
+++^[Metasearch sites]
http://www.jobisjob.co.uk
http://jobs.trovit.co.uk
http://www.indeed.co.uk
http://www.simplyhired.co.uk
===
+++^[Job sites]
http://www.people4business.com/opportunities.htm
http://www.cwjobs.co.uk/
http://jobs.guardian.co.uk/
http://jobs.guardian.co.uk/webfeeds/
https://jobs.bbc.co.uk/fe/tpl_bbc01.asp?newms=se
http://www.jobs.nhs.uk/
!North East
http://www.jobsnortheast.co.uk/
!Freelance
http://www.freelancers.net/
http://www.joomlancers.com/index.php
===
+++^[Local Authorities]
http://jobs.leeds.gov.uk/Jobs.aspx
===
+++[Language jobs]
http://www.lrsuk.com/index.php
----
<<rssReader asHtml http://www.proz.com/rss.php?id=769171&auth=4cdb18fba094e4ab64e070e53f102281&channel=jobs>>
<<rssReader asHtml http://www.toplanguagejobs.com/jobfeed_lan_12.xml>>
===
+++[Creative jobs]
http://www.majorplayers.co.uk
http://jobs.nma.co.uk
===
+++[Web and Media]
http://econsultancy.com/jobs
http://jobs.chinwag.com/#browse
===
+++[Education]
http://www.tes.co.uk/home.aspx
===
----
+++[Newcastle jobs]
http://www.jobstoday.co.uk/local-jobs/newcastle
http://www.kings-tynemouth.org.uk/vacancies.asp
http://www.thesagegateshead.org/about/careers_vacancies.aspx
http://www.st-wilfrids.org
http://www.altituderecruitment.co.uk/
http://www.ncl-coll.ac.uk/about-us/job-vacancies.aspx
(Hourly Paid - ESOL Lecturing Opportunities)
===
!Jobs Newsfeeds
+++[Guardian Media]
<<rssReader asHtml http://jobs.guardian.co.uk/searchjobsrss?industry=235>>
===
+++[PFJ]
<<rssReader asHtml http://www.pfj.co.uk/rss.asp/SectorID/7>>
===
----

----
[[Interviews]]

http://www.journalism.co.uk
Chongqing or Chengdu or Nanchong or Guang'an
http://www.teachcn.com
http://www.abroadchina.org/
http://www.jobsinchina.com/
http://www.cathayteacher.com/
http://www.chinajob.com/
http://www.foreignhr.com
http://www.expatsinchina.com/index.php/expat-jobs.html
http://www.china-teachers.com/
http://www.teachcn.com/
!Chilli and tomato fish
Serves 4
21 November 2004
1tbsp olive oil
1 onion, sliced
1/4tsp chilli flakes
4 x 180g (6oz) firm white fish fillets
Sea salt and cracked black pepper
3 ripe tomatoes, cut into thin wedges
2tsp grated lemon rind
2tbsp chopped flat-leaf parsley
Heat a frying pan over medium-high heat. Add the oil, onion and chilli and cook for 3 minutes. Sprinkle the fish with salt and pepper and add to the pan. Cook for 4-5 minutes each side or until just cooked through. Set aside and keep warm. Increase the heat to high, add the tomatoes and lemon rind to pan and cook for 3 minutes or until just soft. Stir through the parsley. Place the fish on serving plates and top with the tomato sauce.
Roast halibut with capers, lemon and parsley
Given a spanking fresh piece of white fish, I sometimes do nothing more to it than rub it with salt and roast it in a very hot oven, its only gilding the juice from a fat Sicilian lemon and a modest pile of lightly steamed spinach. Last time, I got the parsley out too, and a few delectably piquant little capers. This to me is a feast of the first order. You can keep your fancy French sauces.
serves 2
halibut steaks - 2 x 225g
olive oil
salted capers - 2 tbsp
flat-leaf parsley - the leaves from a small bunch
juice of a large lemon
to serve: steamed spinach, lemon halves
Set the oven at 230 c/gas 8. Warm 2 tablespoons of olive oil in a flame-proof baking dish over a moderate flame. Rub the fish generously with salt and pepper and brown lightly on one side in the hot oil. A minute should suffice. Put the fish into the hot oven and bake for 7-8 minutes until opaque and the flesh parts easily from the bone.
Chop the parsley and rinse the capers. Lift out the fish onto warm plates and place the baking dish over a moderate flame. Scatter in the capers and parsley, squeeze in the lemon juice and grind in a little salt and pepper. Drizzle in a little extra virgin olive oil and bring very briefly to a fierce bubble. Tip the lot over the fish and serve.
!Theory
For the last decade, the science of aging has increasingly focused on sirtuins, a group of genes that are believed to protect many organisms, including mammals, against diseases of aging. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that resveratrol, a compound found in the skin of grapes as well as in peanuts and berries, increases the activity of a specific sirtuin, SIRT1, that protects the body from diseases by revving up the mitochondria, a kind of cellular battery that slowly runs down as we age. By recharging the batteries, SIRT1 can have profound effects on health.
!Exercise
[[How to work out at home (without equipment)|http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/get-inspired/32416767]]
https://hms.harvard.edu/news/new-study-validates-longevity-pathway-3-7-13
!Diet
scientists identified a molecule that, all by itself, managed to re-establish the cell's ability to recycle the components of the defective mitochondria: ''urolithin A''. "It's the only known molecule that can relaunch the mitochondrial clean-up process,
!!Anti-ageing enzyme
The target enzyme, SIRT1, is switched on naturally by calorie restriction and exercise, but it can also be enhanced through activators. The most common naturally-occurring activator is resveratrol, which is found in small quantities in red wine
Prolonged fasting also led to a drop in IGF-1, a growth factor hormone linked to aging, cancer and tumor progression.
!Antioxidants
''Vitamin A'' – To help minimize the lipid peroxidation of cell membranes
''Alpha tocopherol'' (the active form of Vitamin E) – To inhibit enzymes which promote the breakdown of collagen and to protect cell membranes from oxidation
''Vitamin C'' (essential for collagen production) – To quench free oxygen radicals produced by ultraviolet radiation and to assist Vitamin E in protecting cell membranes
''Co-enzyme Q-10'' (a component of all cell membranes) – To help regenerate other antioxidants present in cells
''Green tea'' (contain antioxidant polyphenolos) – To protect against redness and swelling induced by UV radiation
''Grape seed extract'' – a strong antioxidant in combination with other antioxidants from free radical damage during cellular respiration
''Resveratrol and Polydatin'' (found in highest concentrations in grape skins) – To help inhibit lipid peroxidation similarly to Vitamins C and E
''Idebonone'' – The key ingredient in Allergan’s newest product, Provage - Helps repair skin damage and promote healthy skin growth
''Algae'' – To close up capillaries (a treatment for rosacea), lighten pigmentation, stimulate collagen

''Spin Traps'' – Know as the ‘intelligent antioxidant’. Spin traps do not destroy free radicals, but sense when molecules are off track, trap and detoxify them. As a result, they turn free radicals into useful oxygen to be used for tissue respiration
http://www.diydoctor.org.uk/projects/fixingtomasonry.htm
http://www.lets-do-diy.com/Projects-and-advice/Concrete-work/Mixing-concrete-and-mortar.aspx
*Spit Tapcon Countersunk Concrete Screws
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djotP-sR4mU
Cuts thread into concrete, brick and hollow block. Removable, adjustable and reusable. No need for plugs or pre-marking. Reversed hi-lo thread and blue climaseal finish. Use close to edges and approved for pre-cast hollow pot beams. 
Use 4mm pilot for 5.3mm screws and 5mm drill for 6.4mm screws.  
http://www.flashcardexchange.com/
http://www.quizlet.com
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/travel/beat-budget-airline-charges
http://www.whichbudget.com/
----
+++^[Airlines]
http://www.germanwings.com
http://wizzair.com
http://www.klm.com/travel/ca_en/index.htm
http://www.jet2.com - Cork and Murcia
http://www.easyjet.com/splash.asp?lang=en
https://www.ryanair.com/cy/en/ - To Milan, Oslo and Dublin
http://www3.flybe.com/ is now Ryanair
http://www.enjoyrome.com/index.html
http://www.travel-library.com/b&b/europe/italy/rome/
http://www.bmibaby.com/bmibaby/html/en/splash.htm
http://www.britishairways.com/travel/home/public/en_gb
===
+++^[Airports]
http://www.newcastleairport.com
http://www.stanstedairport.com/
===
+++[Budget Flight checkers]
http://www.flightcentre.co.uk/
http://flightchecker.moneysavingexpert.com
http://www.skyscanner.net
http://www.kayak.co.uk
http://www.sidestep.com
===
+++[Far East]
http://www.travelbagonline.co.uk
http://www.freedomasia.co.uk/
http://www.flightsandfly.co.uk/
===
!Travel to and from an airport
*Stansted to London
**National Express return fare: £17.50 normal journey (1 1/2 hours) £26 Express
*Stansted to Cambridge
**National Express return fare: £13.50 (50 minutes)or Train £14.80 (30 minutes but 20min walk to Centre)
*Reading to Heathrow
**National Express return fare: £23 normal journey
!Misleading Plane fares
This is how the price stacks up for a so-called low fare for a return flight from Newcastle to Pisa. 
!!Newcastle - Pisa
Base Fare     £26.99
Taxes and Charges     £26.00
Bags    £15.99
Online Check-in    £5.00
Total:   '' £73.98 ''
!!Pisa - Newcastle
Base Fare     €14.99
Taxes and Charges    €31.00
Bags    €20.00
Online Check-in    €7.00
Total:     ''€72.99'' + a booking fee which they don't tell you until you have filled in all your details
----
This song about "cheap flights" says it all:
<html><body>
<object style="height: 390px; width: 640px"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/HPyl2tOaKxM?version=3"><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/HPyl2tOaKxM?version=3" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="640" height="390"></object>
</body></html>
//~~(Part of the [[ForEachTiddlerPlugin]])~~//

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]] is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|


''Using JavaScript''

To give you a lot of flexibility the [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] uses JavaScript in its arguments. Even if you are not that familiar with JavaScript you may find forEachTiddler useful. Just have a look at the various ready-to-use [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]] and adapt them to your needs.

''The Elements of the Macro''

The arguments of the ForEachTiddlerMacro consist of multiple parts, each of them being optional.

<<slider chkFETInClause [[inClause]] "inClause" "inClause">>
<<slider chkFETWhereClause [[whereClause]] "whereClause" "whereClause">>
<<slider chkFETSortClause [[sortClause]] "sortClause" "sortClause">>
<<slider chkFETScriptClause [[scriptClause]] "scriptClause" "scriptClause">>
<<slider chkFETActions [[Action Specification]] "Action Specification" "Action Specification">>

''Using Macros and ">" inside the forEachTiddler Macro''

You may use other macro calls into the expression, especially in the actionParameters. To avoid that the {{{>>}}} of such a macro call is misinterpreted as the end of the {{{<<forEachTiddler...>>}}} macro you must escape the {{{>>}}} of the inner macro with {{{$))}}} E.g. if you want to use {{{<<tiddler ...>>}}} inside the {{{forEachTiddler}}} macro you have to write {{{<<tiddler ...$))}}}.

In addition it is necessary to escape single {{{>}}} with the text {{{$)}}}.



See also [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].
/***
|''Name:''|ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.8 (2007-04-12)|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]|
|''Copyright:''|&copy; 2005-2007 [[abego Software|http://www.abego-software.de]]|
|''TiddlyWiki:''|1.2.38+, 2.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; Firefox 1.5; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Description

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]] is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|

See details see [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] and [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].

!Revision history
* v1.0.8 (2007-04-12)
** Adapted to latest TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta importTiddlyWiki API (introduced with changeset 2004). TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta builds prior to changeset 2004 are no longer supported (but TiddlyWiki 2.1 and earlier, of cause)
* v1.0.7 (2007-03-28)
** Also support "pre" formatted TiddlyWikis (introduced with TW 2.2) (when using "in" clause to work on external tiddlers)
* v1.0.6 (2006-09-16)
** Context provides "viewerTiddler", i.e. the tiddler used to view the macro. Most times this is equal to the "inTiddler", but when using the "tiddler" macro both may be different.
** Support "begin", "end" and "none" expressions in "write" action
* v1.0.5 (2006-02-05)
** Pass tiddler containing the macro with wikify, context object also holds reference to tiddler containing the macro ("inTiddler"). Thanks to SimonBaird.
** Support Firefox 1.5.0.1
** Internal
*** Make "JSLint" conform
*** "Only install once"
* v1.0.4 (2006-01-06)
** Support TiddlyWiki 2.0
* v1.0.3 (2005-12-22)
** Features: 
*** Write output to a file supports multi-byte environments (Thanks to Bram Chen) 
*** Provide API to access the forEachTiddler functionality directly through JavaScript (see getTiddlers and performMacro)
** Enhancements:
*** Improved error messages on InternetExplorer.
* v1.0.2 (2005-12-10)
** Features: 
*** context object also holds reference to store (TiddlyWiki)
** Fixed Bugs: 
*** ForEachTiddler 1.0.1 has broken support on win32 Opera 8.51 (Thanks to BrunoSabin for reporting)
* v1.0.1 (2005-12-08)
** Features: 
*** Access tiddlers stored in separated TiddlyWikis through the "in" option. I.e. you are no longer limited to only work on the "current TiddlyWiki".
*** Write output to an external file using the "toFile" option of the "write" action. With this option you may write your customized tiddler exports.
*** Use the "script" section to define "helper" JavaScript functions etc. to be used in the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...).
*** Access and store context information for the current forEachTiddler invocation (through the build-in "context" object) .
*** Improved script evaluation (for where/sort clause and write scripts).
* v1.0.0 (2005-11-20)
** initial version

!Code
***/
//{{{

 
//============================================================================
//============================================================================
// ForEachTiddlerPlugin
//============================================================================
//============================================================================

// Only install once
if (!version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin) {

if (!window.abego) window.abego = {};

version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin = {
 major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, 
 date: new Date(2007,3,12), 
 source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin",
 licence: "[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]",
 copyright: "Copyright (c) abego Software GmbH, 2005-2007 (www.abego-software.de)"
};

// For backward compatibility with TW 1.2.x
//
if (!TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler) {
 TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler = function(callback) {
 for(var t in this.tiddlers) {
 callback.call(this,t,this.tiddlers[t]);
 }
 };
}

//============================================================================
// forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================

version.extensions.forEachTiddler = {
 major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, date: new Date(2007,3,12), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configurations and constants 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler = {
 // Standard Properties
 label: "forEachTiddler",
 prompt: "Perform actions on a (sorted) selection of tiddlers",

 // actions
 actions: {
 addToList: {},
 write: {}
 }
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// The forEachTiddler Macro Handler 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler = function(e) {
 while(e && !hasClass(e,"tiddler"))
 e = e.parentNode;
 var title = e ? e.getAttribute("tiddler") : null; 
 return title ? store.getTiddler(title) : null;
};

config.macros.forEachTiddler.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
 // config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);

 if (!tiddler) tiddler = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(place);
 // --- Parsing ------------------------------------------

 var i = 0; // index running over the params
 // Parse the "in" clause
 var tiddlyWikiPath = undefined;
 if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "in") {
 i++;
 if (i >= params.length) {
 this.handleError(place, "TiddlyWiki path expected behind 'in'.");
 return;
 }
 tiddlyWikiPath = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
 i++;
 }

 // Parse the where clause
 var whereClause ="true";
 if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "where") {
 i++;
 whereClause = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
 i++;
 }

 // Parse the sort stuff
 var sortClause = null;
 var sortAscending = true; 
 if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "sortBy") {
 i++;
 if (i >= params.length) {
 this.handleError(place, "sortClause missing behind 'sortBy'.");
 return;
 }
 sortClause = this.paramEncode(params[i]);
 i++;

 if ((i < params.length) && (params[i] == "ascending" || params[i] == "descending")) {
 sortAscending = params[i] == "ascending";
 i++;
 }
 }

 // Parse the script
 var scriptText = null;
 if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "script") {
 i++;
 scriptText = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
 i++;
 }

 // Parse the action. 
 // When we are already at the end use the default action
 var actionName = "addToList";
 if (i < params.length) {
 if (!config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[params[i]]) {
 this.handleError(place, "Unknown action '"+params[i]+"'.");
 return;
 } else {
 actionName = params[i]; 
 i++;
 }
 } 
 
 // Get the action parameter
 // (the parsing is done inside the individual action implementation.)
 var actionParameter = params.slice(i);


 // --- Processing ------------------------------------------
 try {
 this.performMacro({
 place: place, 
 inTiddler: tiddler,
 whereClause: whereClause, 
 sortClause: sortClause, 
 sortAscending: sortAscending, 
 actionName: actionName, 
 actionParameter: actionParameter, 
 scriptText: scriptText, 
 tiddlyWikiPath: tiddlyWikiPath});

 } catch (e) {
 this.handleError(place, e);
 }
};

// Returns an object with properties "tiddlers" and "context".
// tiddlers holds the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter,
// context the context of the execution of the macro.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlersAndContext = function(parameter) {

 var context = config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext(parameter.place, parameter.whereClause, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, parameter.actionName, parameter.actionParameter, parameter.scriptText, parameter.tiddlyWikiPath, parameter.inTiddler);

 var tiddlyWiki = parameter.tiddlyWikiPath ? this.loadTiddlyWiki(parameter.tiddlyWikiPath) : store;
 context["tiddlyWiki"] = tiddlyWiki;
 
 // Get the tiddlers, as defined by the whereClause
 var tiddlers = this.findTiddlers(parameter.whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki);
 context["tiddlers"] = tiddlers;

 // Sort the tiddlers, when sorting is required.
 if (parameter.sortClause) {
 this.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, context);
 }

 return {tiddlers: tiddlers, context: context};
};

// Returns the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlers = function(parameter) {
 return this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter).tiddlers;
};

// Performs the macros with the given parameter.
//
// @param parameter holds the parameter of the macro as separate properties.
// The following properties are supported:
//
// place
// whereClause
// sortClause
// sortAscending
// actionName
// actionParameter
// scriptText
// tiddlyWikiPath
//
// All properties are optional. 
// For most actions the place property must be defined.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.performMacro = function(parameter) {
 var tiddlersAndContext = this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter);

 // Perform the action
 var actionName = parameter.actionName ? parameter.actionName : "addToList";
 var action = config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[actionName];
 if (!action) {
 this.handleError(parameter.place, "Unknown action '"+actionName+"'.");
 return;
 }

 var actionHandler = action.handler;
 actionHandler(parameter.place, tiddlersAndContext.tiddlers, parameter.actionParameter, tiddlersAndContext.context);
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// The actions 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
// --- The addToList Action -----------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.addToList.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
 // Parse the parameter
 var p = 0;

 // Check for extra parameters
 if (parameter.length > p) {
 config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "addToList", parameter, p);
 return;
 }

 // Perform the action.
 var list = document.createElement("ul");
 place.appendChild(list);
 for (var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
 var listItem = document.createElement("li");
 list.appendChild(listItem);
 createTiddlyLink(listItem, tiddler.title, true);
 }
};

abego.parseNamedParameter = function(name, parameter, i) {
 var beginExpression = null;
 if ((i < parameter.length) && parameter[i] == name) {
 i++;
 if (i >= parameter.length) {
 throw "Missing text behind '%0'".format([name]);
 }
 
 return config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[i]);
 }
 return null;
}

// Internal.
//
// --- The write Action ---------------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.write.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
 // Parse the parameter
 var p = 0;
 if (p >= parameter.length) {
 this.handleError(place, "Missing expression behind 'write'.");
 return;
 }

 var textExpression = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
 p++;

 // Parse the "begin" option
 var beginExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("begin", parameter, p);
 if (beginExpression !== null) 
 p += 2;
 var endExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("end", parameter, p);
 if (endExpression !== null) 
 p += 2;
 var noneExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("none", parameter, p);
 if (noneExpression !== null) 
 p += 2;

 // Parse the "toFile" option
 var filename = null;
 var lineSeparator = undefined;
 if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "toFile") {
 p++;
 if (p >= parameter.length) {
 this.handleError(place, "Filename expected behind 'toFile' of 'write' action.");
 return;
 }
 
 filename = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath(config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]));
 p++;
 if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "withLineSeparator") {
 p++;
 if (p >= parameter.length) {
 this.handleError(place, "Line separator text expected behind 'withLineSeparator' of 'write' action.");
 return;
 }
 lineSeparator = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
 p++;
 }
 }
 
 // Check for extra parameters
 if (parameter.length > p) {
 config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "write", parameter, p);
 return;
 }

 // Perform the action.
 var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(textExpression, context);
 var count = tiddlers.length;
 var text = "";
 if (count > 0 && beginExpression)
 text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(beginExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
 
 for (var i = 0; i < count; i++) {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
 text += func(tiddler, context, count, i);
 }
 
 if (count > 0 && endExpression)
 text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(endExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);

 if (count == 0 && noneExpression) 
 text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(noneExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
 

 if (filename) {
 if (lineSeparator !== undefined) {
 lineSeparator = lineSeparator.replace(/\\n/mg, "\n").replace(/\\r/mg, "\r");
 text = text.replace(/\n/mg,lineSeparator);
 }
 saveFile(filename, convertUnicodeToUTF8(text));
 } else {
 var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place, "span");
 wikify(text, wrapper, null/* highlightRegExp */, context.inTiddler);
 }
};


// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Helpers
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext = function(placeParam, whereClauseParam, sortClauseParam, sortAscendingParam, actionNameParam, actionParameterParam, scriptText, tiddlyWikiPathParam, inTiddlerParam) {
 return {
 place : placeParam, 
 whereClause : whereClauseParam, 
 sortClause : sortClauseParam, 
 sortAscending : sortAscendingParam, 
 script : scriptText,
 actionName : actionNameParam, 
 actionParameter : actionParameterParam,
 tiddlyWikiPath : tiddlyWikiPathParam,
 inTiddler : inTiddlerParam, // the tiddler containing the <<forEachTiddler ...>> macro call.
 viewerTiddler : config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(placeParam) // the tiddler showing the forEachTiddler result
 };
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns a TiddlyWiki with the tiddlers loaded from the TiddlyWiki of 
// the given path.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.loadTiddlyWiki = function(path, idPrefix) {
 if (!idPrefix) {
 idPrefix = "store";
 }
 var lenPrefix = idPrefix.length;
 
 // Read the content of the given file
 var content = loadFile(this.getLocalPath(path));
 if(content === null) {
 throw "TiddlyWiki '"+path+"' not found.";
 }
 
 var tiddlyWiki = new TiddlyWiki();

 // Starting with TW 2.2 there is a helper function to import the tiddlers
 if (tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki) {
 if (!tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki(content))
 throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
 tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;
 return tiddlyWiki;
 }
 
 // The legacy code, for TW < 2.2
 
 // Locate the storeArea div's
 var posOpeningDiv = content.indexOf(startSaveArea);
 var posClosingDiv = content.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
 if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1)) {
 throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
 }
 var storageText = content.substr(posOpeningDiv + startSaveArea.length, posClosingDiv);
 
 // Create a "div" element that contains the storage text
 var myStorageDiv = document.createElement("div");
 myStorageDiv.innerHTML = storageText;
 myStorageDiv.normalize();
 
 // Create all tiddlers in a new TiddlyWiki
 // (following code is modified copy of TiddlyWiki.prototype.loadFromDiv)
 var store = myStorageDiv.childNodes;
 for(var t = 0; t < store.length; t++) {
 var e = store[t];
 var title = null;
 if(e.getAttribute)
 title = e.getAttribute("tiddler");
 if(!title && e.id && e.id.substr(0,lenPrefix) == idPrefix)
 title = e.id.substr(lenPrefix);
 if(title && title !== "") {
 var tiddler = tiddlyWiki.createTiddler(title);
 tiddler.loadFromDiv(e,title);
 }
 }
 tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;

 return tiddlyWiki;
};


 
// Internal.
//
// Returns a function that has a function body returning the given javaScriptExpression.
// The function has the parameters:
// 
// (tiddler, context, count, index)
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction = function (javaScriptExpression, context) {
 var script = context["script"];
 var functionText = "var theFunction = function(tiddler, context, count, index) { return "+javaScriptExpression+"}";
 var fullText = (script ? script+";" : "")+functionText+";theFunction;";
 return eval(fullText);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.findTiddlers = function(whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki) {
 var result = [];
 var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(whereClause, context);
 tiddlyWiki.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler) {
 if (func(tiddler, context, undefined, undefined)) {
 result.push(tiddler);
 }
 });
 return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement = function(place, actionName, parameter, firstUnusedIndex) {
 var message = "Extra parameter behind '"+actionName+"':";
 for (var i = firstUnusedIndex; i < parameter.length; i++) {
 message += " "+parameter[i];
 }
 this.handleError(place, message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortAscending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
 var result = 
 (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
 ? 0
 : (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
 ? -1 
 : +1; 
 return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortDescending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
 var result = 
 (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
 ? 0
 : (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
 ? +1 
 : -1; 
 return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortTiddlers = function(tiddlers, sortClause, ascending, context) {
 // To avoid evaluating the sortClause whenever two items are compared 
 // we pre-calculate the sortValue for every item in the array and store it in a 
 // temporary property ("forEachTiddlerSortValue") of the tiddlers.
 var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(sortClause, context);
 var count = tiddlers.length;
 var i;
 for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
 tiddler.forEachTiddlerSortValue = func(tiddler,context, undefined, undefined);
 }

 // Do the sorting
 tiddlers.sort(ascending ? this.sortAscending : this.sortDescending);

 // Delete the temporary property that holds the sortValue. 
 for (i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
 delete tiddlers[i].forEachTiddlerSortValue;
 }
};


// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.trace = function(message) {
 displayMessage(message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall = function(place,macroName,params) {
 var message ="<<"+macroName;
 for (var i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
 message += " "+params[i];
 }
 message += ">>";
 displayMessage(message);
};


// Internal.
//
// Creates an element that holds an error message
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createErrorElement = function(place, exception) {
 var message = (exception.description) ? exception.description : exception.toString();
 return createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"forEachTiddlerError","<<forEachTiddler ...>>: "+message);
};

// Internal.
//
// @param place [may be null]
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.handleError = function(place, exception) {
 if (place) {
 this.createErrorElement(place, exception);
 } else {
 throw exception;
 }
};

// Internal.
//
// Encodes the given string.
//
// Replaces 
// "$))" to ">>"
// "$)" to ">"
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode = function(s) {
 var reGTGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)\\)","mg");
 var reGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)","mg");
 return s.replace(reGTGT, ">>").replace(reGT, ">");
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns the given original path (that is a file path, starting with "file:")
// as a path to a local file, in the systems native file format.
//
// Location information in the originalPath (i.e. the "#" and stuff following)
// is stripped.
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath = function(originalPath) {
 // Remove any location part of the URL
 var hashPos = originalPath.indexOf("#");
 if(hashPos != -1)
 originalPath = originalPath.substr(0,hashPos);
 // Convert to a native file format assuming
 // "file:///x:/path/path/path..." - pc local file --> "x:\path\path\path..."
 // "file://///server/share/path/path/path..." - FireFox pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 // "file:///path/path/path..." - mac/unix local file --> "/path/path/path..."
 // "file://server/share/path/path/path..." - pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
 var localPath;
 if(originalPath.charAt(9) == ":") // pc local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(8)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file://///") === 0) // FireFox pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(10)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:///") === 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(7));
 else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:/") === 0) // mac/unix local file
 localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(5));
 else // pc network file
 localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(7)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\"); 
 return localPath;
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Stylesheet Extensions (may be overridden by local StyleSheet)
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
setStylesheet(
 ".forEachTiddlerError{color: #ffffff;background-color: #880000;}",
 "forEachTiddler");

//============================================================================
// End of forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================


//============================================================================
// String.startsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string starts with the given prefix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.startsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.startsWith = function(prefix) {
 var n = prefix.length;
 return (this.length >= n) && (this.slice(0, n) == prefix);
};



//============================================================================
// String.endsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string ends with the given suffix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.endsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.endsWith = function(suffix) {
 var n = suffix.length;
 return (this.length >= n) && (this.right(n) == suffix);
};


//============================================================================
// String.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the string contains the given substring, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.contains = function(substring) {
 return this.indexOf(substring) >= 0;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.indexOf Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns the index of the first occurance of the given item in the array or 
// -1 when no such item exists.
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.indexOf"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.indexOf = function(item) {
 for (var i = 0; i < this.length; i++) {
 if (this[i] == item) {
 return i;
 }
 }
 return -1;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains the given item, otherwise false. 
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.contains = function(item) {
 return (this.indexOf(item) >= 0);
};

//============================================================================
// Array.containsAny Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains at least one of the elements 
// of the item. Otherwise (or when items contains no elements) false is returned.
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAny"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAny = function(items) {
 for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
 if (this.contains(items[i])) {
 return true;
 }
 }
 return false;
};


//============================================================================
// Array.containsAll Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains all the items, otherwise false.
// 
// When items is null false is returned (even if the array contains a null).
//
// @param items [may be null] 
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAll"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAll = function(items) {
 for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
 if (!this.contains(items[i])) {
 return false;
 }
 }
 return true;
};


} // of "install only once"

// Used Globals (for JSLint) ==============
// ... DOM
/*global document */
// ... TiddlyWiki Core
/*global convertUnicodeToUTF8, createTiddlyElement, createTiddlyLink, 
 displayMessage, endSaveArea, hasClass, loadFile, saveFile, 
 startSaveArea, store, wikify */
//}}}


/***
!Licence and Copyright
Copyright (c) abego Software ~GmbH, 2005 ([[www.abego-software.de|http://www.abego-software.de]])

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of abego Software nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific
prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
***/

!Gather facts
https://www.gov.uk/joint-property-ownership/check-your-ownership-details
!Formulas for calculating lease extension or freehold purchase
http://www.landlordzone.co.uk/forums/showthread.php?11080-Approx-valuation-model-for-lease-ext
----
If your lease has less than 80 years left at the date you serve your claim, you may (unless your lease is one that falls under what is known as the "original" basis of valuation) also pay a "marriage value" which can considerably increase the price.
Any leasehold property, with an unexpired term of less than 80 years, can be subject to the rule of shared Marriage Value.  This is where the Freeholder may claim 50% of the Marriage Value between the Leasehold and Freehold interests when a lease is extended or a Freehold is acquired they are combined under the Leasehold Enfranchisement legislation.
!Case studies
http://www.peterbarry.co.uk/blog/2011/oct/26/how-using-professional-can-save-you-money/
http://www.theguardian.com/money/2014/may/08/lease-on-house-soon-to-expire
!Information, help and FAQs
http://www.lease-advice.org/publications/documents/document.asp?item=15
http://hoa.org.uk/advice/guides-for-homeowners/i-am-managing-2/step-by-step-guide-to-extending-your-lease/
http://www.ageuk.org.uk/search1/?keyword=Freehold&nation=ageuk_en-GB
http://england.shelter.org.uk/get_advice/advice_services_directory/?place=ne64sx
Shelter
1-2 Blackfriars Court
Dispensary Lane
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 4XB
Telephone
0344 515 1601
Citizens Advice
St Cuthberts Chambers
35 Nelson Street
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 5AN
Telephone
0344 245 1288
Newcastle Law Centre
3rd Floor, MEA House
Ellison Place
Newcastle upon Tyne
Telephone
0191 230 4777
!Legal
http://england.shelter.org.uk/get_advice/leaseholders_rights/leaseholder_tribunal
https://checklegalaid.service.gov.uk/scope/refer/housing
!Lawyers
http://www.mincoffs.co.uk/contact-us
http://www.qualitysolicitors.com/brennans/services/housing-and-property
https://www.hay-kilner.co.uk/services/leasehold-property/
http://www.wakefieldscbs.co.uk/residential-property/leasehold-enfranchisement/
http://www.fridaysmove.com/conveyancing-solicitors-newcastle-upon-tyne
!Forums
http://forums.moneysavingexpert.com/showthread.php?p=69936503#post69936503
[[Care costs]]
[[TV and Radio]]
[[Cinema and DVD]]
[[Music]]
[[Variety Acts]]
[[Benny Hill]]
http://www.gagworks.com/
http://www.punch.co.uk/index.html
http://www.private-eye.co.uk/
<html><body>

<table border="0px" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="660">
 <tr>
 <td width="324" valign="top"><h2></h2>
 <h1>Morning and evening</h1>
 <p>Maids heard the goblins cry:<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy our orchard fruits, Come buy, come buy:<br />
 Apples and quinces,<br />
 Lemons and oranges,<br />
 Plump unpecked cherries-<br />
 Melons and raspberries,<br />
 Bloom-down-cheeked peaches,<br />
 Swart-headed mulberries,<br />
 Wild free-born cranberries,<br />
 Crab-apples, dewberries,<br />
 Pine-apples, blackberries,<br />
 Apricots, strawberries&mdash;<br />
 All ripe together<br />
 In summer weather&mdash;<br />
 Morns that pass by,<br />
 Fair eves that fly;<br />
 Come buy, come buy;<br />
 Our grapes fresh from the vine,<br />
 Pomegranates full and fine,<br />
 Dates and sharp bullaces,<br />
 Rare pears and greengages,<br />
 Damsons and bilberries,<br />
 Taste them and try:<br />
 Currants and gooseberries,<br />
 Bright-fire-like barberries,<br />
 Figs to fill your mouth,<br />
 Citrons from the South,<br />
 Sweet to tongue and sound to eye,<br />
 Come buy, come buy.&rdquo;</p>
 <p>Evening by evening<br />
 Among the brookside rushes,<br />
 Laura bowed her head to hear,<br />
 Lizzie veiled her blushes:<br />
 Crouching close together<br />
 In the cooling weather,<br />
 With clasping arms and cautioning lips,<br />
 With tingling cheeks and finger-tips.<br />
 &ldquo;Lie close,&rdquo; Laura said,<br />
 Pricking up her golden head:<br />
 We must not look at goblin men, We must not buy their fruits:<br />
 Who knows upon what soil they fed<br />
 Their hungry thirsty roots?&rdquo;<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy,&rdquo; call the goblins<br />
 Hobbling down the glen.<br />
 &ldquo;O! cried Lizzie, Laura, Laura,<br />
 You should not peep at goblin men.&rdquo;<br />
 Lizzie covered up her eyes<br />
 Covered close lest they should look;<br />
 Laura reared her glossy head,<br />
 And whispered like the restless brook:<br />
 &ldquo;Look, Lizzie, look, Lizzie,<br />
 Down the glen tramp little men.<br />
 One hauls a basket,<br />
 One bears a plate,<br />
 One lugs a golden dish<br />
 Of many pounds&rsquo; weight.<br />
 How fair the vine must grow<br />
 Whose grapes are so luscious;<br />
 How warm the wind must blow<br />
 Through those fruit bushes.&rdquo;<br />
 &ldquo;No,&rdquo; said Lizzie, &ldquo;no, no, no;<br />
 Their offers should not charm us,<br />
 Their evil gifts would harm us.&rdquo;<br />
 She thrust a dimpled finger<br />
 In each ear, shut eyes and ran:<br />
 Curious Laura chose to linger<br />
 Wondering at each merchant man.<br />
 One had a cat&rsquo;s face,<br />
 One whisked a tail,<br />
 One tramped at a rat&rsquo;s pace,<br />
 One crawled like a snail,<br />
 One like a wombat prowled obtuse and furry,<br />
 One like a ratel tumbled hurry-scurry.<br />
 Lizzie heard a voice like voice of doves<br />
 Cooing all together:<br />
 They sounded kind and full of loves<br />
 In the pleasant weather.</p>
 <p>Laura stretched her gleaming neck<br />
 Like a rush-imbedded swan,<br />
 Like a lily from the beck,<br />
 Like a moonlit poplar branch,<br />
 Like a vessel at the launch<br />
 When its last restraint is gone.</p>
 <p>Backwards up the mossy glen<br />
 Turned and trooped the goblin men,<br />
 With their shrill repeated cry,<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy, come buy.&rdquo;<br />
 When they reached where Laura was<br />
 They stood stock still upon the moss,<br />
 Leering at each other,<br />
 Brother with queer brother;<br />
 Signalling each other,<br />
 Brother with sly brother.<br />
 One set his basket down,<br />
 One reared his plate;<br />
 One began to weave a crown<br />
 Of tendrils, leaves, and rough nuts brown<br />
 (Men sell not such in any town);<br />
 One heaved the golden weight<br />
 Of dish and fruit to offer her:<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy, come buy,&rdquo; was still their cry.<br />
 Laura stared but did not stir,<br />
 Longed but had no money:<br />
 The whisk-tailed merchant bade her taste<br />
 In tones as smooth as honey,<br />
 The cat-faced purr&rsquo;d,<br />
 The rat-paced spoke a word<br />
 Of welcome, and the snail-paced even was heard;<br />
 One parrot-voiced and jolly<br />
 Cried &ldquo;Pretty Goblin&rdquo; still for &ldquo;Pretty Polly&rdquo;;<br />
 One whistled like a bird.</p>
 <p>But sweet-tooth Laura spoke in haste:<br />
 &ldquo;Good folk, I have no coin;<br />
 To take were to purloin:<br />
 I have no copper in my purse,<br />
 I have no silver either,<br />
 And all my gold is on the furze<br />
 That shakes in windy weather<br />
 Above the rusty heather.&rdquo;<br />
 &ldquo;You have much gold upon your head,&rdquo;<br />
 They answered altogether:<br />
 &ldquo;Buy from us with a golden curl.&rdquo;<br />
 She clipped a precious golden lock,<br />
 She dropped a tear more rare than pearl,<br />
 Then sucked their fruit globes fair or red:<br />
 Sweeter than honey from the rock,<br />
 Stronger than man-rejoicing wine,<br />
 Clearer than water flowed that juice;<br />
 She never tasted such before,<br />
 How should it cloy with length of use?<br />
 She sucked and sucked and sucked the more<br />
 Fruits which that unknown orchard bore,<br />
 She sucked until her lips were sore;<br />
 Then flung the emptied rinds away,<br />
 But gathered up one kernel stone,<br />
 And knew not was it night or day<br />
 As she turned home alone.</p>
 <h1>Lizzie met her at the gate</h1>
 <p>Full of wise upbraidings:<br />
 &ldquo;Dear, you should not stay so late,<br />
 Twilight is not good for maidens;<br />
 Should not loiter in the glen<br />
 In the haunts of goblin men.<br />
 Do you not remember Jeanie,<br />
 How she met them in the moonlight,<br />
 Took their gifts both choice and many,<br />
 Ate their fruits and wore their flowers<br />
 Plucked from bowers<br />
 Where summer ripens at all hours?<br />
 But ever in the moonlight<br />
 She pined and pined away;<br />
 Sought them by night and day,<br />
 Found them no more, but dwindled and grew gray;<br />
 Then fell with the first snow,<br />
 While to this day no grass will grow<br />
 Where she lies low:<br />
 I planted daisies there a year ago<br />
 That never blow.<br />
 You should not loiter so.&rdquo;<br />
 &ldquo;Nay hush,&rdquo; said Laura.<br />
 &ldquo;Nay hush, my sister:<br />
 I ate and ate my fill,<br />
 Yet my mouth waters still;<br />
 To-morrow night I will<br />
 Buy more,&rdquo; and kissed her.<br />
 &ldquo;Have done with sorrow;<br />
 I&rsquo;ll bring you plums to-morrow<br />
 Fresh on their mother twigs,<br />
 Cherries worth getting;<br />
 You cannot think what figs<br />
 My teeth have met in,<br />
 What melons, icy-cold<br />
 Piled on a dish of gold<br />
 Too huge for me to hold,<br />
 What peaches with a velvet nap,<br />
 Pellucid grapes without one seed:<br />
 Odorous indeed must be the mead<br />
 Whereon they grow, and pure the wave they drink,<br />
 With lilies at the brink,<br />
 And sugar-sweet their sap.&rdquo;</p>
 <p>Golden head by golden head,<br />
 Like two pigeons in one nest<br />
 Folded in each other&rsquo;s wings,<br />
 They lay down, in their curtained bed:<br />
 Like two blossoms on one stem,<br />
 Like two flakes of new-fallen snow,<br />
 Like two wands of ivory<br />
 Tipped with gold for awful kings.<br />
 Moon and stars beamed in at them,<br />
 Wind sang to them lullaby,<br />
 Lumbering owls forbore to fly,<br />
 Not a bat flapped to and fro<br />
 Round their rest:<br />
 Cheek to cheek and breast to breast<br />
 Locked together in one nest.</p>
 <p>Early in the morning<br />
 When the first cock crowed his warning,<br />
 Neat like bees, as sweet and busy,<br />
 Laura rose with Lizzie:<br />
 Fetched in honey, milked the cows,<br />
 Aired and set to rights the house,<br />
 Kneaded cakes of whitest wheat,<br />
 Cakes for dainty mouths to eat,<br />
 Next churned butter, whipped up cream,<br />
 Fed their poultry, sat and sewed;<br />
 Talked as modest maidens should<br />
 Lizzie with an open heart,<br />
 Laura in an absent dream,<br />
 One content, one sick in part;<br />
 One warbling for the mere bright day&rsquo;s delight,<br />
 One longing for the night.</p>
 <p>At length slow evening came&mdash;<br />
 They went with pitchers to the reedy brook;<br />
 Lizzie most placid in her look,<br />
 Laura most like a leaping flame.<br />
 They drew the gurgling water from its deep<br />
 Lizzie plucked purple and rich golden flags,<br />
 Then turning homeward said: &ldquo;The sunset flushes<br />
 Those furthest loftiest crags;<br />
 Come, Laura, not another maiden lags,<br />
 No wilful squirrel wags,<br />
 The beasts and birds are fast asleep.&rdquo;<br />
 But Laura loitered still among the rushes<br />
 And said the bank was steep.</p>
 <p>And said the hour was early still, The dew not fallen, the wind not chill:<br />
 Listening ever, but not catching<br />
 The customary cry,<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy, come buy,&rdquo;<br />
 With its iterated jingle<br />
 Of sugar-baited words:<br />
 Not for all her watching<br />
 Once discerning even one goblin<br />
 Racing, whisking, tumbling, hobbling;<br />
 Let alone the herds<br />
 That used to tramp along the glen,<br />
 In groups or single,<br />
 Of brisk fruit-merchant men.</p>
 <p>Till Lizzie urged, &ldquo;O Laura, come, I hear the fruit-call, but I dare not look:<br />
 You should not loiter longer at this brook:<br />
 Come with me home.<br />
 The stars rise, the moon bends her arc,<br />
 Each glow-worm winks her spark,<br />
 Let us get home before the night grows dark;<br />
 For clouds may gather even<br />
 Though this is summer weather,<br />
 Put out the lights and drench us through;<br />
 Then if we lost our way what should we do?&rdquo;</p>
 <p>Laura turned cold as stone<br />
 To find her sister heard that cry alone,<br />
 That goblin cry,<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy our fruits, come buy.&rdquo;<br />
 Must she then buy no more such dainty fruit?<br />
 Must she no more such succous pasture find,<br />
 Gone deaf and blind?<br />
 Her tree of life drooped from the root:<br />
 She said not one word in her heart&rsquo;s sore ache;<br />
 But peering thro&rsquo; the dimness, naught discerning,<br />
 Trudged home, her pitcher dripping all the way;<br />
 So crept to bed, and lay<br />
 Silent &lsquo;til Lizzie slept;<br />
 Then sat up in a passionate yearning,<br />
 And gnashed her teeth for balked desire, and wept<br />
 As if her heart would break.</p>
 <p>Day after day, night after night,<br />
 Laura kept watch in vain,<br />
 In sullen silence of exceeding pain.<br />
 She never caught again the goblin cry:<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy, come buy,&rdquo;<br />
 She never spied the goblin men<br />
 Hawking their fruits along the glen:<br />
 But when the noon waxed bright<br />
 Her hair grew thin and gray;<br />
 She dwindled, as the fair full moon doth turn<br />
 To swift decay, and burn<br />
 Her fire away.</p>
 <p>One day remembering her kernel-stone<br />
 She set it by a wall that faced the south;<br />
 Dewed it with tears, hoped for a root,<br />
 Watched for a waxing shoot,<br />
 But there came none;<br />
 It never saw the sun,<br />
 It never felt the trickling moisture run:<br />
 While with sunk eyes and faded mouth<br />
 She dreamed of melons, as a traveller sees<br />
 False waves in desert drouth<br />
 With shade of leaf-crowned trees,<br />
 And burns the thirstier in the sandful breeze.</p>
 <p>She no more swept the house,<br />
 Tended the fowls or cows,<br />
 Fetched honey, kneaded cakes of wheat,<br />
 Brought water from the brook:<br />
 But sat down listless in the chimney-nook<br />
 And would not eat.</p></td>
 <td width="336" valign="top"><p>Tender Lizzie could not bear<br />
 To watch her sister&rsquo;s cankerous care,<br />
 Yet not to share.<br />
 She night and morning<br />
 Caught the goblins&rsquo; cry:<br />
 &ldquo;Come buy our orchard fruits,<br />
 Come buy, come buy.&rdquo;<br />
 Beside the brook, along the glen<br />
 She heard the tramp of goblin men,<br />
 The voice and stir<br />
 Poor Laura could not hear;<br />
 Longed to buy fruit to comfort her,<br />
 But feared to pay too dear.</p>
 <p>She thought of Jeanie in her grave,<br />
 Who should have been a bride;<br />
 But who for joys brides hope to have<br />
 Fell sick and died<br />
 In her gay prime,<br />
 In earliest winter-time,<br />
 With the first glazing rime,<br />
 With the first snow-fall of crisp winter-time.</p>
 <p>Till Laura, dwindling,<br />
 Seemed knocking at Death&rsquo;s door:<br />
 Then Lizzie weighed no more<br />
 Better and worse,<br />
 But put a silver penny in her purse,<br />
 Kissed Laura, crossed the heath with clumps of furze<br />
 At twilight, halted by the brook,<br />
 And for the first time in her life<br />
 Began to listen and look.</p>
 <h1>Laughed every goblin</h1>
 <p>When they spied her peeping:<br />
 Came towards her hobbling,<br />
 Flying, running, leaping,<br />
 Puffing and blowing,<br />
 Chuckling, clapping, crowing,<br />
 Clucking and gobbling,<br />
 Mopping and mowing,<br />
 Full of airs and graces,<br />
 Pulling wry faces,<br />
 Demure grimaces,<br />
 Cat-like and rat-like,<br />
 Ratel and wombat-like,<br />
 Snail-paced in a hurry,<br />
 Parrot-voiced and whistler,<br />
 Helter-skelter, hurry-skurry,<br />
 Chattering like magpies,<br />
 Fluttering like pigeons,<br />
 Gliding like fishes, --<br />
 Hugged her and kissed her;<br />
 Squeezed and caressed her;<br />
 Stretched up their dishes,<br />
 Panniers and plates:<br />
 &ldquo;Look at our apples<br />
 Russet and dun,<br />
 Bob at our cherries<br />
 Bite at our peaches,<br />
 Citrons and dates,<br />
 Grapes for the asking,<br />
 Pears red with basking<br />
 Out in the sun,<br />
 Plums on their twigs;<br />
 Pluck them and suck them,<br />
 Pomegranates, figs.&rdquo;</p>
 <p>&ldquo;Good folk,&rdquo; said Lizzie,<br />
 Mindful of Jeanie,<br />
 &ldquo;Give me much and many&rdquo;; --<br />
 Held out her apron,<br />
 Tossed them her penny.<br />
 &ldquo;Nay, take a seat with us,<br />
 Honor and eat with us,&rdquo;<br />
 They answered grinning;<br />
 &ldquo;Our feast is but beginning.<br />
 Night yet is early,<br />
 Warm and dew-pearly,<br />
 Wakeful and starry:<br />
 Such fruits as these<br />
 No man can carry;<br />
 Half their bloom would fly,<br />
 Half their dew would dry,<br />
 Half their flavor would pass by.<br />
 Sit down and feast with us,<br />
 Be welcome guest with us,<br />
 Cheer you and rest with us.&rdquo;<br />
 &ldquo;Thank you,&rdquo; said Lizzie; &ldquo;but one waits<br />
 At home alone for me:<br />
 So, without further parleying,<br />
 If you will not sell me any<br />
 Of your fruits though much and many,<br />
 Give me back my silver penny<br />
 I tossed you for a fee.&rdquo;<br />
 They began to scratch their pates,<br />
 No longer wagging, purring,<br />
 But visibly demurring,<br />
 Grunting and snarling.<br />
 One called her proud,<br />
 Cross-grained, uncivil;<br />
 Their tones waxed loud,<br />
 Their looks were evil.<br />
 Lashing their tails<br />
 They trod and hustled her,<br />
 Elbowed and jostled her,<br />
 Clawed with their nails,<br />
 Barking, mewing, hissing, mocking,<br />
 Tore her gown and soiled her stocking,<br />
 Twitched her hair out by the roots,<br />
 Stamped upon her tender feet,<br />
 Held her hands and squeezed their fruits<br />
 Against her mouth to make her eat.</p>
 <p>White and golden Lizzie stood,<br />
 Like a lily in a flood,<br />
 Like a rock of blue-veined stone<br />
 Lashed by tides obstreperously, --<br />
 Like a beacon left alone<br />
 In a hoary roaring sea,<br />
 Sending up a golden fire, --<br />
 Like a fruit-crowned orange-tree<br />
 White with blossoms honey-sweet<br />
 Sore beset by wasp and bee, --<br />
 Like a royal virgin town<br />
 Topped with gilded dome and spire<br />
 Close beleaguered by a fleet<br />
 Mad to tear her standard down.</p>
 <p>One may lead a horse to water,<br />
 Twenty cannot make him drink.<br />
 Though the goblins cuffed and caught her,<br />
 Coaxed and fought her,<br />
 Bullied and besought her,<br />
 Scratched her, pinched her black as ink,<br />
 Kicked and knocked her,<br />
 Mauled and mocked her,<br />
 Lizzie uttered not a word;<br />
 Would not open lip from lip<br />
 Lest they should cram a mouthful in;<br />
 But laughed in heart to feel the drip<br />
 Of juice that syruped all her face,<br />
 And lodged in dimples of her chin,<br />
 And streaked her neck which quaked like curd.<br />
 At last the evil people,<br />
 Worn out by her resistance,<br />
 Flung back her penny, kicked their fruit<br />
 Along whichever road they took,<br />
 Not leaving root or stone or shoot.<br />
 Some writhed into the ground,<br />
 Some dived into the brook<br />
 With ring and ripple.<br />
 Some scudded on the gale without a sound,<br />
 Some vanished in the distance.</p>
 <p>In a smart, ache, tingle,<br />
 Lizzie went her way;<br />
 Knew not was it night or day;<br />
 Sprang up the bank, tore through the furze,<br />
 Threaded copse and dingle,<br />
 And heard her penny jingle<br />
 Bouncing in her purse, --<br />
 Its bounce was music to her ear.<br />
 She ran and ran<br />
 As if she feared some goblin man<br />
 Dogged her with gibe or curse<br />
 Or something worse:<br />
 But not one goblin skurried after,<br />
 Nor was she pricked by fear;<br />
 The kind heart made her windy-paced<br />
 That urged her home quite out of breath with haste<br />
 And inward laughter.</p>
 <p>She cried &ldquo;Laura,&rdquo; up the garden,<br />
 &ldquo;Did you miss me ?<br />
 Come and kiss me.<br />
 Never mind my bruises,<br />
 Hug me, kiss me, suck my juices<br />
 Squeezed from goblin fruits for you,<br />
 Goblin pulp and goblin dew.<br />
 Eat me, drink me, love me;<br />
 Laura, make much of me:<br />
 For your sake I have braved the glen<br />
 And had to do with goblin merchant men.&rdquo;</p>
 <p>Laura started from her chair,<br />
 Flung her arms up in the air,<br />
 Clutched her hair:<br />
 &ldquo;Lizzie, Lizzie, have you tasted<br />
 For my sake the fruit forbidden?<br />
 Must your light like mine be hidden,<br />
 Your young life like mine be wasted,<br />
 Undone in mine undoing,<br />
 And ruined in my ruin;<br />
 Thirsty, cankered, goblin-ridden?&rdquo;<br />
 She clung about her sister,<br />
 Kissed and kissed and kissed her:<br />
 Tears once again<br />
 Refreshed her shrunken eyes,<br />
 Dropping like rain<br />
 After long sultry drouth;<br />
 Shaking with aguish fear, and pain,<br />
 She kissed and kissed her with a hungry mouth.</p>
 <p>Her lips began to scorch,<br />
 That juice was wormwood to her tongue,<br />
 She loathed the feast:<br />
 Writhing as one possessed she leaped and sung,<br />
 Rent all her robe, and wrung<br />
 Her hands in lamentable haste,<br />
 And beat her breast.<br />
 Her locks streamed like the torch<br />
 Borne by a racer at full speed,<br />
 Or like the mane of horses in their flight,<br />
 Or like an eagle when she stems the light<br />
 Straight toward the sun,<br />
 Or like a caged thing freed,<br />
 Or like a flying flag when armies run.</p>
 <p>Swift fire spread through her veins, knocked at her heart,<br />
 Met the fire smouldering there<br />
 And overbore its lesser flame,<br />
 She gorged on bitterness without a name:<br />
 Ah! fool, to choose such part<br />
 Of soul-consuming care!<br />
 Sense failed in the mortal strife:<br />
 Like the watch-tower of a town<br />
 Which an earthquake shatters down,<br />
 Like a lightning-stricken mast,<br />
 Like a wind-uprooted tree<br />
 Spun about,<br />
 Like a foam-topped water-spout<br />
 Cast down headlong in the sea,<br />
 She fell at last;<br />
 Pleasure past and anguish past,<br />
 Is it death or is it life ?</p>
 <p>Life out of death.<br />
 That night long Lizzie watched by her,<br />
 Counted her pulse&rsquo;s flagging stir,<br />
 Felt for her breath,<br />
 Held water to her lips, and cooled her face<br />
 With tears and fanning leaves:<br />
 But when the first birds chirped about their eaves,<br />
 And early reapers plodded to the place<br />
 Of golden sheaves,<br />
 And dew-wet grass<br />
 Bowed in the morning winds so brisk to pass,<br />
 And new buds with new day<br />
 Opened of cup-like lilies on the stream,<br />
 Laura awoke as from a dream,<br />
 Laughed in the innocent old way,<br />
 Hugged Lizzie but not twice or thrice;<br />
 Her gleaming locks showed not one thread of gray,<br />
 Her breath was sweet as May,<br />
 And light danced in her eyes.</p>
 <p>Days, weeks, months,years<br />
 Afterwards, when both were wives<br />
 With children of their own;<br />
 Their mother-hearts beset with fears,<br />
 Their lives bound up in tender lives;<br />
 Laura would call the little ones<br />
 And tell them of her early prime,<br />
 Those pleasant days long gone<br />
 Of not-returning time:<br />
 Would talk about the haunted glen,<br />
 The wicked, quaint fruit-merchant men,<br />
 Their fruits like honey to the throat,<br />
 But poison in the blood;<br />
 (Men sell not such in any town;)<br />
 Would tell them how her sister stood<br />
 In deadly peril to do her good,<br />
 And win the fiery antidote:<br />
 Then joining hands to little hands<br />
 Would bid them cling together,<br />
 &ldquo;For there is no friend like a sister,<br />
 In calm or stormy weather,<br />
 To cheer one on the tedious way,<br />
 To fetch one if one goes astray,<br />
 To lift one if one totters down,<br />
 To strengthen whilst one stands.&rdquo;</p></td>
 </tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
http://www.ukenergy.co.uk/pages/gas-kwh.html
http://energy-advise.com/compare-energy-prices/metric-gas-meter-calculator-nsc/
!Cheapest tariffs
 Get a credit meter for bigger savings
The very cheapest energy tariffs are online deals for those who have credit meters. These measure your usage, then you receive a bill or pay by direct debit afterwards, giving you credit rather than making you pay in advance.
http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/utilities/switch-prepaid-gas-electricity
----
+++[Price comparison sites]
http://www.ukpower.co.uk/
[[Moneysavingexpert cheap energy club|http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/cheapenergyclub?utm_source=MSE_Newsletter&utm_medium=Email&utm_term=23-Apr-13&utm_campaign=site&utm_content=44]]
===
!Social Tariffs
http://www.nacasadvice.org.uk/affordable-warmth/29/social-tariffs-for-vulnerable-customers
http://cfe.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6708/~/transition-from-a-social-tariff-to-the-warm-home-discount
!Trust Funds
http://www.charisgrants.com/
!Advice
Gas and Elecricity - http://forums.moneysavingexpert.com/forumdisplay.php?f=13
http://www.gas-guide.org.uk/meters.html
!!Home Heat Helpline
The Home Heat Helpline is a free, not for profit phone line set up to help energy customers in Britain who are struggling to pay their fuel bills and keep warm. Anyone can call the Helpline free on 0800 33 66 99 or visit the Home Heat website.
!Energy companies
http://www.makeitcheaper.com/articles/energy/big-six-energy-suppliers.aspx
http://www.which.co.uk/switch/energy-suppliers/energy-companies-rated
!!British Gas
Part of Centrica, BGB is the UK's biggest energy suppliers for business, offering both electricity and gas. The company incorporates Scottish Gas Business, Electricity4Business, Bizzenergy, Enron and Electricity Direct.
!EDF
Stands for Electricite de France and is the ''French'' state-owned company. In the UK, EDF looks after the customers of SWEB, Seeboard & London Electricity
!Eon
''German''-owned and includes the business electricity and gas customers of Powergen, Economy Power, Norweb, Eastern Electricity, East Midlands Electricity & Independent Energy.
!Npower
Also has a ''German'' parent company (RWE) and, in the UK, includes business electricity and gas customers of Midlands Electricity, Yorkshire Electricity & Northern Electric.
!Scottish and Southern
''British''-owned, also known as SSE and incorporates the business electricity and gas customers of Southern Electric, Scottish Hydro Electric, SWALEC, Atlantic Electric & Gas.
!Smaller Energy companies
https://www.ebico.org.uk/
*Opus Energy 0843 2272366
*DONG Energy 0207 257 0100
*Contract Natural Gas Ltd (CNG) 01423 502554
*Corona Energy 08442 646464
*Haven Power 01473 725943
*Dual Energy 0845 521 4291 / 0845 230 2058
*Gazprom 0845 230 2058
*LoCO2 0845 074 3601

A Radiant gas fire is the cheapest to run
<html><a href="javascript:generateSEOFiles();">Generate SEO files</a></html>.
/***
|''Name:''|GenerateRssByTagPlugin|
|''Description:''|Only tiddlers with a specific tag are inluded in the RSSFeed. If no tiddlers are selected then works as before. (see ticket #270: http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/tiddlywiki/ticket/270). <br>RssTag: <<option txtRssTag Index>>|
|''Version:''|1.0.3|
|''Date:''|May 17, 2007|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#GenerateRssByTagPlugin|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0 (Beta 5)|
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.GenerateRssByTagPlugin = {
 major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 3, 
 date: new Date("May 17, 2007"),
 source: 'http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#GenerateRssByTagPlugin',
 author: 'BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info',
 coreVersion: '2.2.0 (Beta 5)'
};

if (!window.bidix) window.bidix = {}; // bidix namespace

bidix.generateRssByTag = function()
{
 var s = [];
 var d = new Date();
 var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl");
 // Assemble the header
 s.push("<" + "?xml version=\"1.0\"" + " encoding='UTF-8' " + "?" + ">");
 s.push("<rss version=\"2.0\">");
 s.push("<channel>");
 s.push("<title" + ">" + wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode() + "</title" + ">");
 if(u)
 s.push("<link>" + u.htmlEncode() + "</link>");
 s.push("<description>" + wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode() + "</description>");
 s.push("<language>en-us</language>");
 s.push("<copyright>Copyright " + d.getFullYear() + " " + config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode() + "</copyright>");
 s.push("<pubDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");
 s.push("<lastBuildDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");
 s.push("<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>");
 s.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki " + version.major + "." + version.minor + "." + version.revision + "</generator>");
 // The body
 var tiddlers;
 if (config.options.txtRssTag && store.getTaggedTiddlers(config.options.txtRssTag).length > 0)
 tiddlers = store.getTaggedTiddlers(config.options.txtRssTag,"modified");
 else
 tiddlers = store.getTiddlers("modified","excludeLists");
 var n = config.numRssItems > tiddlers.length ? 0 : tiddlers.length-config.numRssItems;
 for (var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=n; t--)
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 s.push("</channel>");
 s.push("</rss>");
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};

//
// Initializations
//
bidix.generateRss = generateRss; // backup core version
generateRss = bidix.generateRssByTag; // install new one
config.options.txtRssTag = "toRSS"; // default RssTag. use <<option txtRssTag>> to overwritte
merge(config.optionsDesc,{txtRssTag: "Only tiddlers with this tag will be included in the RSS Feed."});
//}}}
Twee
Twee is a simple markup language for TiddlyWikis. It was invented when Chris spilled water on his laptop's trackpad, which knocked it out of commission temporarily, and he still wanted to work on his TiddlyWiki. It's evolved into a language for creating interactive stories.

It's possible to do everything you see on this Web site with a regular TiddlyWiki, where you click buttons to create tiddlers and link between them. But Twee makes things easier in two ways:

 * It lets you write with your favorite word processor or text editor, with all the tools you're used to as a writer.
 * The Jonah template (which comes with Tweebox) gives you a stripped-down template suitable for stories, where you don't want people skipping ahead, and a bunch of handy macros for writing interactive stories right off the bat.

The easiest way to get started with Twee is to download Tweebox below. It's a compiler for Twee files that runs right in your Web browser. It also comes with an online manual that explains step-by-step how to write a story with Twee.

Source: [[Gimcrack'd: Code and Other Oddments|http://gimcrackd.com/etc/src/#%5B%5BConvert%20an%20existing%20TiddlyWiki%20to%20Twee%20format%20online%5D%5D]]
!Maps
http://www.glasgowguide.co.uk/maps-full.html

!Basics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow
http://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/Tourism-g186534-Glasgow_Scotland-Vacations.html
http://glasgow.gumtree.com
http://www.visitscotland.com
!Accommodation
[[Rent a house]]
http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/residentialservices/visitorstourists/
http://www.smoothhound.co.uk/glasgow.html
!Postcodes
http://www.postcode-info.co.uk/glasgow-city-postcodes-435.html
http://www.scoutlocal.co.uk
!Simple goats cheese
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Fankhauser/Cheese/Cheese98.htm
*one gallon freshest milk (the fewer bacteria present, the more predictable the cheese)
*2-3 teaspoonfuls buttermilk (or 1/3rd cup yogurt ) 
*1 drop of liquid rennet
*1 Teaspoons of Salt

Instructions:
#Warm the milk to room temperature (68-70 °F) 
#Dissolve 1/2 of the rennet tablet in 1/4 cup warm water
#Stir in the buttermilk and mix thoroughly
#Stir in the rest of the rennet and mix thoroughly
#Cover and let it sit for a total of 24 hours
#At this time, the curd should be firm enough to cut into 1/2 inch cubes
#Next ladle the curds into a sterile cloth located suspending above a colander 
#Place that in a refrigerator or cool place for 24 hours 
#After the 24 hours has passed, the whey should all be drained 
#Next add about 1-2 teaspoons of salt 
#Add to molds and cover
Lasts 2 weeks
!alternative recipe 1
Things You'll Need:

    * 1/2 gallon goat's milk
    * ¼ cup apple cider vinegar
     * 1 tbsp. salt
    * 1 tbsp. pepper
Instead of vinegar to separate the whey from the curds, you can add one rennet tablet or 2 tbsp. of lemon juice.

Instructions:
#Begin pasteurizing the goat's milk. Fill your pan with goat's milk. Place a dairy thermometer in the pan to keep track of the temperature.
#Allow the milk to rise to a temperature of 90 degrees F. Continue to stir the milk, or it will scorch. Once the milk boils, allow it to continue boiling for just a few seconds. Turn the burner off and remove the milk from the heat.
#Add the vinegar to the milk. Continue to stir the goat milk slowly. You will notice that curds have started to form, and this is perfectly normal.
#Line the colander with cheesecloth. Place the colander on top of a stainless steel bowl. Stir the goat milk for 30 seconds, and then pour it into your strainer.
#Ensure that the whey (liquid) separates completely from the curds. Discard the whey that is left in the pot, or save it for a sourdough bread starter.
#Lift the cheesecloth with the curds out of the colander. Gently squeeze the cheesecloth to remove any excess whey.
#Pour the curds into a bowl. Add salt and pepper to the cheese. Mix the chevre cheese with your hands and form it into a bowl.
#Press the cheese into molds or a small bowl. Cover the chevre cheese and place it in the refrigerator. Allow the goat cheese to set in the refrigerator for at least 2 days.


Read more: How to Make French Chevre Cheese | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_5709618_make-french-chevre-cheese.html#ixzz17k0vZc00
<html><body>
<p><img src="file:///F|/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/princewiki213/images/clip_image002_0005.jpg" alt="Goblin Market" width="301" height="400" /> </p>
<h1>Typography by Dante Rossetti </h1>
<p><a href="http://users.pandora.be/gaston.d.haese/goblin.html">http://users.pandora.be/gaston.d.haese/goblin.html</a>]</p>
<p>First theory<br />
 &ldquo;Goblin Market&rdquo; is a fairy-tale with a Christian analogy.<br />
 Eve tasted the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, resulting in the expulsion from the Garden of Eden.<br />
 God sent Jesus Christ to save mankind from sin.<br />
 &ldquo;Goblin Market&rdquo; follows these two events. Laura eats the luscious fruits and then Lizzie saves Laura.</p>
<h1>Second theory</h1>
<p>John Polidori&rsquo;s tale &ldquo;The Vampyre&rdquo; (1819) is the source for the enigmatic poem &ldquo;Goblin Market&rdquo;. Polidori was Christina Rossetti&rsquo;s maternal uncle.<br />
 The goblins are vampiric creatures who dole out exotic fruits to young women who become drained, languid and bloodless. The implications of lust, sucking, pain, enervation and fear suggest some sort of vampirism.</p>
<p>Are the goblins animals, satyrs, vampires or men?! <br />
 ...One had a cat&rsquo;s face, <br />
 One whisked a tail, <br />
 One tramped at a rat&rsquo;s pace, <br />
 One crawled like a snail, <br />
 One like a wombat prowled obtuse and furry, <br />
 One like a ratel tumbled hurry-scurry.</p>
<p>The goblins resemble vampires and satyrs but they possess characteristics of both humans and animals. Rossetti portrays the alluring but frightening sexual and economic power of men without referring to flesh-and-blood men.<br />
 She rewrites the vampire myth to celebrate the power of feminine sexuality and imagination.</p>
<hr>


<div class=Section1>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>[<span
class=GramE>source</span>: <a
href="http://www.csulb.edu/~csnider/c.rossetti.html"><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:&quot;MS Sans Serif&quot;;&quot;MS Sans Serif&quot;'>http://www.csulb.edu/~csnider/c.rossetti.html</span></a>]</span></p>
 <p align=center style='
text-align:center;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:
&quot;Cooper Black&quot;;color:fuchsia;'>“There is No Friend like a Sister”:</span><span lang=EN-GB> </span></p>
 <p align=center style='
text-align:center;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:
&quot;Cooper Black&quot;;color:fuchsia;'>Psychic Integration in Christina Rossetti’s <i>Goblin Market</i></span><span
lang=EN-GB> </span></p>
 <p align=center style='
text-align:center;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB>I</span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Within
 the last twenty-five years or so, Christina Rossetti has benefited from renewed
 scholarly examination, not in small part due to feminist interest in her work
 as an important woman poet in the nineteenth century.<sup>1</sup> Her <i>Goblin
 Market and other Poems</i> (1862) was the first popularly successful book of
 Pre-Raphaelite poetry (Swann 92), and the title poem is generally considered
 Rossetti’s masterpiece. In February 1964, for instance, Peter Quennell, writing
 to <i>The New York Times Book Review</i>, stated his belief that <i>Goblin
 Market</i> “establishes her claim to immorality” (qtd. by Bellas 37). A
 nineteenth-century fairy tale, <i>Goblin Market</i> is Rossetti’s longest and
 most discussed poem, as well as her most popular poem, one that can be enjoyed
 by both children and adults.<sup>2</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><i><span lang=EN-GB>Goblin
 Market</span></i><span lang=EN-GB> has been
 interpreted in many different ways. Although, as Katherine Mayberry points out,
 “the New Critical approach was never applied to” Rossetti’s work as a whole
 (2), numerous other approaches have been applied. Until recently, the most
 frequent approach to her work in general and to <i>Goblin Market</i> in
 particular has been the biographical approach, with an emphasis on her supposed
 love life and her deeply held religious beliefs (she was an Anglo-Catholic).
 Referring to <i>Goblin Market</i>, her brother and posthumous editor, William
 Michael Rossetti, in an oft-quoted statement, declared: “I have more than once
 heard Christina say that she did not mean anything profound by this fairy tale—it
 is not a moral apologue consistently carried out in detail.” He adds, however: “Still,
 the incidents are such as to be at any rate suggestive, and different minds may
 be likely to read different messages into them” (459). Many different readings
 have indeed been offered, some more valid than others. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Jan Marsh,
 a recent biographer, discusses the “many [. . .] autobiographical elements” in
 the poem (229). Another Rossetti biographer, Lona Mosk Packer, believes “no
 poem of hers is more clearly based upon personal experience” (141). Packer
 connects her interpretation of <i>Goblin Market</i> to her still unproved
 theory that the Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter William Bell Scott was the
 central albeit unrequited love of her life. Packer suggests that the line, “For
 there is no friend like a sister” (<i>Complete Poems </i>I: 26; all references
 to <i>Goblin Market</i> refer to this edition, hereafter cited as <i>CP </i>),
 may refer to Christina’s older sister, Maria, who <i>may</i> have warned
 Christina that Scott had fallen in love with another woman, one who was not his
 wife (Packer 150-51). Packer is on more solid ground when she writes: “Temptation,
 in both its human and its theological sense, is the thematic core of <i>Goblin
 Market</i> <span class=GramE>“ (</span>142).<sup>3</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>In 1950
 John Heath-Stubbs rated Christina Rossetti’s “artificial dream-world” in <i>Goblin
 Market</i> higher than the poetic worlds created by her brother Dante Gabriel
 Rossetti and William Morris from “older romance”: “within its smaller compass,
 her world has more of the genuine life of the world or romance and folk-tale
 than theirs.” Lizzie, Stubbs maintains, “<span class=GramE>may</span> be taken
 as a type of the Christian as well as of Christ” (175). Expanding on this idea,
 Marian Shalkhauser writes: “Lizzie [. . .] is the symbol of Christ; Laura
 represents Adam-Eve and consequently all of sinful mankind.” <span class=GramE>If
 the poem reenacts the Edenic myth, then “Satan appears typically in the form of
 depraved animals” (19), an idea that overlaps with my own interpretation.</span> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Writing
 about the same time as Heath-Stubbs (in 1949), Marya Zaturenska seems to rate <i>Goblin
 Market</i> even higher than he does: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The
 mingling of the grotesque and the terrible, the sense <br>
 of the trembling innocence that hovers on the abyss of <br>
 the unnamable and the repulsive, make this strange little <br>
 poem one of the masterpieces of English literature as well <br>
 as a Pre-Raphaelite show piece. (77) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>A. A.
 DeVitis interprets the poem as “an allegory that on one level suggests the
 creative process that the artist herself may not have been aware of, a process
 that for Christina involved the renunciation of the passionate side of life”
 (420). Winston Weathers sees <i>Goblin Market</i> as “the prototypal <span
class=GramE>poem in Christina’s myth of the self [. . .] the two sisters [Laura
 and Lizzie] are</span> aspects of one self [. . .]” (82). DeVitis adds that “Together
 the sisters make up the whole person who becomes the artist” (425). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Dorothy
 Mermin rather stridently disagrees. Critics such as Weathers and DeVitis, “By
 turning the two sisters into parts of one person [. . .] minimize or distort
 the central action in which one sister saves the other; they shy away from the
 powerful image of Lizzie as Christ” (107). Ellen Golub, on the other hand,
 carries Weathers’ tentatively Freudian interpretation even further: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The poem’s
 nuclear fantasy [. . .] is the conflict between regressive oral sadism and the
 reality-testing anal stage which battles for prominence in normal development.
 After an immersion in total sensuality and non-responsibility, aggressive
 impulses are given free access to discharge. By resolving the conflict, the
 poem also unites warring parts of the self. In addition, it moves briefly to
 the genital level at which both sisters have matured into wives and mothers.
 (164) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Another
 provocative Freudian interpretation that also fails to ring entirely true is
 that of Maureen Duffy. In <i>The Erotic World of Faery</i>, Duffy writes: “This
 [Victorian] double female image [of two sisters] is an interesting component of
 the period’s eroticism akin to the heterosexual male desire to see blue films
 about lesbians or for similar themes in the work of Courbet, Lautrec or Schiele”
 (288-289). I agree to some extent that “the goblins represent animal instinct,”
 but Duffy’s assertion that Laura’s “eating the fruit is a powerful masturbatory
 fantasy of feeding at the breast” (290) is, I think, wrong-headed and
 reductive. The various fruits are of course sexual, but they are offered by
 chthonic male creatures, and they are metonymical extensions of the goblins
 themselves, figures from the collective unconscious which I shall further
 discuss later. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>I quite
 agree with Stephen Prickett that love is what Lizzie can bring back from the
 goblins to save Laura and that her “urging ‘eat me, drink me, love me’ is more
 than Christ-like, suggesting a passion that is almost incestuous.” Christina
 Rossetti herself would have been conscious only of the required love, and
 Prickett is right to observe: “The hidden antithesis of Victorian prudery was,
 naturally, the flourishing sub-culture of pornography—which is first
 identifiable as a separate genre in Victorian times” (106). This fact perhaps
 accounts for Duffy’s opinion which I’ve just quoted. Prickett further comments:
 “Like so many fantasies of the period, it is not difficult to find in <i>The </i>[sic] <i>Goblin Market</i> an image of the divided mind, and a divided society,
 terrified to come to terms with its own deepest needs and desires” (106). From
 the Jungian point of view, then, the poem compensates for contemporary prudery
 in its lush depiction of a sexuality that goes far beyond what the poet
 intended.<sup>4</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Sandra
 Gilbert and Susan Gubar note that in <i>Goblin Market</i> Rossetti seems “to be
 dreamily positing an effectively matrilineal and matriarchal world, perhaps
 even, considering the strikingly sexual redemption scene between the sisters, a
 covertly (if ambivalently) lesbian world” (567). It is true that the only male
 characters in the poem are the goblins, but the psychic integration that the
 sisters achieve by the end of the poem comes partly because they have absorbed
 the masculine qualities of the goblins<span class=GramE>,<sup>5</sup></span> and through the symbolism of same-sex love they have each achieved a psychic
 whole. Rossetti’s creative process and the process and symbols of her
 characters’ individuations are what I would like now to concentrate on. </span></p>
 <h1><span lang=EN-GB>II</span></h1>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>In my
 book, <i>The Stuff That Dreams Are Made On</i>, I discuss Jung’s theories of
 creativity (6-7). Suffice it to say here that Jung, echoing Plato, writes: “Art
 is a kind of innate drive that seizes a human being and makes him its
 instrument. The artist is not a person endowed with free will who seeks his own
 ends, but one who allows art to realize its purposes through him.” The artist
 as a human being has a free will, of course, but </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span class=GramE><span lang=EN-GB>as</span></span><span lang=EN-GB> an
 artist he is “man” in a higher sense—he is “collective man,” a vehicle and
 moulder of the unconscious psychic life of mankind. That is his office, and it
 is sometimes so heavy a burden that he is fated to sacrifice happiness and
 everything that makes life worth living for the ordinary human being. (<i>CW </i>15:
 101) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Jung
 refers here to artists whose work is “visionary”; that is, the work compensates
 through its archetypal imagery for contemporary psychic imbalance. <i>Goblin
 Market</i>, as I have suggested, falls into this category. Given the known
 facts of Christina Rossetti’s life, one is tempted to class her as an artist
 who sacrificed “happiness and everything that makes life worth living for the
 ordinary human being.” We know that twice she gave up marriage for religious
 reasons. She rejected James Collinson, a member of the Pre-Raphaelite
 Brotherhood, as a teenager of about eighteen, because of Collinson’s Roman
 Catholicism; and she rejected, at about age 30, Charles Bagot Cayley because of
 his relative lack of religious faith (see M. Rossetti lii-liv). If we are to
 believe Lona Mosk Packer’s theory, discounted by Marsh (119), Rossetti’s actual
 love was William Bell Scott, who because he was married was unavailable. In any
 case, Rossetti’s unhappiness in love could apparently be more readily blamed on
 her religion than on her vocation as a poet. However, even her religious faith,
 strong as it was, did not vanquish all doubts, as a close reading of her poetry
 will demonstrate. For her, life was the veritable “veil of tears.” Her sonnet
 called “One Certainty” reflects the view and uses the language of Ecclesiastes: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Vanity of
 vanities, the Preacher saith, <br>
 <span class=GramE>All</span> things are vanity. The eye and ear <br>
 <span class=GramE>Cannot</span> be filled with what they see and hear. <br>
 Like early dew, or like the sudden breath <br>
 <span class=GramE>Of</span> wind, or like the grass that withereth, <br>
 Is man, tossed to and fro by hope and fear: <br>
 So little joy hath he, so little cheer, <br>
 Till all things end in the long dust of death. <br>
 Today is still the same as yesterday, <br>
 <span class=GramE>Tomorrow</span> also even as one of them; <br>
 And there is nothing new under the sun: <br>
 Until the ancient race of Time be run, <br>
 The old thorns shall grow out of the old stem, <br>
 And morning shall be cold and twilight grey. (<i>CP</i> I: 72) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Nothing
 very original here, yet the poem does illustrate a typical attitude in Rossetti’s
 poetry.<sup>6</sup> <span class=GramE>Her</span> famous renunciation of love
 (and some would include life) was due more to her religious faith than to her
 art.<sup>7</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>On the
 other hand, out of her deep pain came her brilliant work as an artist. I
 believe that, like Laura and Lizzie in her best poem, Christina Rossetti was an
 introverted-intuitive type. As Marie-Louise von Franz notes, “Many introverted
 intuitives are to be found among artists and poets. They generally are artists
 who produce very archetypal and fantastic material [. . .]” (“The Inferior
 Function” 33). Furthermore, </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>the
 introvert feels as if an overwhelming object wants constantly to affect him,
 from which he has continually to retire [. . .] he is constantly overwhelmed by
 impressions, but he is unaware that he is secretly borrowing psychic energy
 from and lending it to the object through his unconscious extraversion. (“The
 Inferior Function” 1) <br>
 Moreover, “the introverted intuitive has particular trouble in approaching sex
 because it involves his inferior extraverted sensation” (35).<sup>8</sup> <span
class=GramE>Ironically</span>, one’s inferior function can open one up to
 ecstatic experience. Robert A. Johnson, for instance, writes: “Carl Jung says
 that the inferior function is always one’s God connection” (58). Von Franz
 cites the example of Jakob Boehme, the German mystic who was an
 introverted-intuitive type, whose “revelation of the Godhead [. . .] came from
 seeing a ray of light being reflected in a tin plate. That sensation experience
 snapped him into an inner ecstasy and within a minute he saw, so to speak, the
 whole mystery of the Godhead” (“The Inferior Function” 36). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>In
 ecstatic poems like “A Birthday,” Rossetti seems to experience the same kind of
 breakthrough. Unfortunately for her personal life, but fortunately for poetry,
 she never fully developed her sensation function into a satisfactory love
 relationship, unlike Laura and Lizzie. Regarding Boehme, von Franz says: “To be
 crucified between the superior and the inferior function is vitally important.”
 Such conflict was destroyed for Boehme by a German baron who, after Boehme’s
 first book was published, provided for Boehme’s family, thus relieving him of
 that financial burden and at the same time allowing him to escape “the torture
 of his inferior function” (37). Von Franz implies, as does Jung, that suffering
 is necessary to produce great philosophy or art. It is necessary, in other
 words, for creativity. This is a large issue which time and space do not allow
 me to develop fully here. In Christina Rossetti’s case, however, the idea that
 from suffering comes great art applies.<sup>9</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>William
 Michael Rossetti’s comment that his sister’s “habits of composition were
 entirely of the casual and spontaneous kind, from her earliest to her latest
 years” (lxviii) has stimulated much critical discussion. Thomas Swann comments:
 “Christina was not the craftsman her brother was. She wrote simply, often
 carelessly, and she did not like to revise.” He also says: “The best whimsy is
 spontaneous and not the product of conscious artistry” (24; he feels Christina’s
 whimsy is superior to that of her brother, Dante Gabriel, and the other
 Pre-Raphaelites). To contend that Christina Rossetti did not revise, was not a
 conscious artist, is quite simply wrong. As Packer and others have shown, she
 was a careful artist who conscientiously revised her work (see especially
 Antony Harrison 1-22). Virginia Woolf’s centennial essay, “’I Am Christina
 Rossetti’,” is perhaps the best description of Rossetti as an artist.
 Addressing the poet herself, Woolf writes: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>I doubt
 indeed that you developed very much. You were an instinctive poet. You saw the
 world from the same angle always. [. . .] Yet for all its symmetry, yours was a
 complex song. When you struck your harp many strings sounded together. Like all
 instinctives you had a keen sense <br>
 of the visual beauty of the world. [. . .] A firm hand pruned your lines; a
 sharp ear tested their music. Nothing soft, otiose, irrelevant cumbered your
 pages. In a word, you were an artist. (220) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Although
 her best work, including <i>Goblin <span class=GramE>Market<span
style='font-style:normal'>,</span></span></i> may have arisen spontaneously
 from the unconscious, even as she wrote Rossetti applied consciously her craft
 as a poet. It could be no other way. Many critics have remarked on the
 eccentric meter and rhythm of <i>Goblin Market</i>, and many note how Rossetti
 adapts that rhythm to meet the requirements of the mood and/or imagery she is
 conveying. This is the work of a true artist. </span></p>
 <h1><span lang=EN-GB>III</span></h1>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Christina
 Rossetti lived in an era of renewed popular interest in myth, romance, legend,
 and fairy tales. Indeed, fairy painting became a “unique Victorian contribution
 to art,” stimulated by this new interest and, according to Jeremy Maas, a
 widespread interest in spiritualism (148). Maureen Duffy remarks: “Often in
 fairy paintings the subject simply provides an excuse for painting the naked
 female form” (291). But Rossetti <br>
 objected to the depiction of naked fairies by her friend Gertrude Thomson, a “popular
 illustrator of children’s books.” Rossetti suggested to Thomson that “perhaps
 [. . .] women artists ought not to paint nudes” (Zaturenska 245). Rossetti also
 refused to be caught up in the “fashionable seances” attended by her brothers,
 Dante Gabriel and William Michael, in 1864 (Packer 212). <br>
 Nevertheless, in poems such as <i>Goblin Market</i>, <i>The Prince’s Progress</i>,
 and in her children’s books, <i>Sing-Song</i> (poetry, 1872) and <i>Speaking <span
class=GramE>Likenesses<span style='font-style:normal'>(</span></span></i>prose,
 1874), she freely indulges in fantasy and fairy tale. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><i><span lang=EN-GB>Speaking
 Likenesses</span></i><span lang=EN-GB> is
 generally dismissed by those critics who bother to comment; and in fact
 Rossetti herself called the volume “merely a Christmas trifle, would-be in the </span><i><span
 lang=EN-GB>Alice</span></i><span
lang=EN-GB> style with an eye to the market”
 (qtd. by Packer 305). Illustrated by Arthur Hughes, <i>Speaking Likenesses</i> contains three stories told by an “aunt” to several little girls. The first and
 longest story is about Flora’s unhappy eighth birthday party from which she,
 like </span><span lang=EN-GB>Alice</span><span lang=EN-GB>, escapes by falling asleep. Flora walks down a “yew alley” and enters
 an enchanted house whose door knocker shakes hands with her and whose furniture
 is alive, rather like the furniture in television’s <i>Pee-Wee’s Playhouse</i>.
 The children in this Victorian fantasy playhouse come in shapes of quills,
 angles, hooks, and slime. The games the children play, “Hunt the Pincushion”
 and “Self-help,” as one critic points out, “reveal a deep fear of sexual
 violence and a disturbing disrespect for humanity” (McGillis 227). “Hunt the
 Pincushion” is described thus: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Select
 the smallest and weakest player (if possible let her be fat: a hump is best of
 all), chase her round and round the room, overtaking her at short intervals,
 and sticking pins into her here or there as it happens: repeat, till you choose
 to catch and swing her; which concludes the game. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The
 narrating aunt adds: “Short cuts, yells, and sudden leaps give spirit to the
 hunt” (<i>Speaking Likenesses</i> 33). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The
 sexual connotations are clear, and the fact that the victim is female
 accurately portrays the woman’s role in Victorian England so far as sex and
 romance are concerned, but taken as a whole, Rossetti’s take-off on the </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>Alice</span><span
lang=EN-GB> stories lacks the Carroll magic. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The same
 may be said for the other two stories. In the second story, the heroine is
 Edith, whose task is to get a kettle boiling. She fails, even with the help of
 a frog who can’t boil the kettle either. The final story takes place in winter,
 unlike the previous two (the children, who carry on a running dialogue with the
 storyteller, ask for a “winter story,” 70). Here Dame Margaret, owner of the “village
 fancy shop” (71) sends her granddaughter, Maggie, on a Christmas Eve errand to
 deliver “tapers” to a doctor’s large house (74). Excited at the chance of
 seeing the doctor’s Christmas tree, Maggie slips on a piece of ice, and then
 her adventures begin. She encounters scary children who want to play Hunt the
 Pincushion and Self-help. In brackets, one of the aunt’s auditors, Ella, asks: “are
 these those monstrous children over again?” And the aunt replies: “<span
class=GramE>Yes, Ella, you really can’t expect me not</span> to utilize such a
 brilliant idea twice” (78-81). One suspects the real reason for the repetition
 is a paucity of ideas. Maggie soon meets a horrid boy at whose heels “marched a
 fat tabby cat” with a tabby kitten in her mouth (84). The boy’s face is all
 mouth and teeth, and, reversing the sex roles of <i>Goblin Market</i>, he
 demands of Maggie a piece of the chocolate she’s carrying to the doctor’s
 house. Whereas in <i>Goblin Market</i> the male goblins tempt the females with
 their fruit, here the female Maggie has the food the voracious male desires.
 She successfully resists him. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>At the
 doctor’s house, Maggie is not invited in to see the Christmas tree. However, on
 her way home she rescues a wood-pigeon, a “small tabby kitten” (93), and a
 puppy. They all arrive safely at Maggie’s grandmother’s house, where Maggie is
 received with a “loving welcoming hug” (95). Archetypally, Maggie has a healthy
 relationship with the positive and negative unconscious figures represented by
 the images of the mouthy boy and the helpless animals. One is somehow reminded
 of the Little Red Riding Hood story here, except that, of course, Granny is
 really Granny when Maggie arrives home; and Maggie has, as it were, already
 successfully encountered the menacing shadow/animus figure of the boy in the
 dark of the cold winter forest, symbolic of the unconscious. Like Laura and
 Lizzie, this child returns to the warmth and wholeness of a female world.
 Nevertheless, <i>Speaking Likenesses</i> is more in Jung’s psychological mode
 than in his visionary mode. It speaks as much of Rossetti’s personal psychology
 as it speaks of the Victorian age, and perhaps that accounts for its relative
 lack of popularity.<sup>10</sup> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><i><span lang=EN-GB>Sing-Song</span></i><span
lang=EN-GB>, unlike <i>Speaking Likenesses</i>,
 was not written “with an eye to the market,” yet it was one of Rossetti’s most
 popular books, and remains so today. This fact suggests that, as is the case with <i>Goblin Market</i>, something in the book appeals to the collective psyche.
 Although at the time of its publication <i>The Academy</i> reviewed it with
 Carroll’s <i>Through the Looking Glass</i> and Lear’s <i>More Nonsense</i> (Packer 265), <i>Sing-Song</i> is hardly in the same category as these classics
 in terms of originality and archetypal appeal. Still, it is a pleasant, albeit
 often didactic, children’s book. There are precious few nonsense verses <i>à la</i> Lear, very little of the trickster archetype. Blake’s influence can be seen in
 such poems as the one that begins “Dancing on the hill-tops/Singing in the
 valleys” (<i>Poetical Works </i>434) with its echo of Blake’s “Piping down the
 valleys wild.” But there is virtually none of Blake’s wildness and numinous
 imagery. Rossetti shows a fondness for paradox (“A pin has a head, but has no
 hair; /A clock has a face, but no mouth there [. . .]” 432), and she exhibits
 an introverted attitude toward nature: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>I have
 but one rose in the world, <br>
 <span class=GramE>And</span> my one rose stands a-drooping: <br>
 Oh when my single rose is dead <br>
 There’ll be but thorns for stooping. (437) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Death, as
 in her other poetry, is a frequent theme (fairly ironic in book for children). <br>
 Yet she has joyful, fanciful verses such as: <br>
 In the meadow—what in the meadow? <br>
 Bluebells, buttercups, meadowsweet, <br>
 <span class=GramE>And</span> fairy rings for the children’s feet <br>
 In the meadow. (435) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Motherless
 and dead babies abound, reflecting not only contemporary reality but also a
 deep psychic need for the growth and wholeness offered by these symbols (mother
 and child) from the collective unconscious. The first edition, illustrated by
 Arthur Hughes, begins and ends with pictures of mother and child. The
 frontispiece shows them in an idyllic setting surrounded by sheep, birds,
 ponies, and a rabbit. Angels look on from the tree whose base the mother sits
 on, knitting, the baby in her lap.<sup>11</sup> There are examples, too, of
 female threesomes such as we have in <i>Goblin Market</i> and poems like the
 sonnet, “A Triad.” As we shall see, three is often a number of wholeness for
 the female. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Another
 motif in <i>Sing-Song </i>found frequently in Rossetti’s other poetry is that
 of dreaming: “’I dreamt I caught a little owl/<span class=GramE>And</span> the
 bird was blue---‘” (440). To find examples from Rossetti’s other work, one has
 merely to glance at the Table of Contents from her <i>Complete <span
class=GramE>Poems<span style='font-style:normal'> :</span></span></i> “Dream-Land,”
 “My Dream,” “Dream-Love,” for instance. Dreams are one of the chief sources of
 archetypal images, and the motif appears as well in <i>Goblin <span
class=GramE>Market<span style='font-style:normal'> :</span></span></i> “Laura
 awoke as from a dream” (<i>CP</i> I: 25). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><i><span lang=EN-GB>Goblin
 Market</span></i><span lang=EN-GB> is so well
 known that a brief summary of the narrative seems almost superfluous. Two
 sisters, Laura and Lizzie, who live in the country, are tempted by goblin men
 to buy and eat their delicious, exotic fruits of many varieties. Although both
 intuitively understand that to eat would be deleterious (they have the example,
 too, of Jeanie, who died after eating the fruit), Laura succumbs to temptation
 by purchasing the fruit one night (symbolic of the unconscious) with a lock of
 her golden hair. Elisabeth G. Gitter has shown that for the Victorians golden
 women’s hair had “powers both magical and symbolic,” connected to both “wealth
 and female sexuality” (936). For Gitter, Laura’s bartering her hair for the
 goblin fruit is obviously sexual (946). She gorges herself with great pleasure.
 The imagery here is clearly sexual.<sup>12</sup> Laura </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span class=GramE><span lang=EN-GB>sucked</span></span><span lang=EN-GB> their fruit globes fair or red: <br>
 Sweeter than honey from the rock. <br>
 Stronger than man-rejoicing wine, <br>
 Clearer than water flowed that juice; <br>
 She never tasted such before, <br>
 How should it cloy with length of use? <br>
 She sucked and sucked and sucked the more <br>
 Fruits which that unknown orchard bore; <br>
 She sucked until her lips were sore. . . . (14) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Laura is
 so immersed in the <span class=GramE>unconscious,</span> she can’t tell if it
 is “night or day. [. . .]” That the imagery suggests oral sex is appropriate
 since this is a tale about female same-sex individuation. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;MS Sans Serif&quot;;
'><img border=0 width=252 height=225
src="source_files/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"></span><span
lang=EN-GB><br>
 Fig. 2, drawing by D. G. Rossetti for the cover of <i>Goblin Market</i> <br>
 <i>and Other Poems</i> (1862), his sister, Christina’s first book of poems. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Now Laura
 can no longer hear the goblins call, though she addictively desires the fruit
 and her sister Lizzie <i>does</i> hear the goblins.<sup>13</sup> Watching Laura
 slowly die, Lizzie goes to the goblins to buy some fruit in order to provide
 Laura with a cure. The goblins refuse to accept Lizzie’s penny. She must eat
 the fruit herself. When she refuses, they attack her, smearing enough of the
 fruit juices on her face that Laura, upon Lizzie’s pleading (“Eat me, drink me,
 love me [. . .]”), eats the now bitter juice and thus recovers. At a first
 reading, the “moral” of the tale, spoken by Laura, seems almost tacked on, not
 unlike the “morals” of <i>The Rime of the Ancient Mariner</i> and <i>The
 Picture of Dorian <span class=GramE>Gray<span style='font-style:normal'> :</span></span></i> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>“For
 there is no friend like a sister <br>
 In calm or stormy weather; <br>
 To cheer one on the tedious way, <br>
 To fetch one if one goes astray, <br>
 To lift one if one totters down, <br>
 To strengthen whilst one stands.” (<i>CP</i> I: 26) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Katherine
 Mayberry feels the ending is necessary to “complete” Rossetti’s “definition of
 her own poetics” (85). I have, however, another explanation. The closing
 statement by Laura demonstrates what she’s learned about the salvific effects
 of sisterly sacrifice and love. Together the two sisters have accomplished
 their own individuation processes. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>That the
 goblin men are archetypal images from the collective unconscious is clear from
 their power over the sisters’ imaginations, especially over Laura’s. As the
 noted Jungian psychologist James Hillman writes: “one thing is absolutely
 essential to the notion of archetypes: their emotional possessive effect, their <i>bedazzlement</i> of consciousness so that it becomes blind to its own stance”
 (24, my italics). <br>
 ”Bedazzlement” is the perfect word to describe the goblins’ effect after Laura
 has eaten of their fruit. Both Laura and Lizzie apparently have superior
 intuitive functions to begin with. They both intuit the dangers of eating
 goblin fruit. Says Laura: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>“We must
 not look at goblin men, <br>
 <span class=GramE>We</span> must not buy their fruits: <br>
 Who knows upon what soil they fed <br>
 Their hungry thirsty roots?” (12) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Lizzie agrees:
 “’Oh,’ cried Lizzie, ‘Laura, Laura<span class=GramE>,/</span>You should not
 peep at goblin men’” (12). Yet, Eve-like, Laura cannot resist the sensuous
 feast offered by “each merchant man,” described by Rossetti thus: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>One had a
 cat’s face, <br>
 <span class=GramE>One</span> whisked a tail, <br>
 One tramped at a rat’s pace, <br>
 One crawled like a snail, <br>
 One like a wombat prowled obtuse and furry, <br>
 One like a ratel tumbled hurry skurry. (13) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>One is
 also “parrot-voiced and jolly” and “One whistled like a bird” (14). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Although
 the description seems harmless enough, for most are cuddly, pet-like,
 androgynous animals such as Christina’s brother, Dante Gabriel, might have kept
 (in fact did keep) in his private menagerie, these half-human/half-animal
 creatures are Victorian equivalents of such classical tricksters as satyrs,
 sileni, Pan, Priapus, Dionysus, Eros, and Hermes. The illustrations by Laurence
 Housman (brother of A. E. Housman) make clear their menacing quality in the
 edition published in 1893, the year before Rossetti’s death (see Fig. 3).<sup>14 </sup>The animal imagery Christina Rossetti uses is not that of goats (or
 horses, also associated with sileni and centaurs), but their description
 matches that of satyrs and sileni given by Catherine Johns: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Both
 species were rural spirits who, being half-animal, <br>
 were able to behave in ways which would not have been <br>
 acceptable for humans. In effect, they embody the animal <br>
 side of human nature, seen as a separate quality. (82) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>One of
 the animals, Rossetti mentions, the cat, is actually a close companion of
 Dionysus in the form of a panther, as well as of a tiger (Johns 84). One
 trickster trait is the ability to change genders, and Pan, son of Hermes and a
 companion of Dionysus, appears as both male and female in ancient art (44). Dionysus
 too is an androgynous god, raised as a girl to protect him from Hera (Johnson
 6). Like the other Greek and Roman figures I’ve cited, Pan is a highly sexual
 being. He is often “depicted sexually accosting other deities, nymphs,
 shepherds and shepherdesses” (Johns 48). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;MS Sans Serif&quot;;
'><img border=0 width=163 height=306
src="source_files/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026"></span><span
lang=EN-GB><br>
 <span class=GramE>Fig. 3, drawing by Laurence Housman for <br>
 the 1893 edition of <i>Goblin Market.</i></span> </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Hermes,
 the Greek trickster, has the “gift of guile in sexual seduction” (Brown 13-14).
 Moreover, he is a guide, a “connection-maker,” as Rafael López-Pedraza writes,
 an initiator “into the repressed unconscious nature” (7-8). Animals are part of
 his archetypal imagery (16). Eros, the Greek god of love, by the Roman era had
 become “a mischievous young boy, playing tricks on people and wounding them with
 his arrows [. . .] Like so many important deities, he had a dark as well as a
 light side; sexual passion can be a cruel and unrewarding experience” (Johns
 54). Such is the case, at least initially, for Laura. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>All of
 these mythological figures are associated with fertility. In fact, Priapus,
 known for his enormous phallus, is often pictured with fruit, “to demonstrate
 his function of ensuring the increase of crops” (Johns 50). Dionysus, of
 course, is a fertility symbol <i>par excellence</i>. One of the many fruits
 Rossetti cites in <i>Goblin Market</i>, the pomegranate, is associated with
 him, for a pomegranate tree, itself a fertility symbol, “sprouted from the
 earth where a drop of his blood had fallen” (Johnson 6).<sup>15</sup> Pan and
 the satyrs are, as we know, closely connected to Dionysus. Indeed, the satyrs
 taught Dionysus the glories of dance and ecstatic sex (Johnson 7). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>After
 eating the goblin fruit, Laura has become possessed, rather like a Victorian
 maenad, by the images of the goblins, and “possession,” according to von Franz,
 “means being assimilated by [. . .] numinous archetypal images” (<i>Shadow and
 Evil</i> 128). Von Franz’s description of a similar possession in a South
 American Indian folk tale describes Laura as well: she “has lost the instinct
 of self-preservation” (129): “Her hair grew thin and gray; / She dwindled, as
 the fair full moon doth turn / To swift decay and burn / Her fire away” (<i>CP</i> I: 18). The goblin men are, then, dual archetypes for the sisters. As
 malevolent, furry creatures with ambivalent sexuality, they symbolize the
 shadow; as male sexual creatures who represent unbridled fertility, sensuality,
 and sexuality, they are the negative animus for the two sisters. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Yet there
 is something positive they offer. They offer an approach to the inferior functions
 of both sisters. As intuitive types, their inferior function is sensation. If
 they can avoid being overwhelmed by this function and the archetypes from which
 it springs, they can gain <span class=GramE>a wholeness</span> hitherto unknown
 to them. Laura has been pathologically overwhelmed. She has become addicted, as
 it were, to the sensual, sexual experience offered by the goblins<span
class=GramE>,<sup>16</sup></span> and she has immediately reached the stage
 that for most addicts comes much later—the stage in which the addictive
 substance no longer “works,” no longer provides the desired high. Instead, it
 threatens to kill her. Sometimes the cure for addiction (including alcoholism)
 starts with a last dose of the substance to help the addict through withdrawal.
 Lizzie intuitively understands this. Jung has stated, in a letter to one of the
 founders of Alcoholics Anonymous, William G. Wilson, that the alcoholic’s </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>craving
 for alcohol [. . . is] the equivalent on a low level of the spiritual thirst of
 our being for wholeness, expressed in medieval language: the union with God [.
 . .] alcohol in Latin is <i>spiritus</i> and you use the same word for the
 highest religious experience as well as for the most depraving poison. (<i>Selected
 Letters</i> 198) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The “cure”
 for alcoholism is the same cure Laura needs: a spiritual experience, <span
class=GramE>a redemption</span> in short. (That Dionysus is the god of wine is
 worth noting here; the goblin fruit is said to be “Stronger than man-rejoicing
 wine,” 14.) This redemption is not possible till she reaches a “bottom” such as
 addicts and alcoholics must reach before recovery. Once she has experienced the
 depths, Laura is ready for the “salvation” Lizzie offers. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span class=GramE><span lang=EN-GB>Lizzie, however, to complete her own, less drastic, individuation
 process, most also experience the shadow and negative animus.</span></span><span
lang=EN-GB> She has developed enough of the
 rational, thinking function to attempt to bargain with the goblin men by
 offering them money. They will have none of this, so they attempt to rape her: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>They trod
 and hustled her, <br>
 Elbowed and jostled her, <br>
 Clawed with their nails, <br>
 Barking, mewing, hissing, mocking, <br>
 Tore her gown and soiled her stocking, <br>
 Twitched her hair out by the roots, <br>
 Stamped upon her tender feet, <br>
 Held her hands and squeezed their fruits <br>
 Against her mouth to make her eat. (21) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Lizzie
 resists, “like a lily in a flood [. . .] like a beacon left alone / In a hoary
 roaring sea, / Sending up a golden fire<span class=GramE>,--</span> / Like a
 fruit-crowned orange-tree / White with blossoms honey-sweet / Sore beset by
 wasp and bee,--“ She is also compared to “a royal virgin town / Topped with
 gilded dome and spire / Close beleaguered by a fleet / Made to tug her standard
 down” (22). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>While
 many of the images are those of the female (the “lily” or “dome,” for example)
 besieged by the ravenous male, some are those of the male (the “beacon” or the “spire”)
 threatened by the devouring female. The psychological point is that Lizzie must
 experience the negative sides of both the female (the shadow) and the male (the
 animus) before she can be whole enough to rescue Laura. She must also absorb
 the positive sexual and creative energy represented by the chthonic goblins. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The
 imagery Rossetti uses here is both religious and sexual.<sup>17</sup> Lizzie
 says to Laura: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>“Hug me,
 kiss me, suck my juices <br>
 Squeezed from goblin fruits for you, <br>
 Goblin pulp and goblin dew. <br>
 Eat me, drink me, love me; <br>
 Laura, make much of me: <br>
 For your sake I have braved the glen <br>
 <span class=GramE>And</span> had to do with goblin merchant men.” (23) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Laura
 heeds Lizzie: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>She clung
 about her sister, <br>
 <span class=GramE>Kissed</span> and kissed and kissed her: <br>
 Tears once again <br>
 Refreshed her shrunken eyes, <br>
 Dropping like rain <br>
 After long sultry drouth; <br>
 Shaking with aguish fear, and pain, <br>
 She kissed and kissed her with a hungry mouth. (24) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Rossetti
 describes and prescribes the same kind of same-sex union Plato proposes in the
 mouth of Aristophanes in the <i>Symposium</i>. Earlier Rossetti had shown the
 two sisters as two halves of the same whole: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Golden
 head by golden head, <br>
 Like two pigeons in one nest, <br>
 Folded in each other’s wings, <br>
 They lay down in their curtained bed: <br>
 Like two blossoms on one stem, <br>
 Like two flakes of new-fall’n snow, <br>
 Like two wands of ivory [. . .] (16; see fig. 2) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>William
 Rossetti has attested to the fact that Plato was among Christina’s favorite
 authors: “she read his <i>Dialogues</i> over and over again” (<i>PW</i> lxx);
 yet the idea that she would consciously depict lesbian love as a means to
 wholeness and redemption is of course out of the question. Nevertheless, she
 may have unconsciously depicted the union of the two primal female halves “each
 desiring his other half” (Plato 335) like the primal male-male and male-female
 human beings in Plato’s myth. Not surprisingly, Plato uses traditionally
 Western symbolism for these primal sexes: “the man was originally the child of
 the sun, the woman of the earth, and the man-woman of the moon, which is made
 up of sun and earth” (335). Laura and Lizzie have each assimilated and
 accommodated the contrasexual as well as developed their inferior sensation
 functions and thus found <i>in </i>themselves their own individual Selves,
 which include vital connections to the earth, as well as motherhood and
 creativity. Lizzie demonstrates creativity in her dramatic rescue of Laura, who
 becomes an artist, a storyteller. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>If any
 further evidence is required to demonstrate <i>Goblin Market </i>is a poem
 about female psychic integration, one need only examine Rossetti’s conscious
 and unconscious use of the numbers three and four. As I have indicated, there
 are three females in the poem: Laura, Lizzie, and the late Jeanie. The “plot,”
 Katharine Briggs observes, “is a variant of three main fairy themes: the danger
 of peeping at the fairies, the taboo against eating fairy food, and the rescue
 from Fairyland” (193). Now, although the number four is generally the number of
 wholeness in Jungian thought, the number three, when it appears in its “threefold
 aspect as maiden, mother, and Hecate [. . . the Kore figure, in short] has her
 psychological counterpart,” Jung writes, “in those archetypes which I have
 called the <i>self</i> or <i>supraordinate personality</i> on the one hand, and
 the <i>anima</i> on the other” (“Psychological Aspects of the Kore” 182). The
 myth of Demeter and her daughter Persephone (also called Kore), who is abducted
 by Hades and must spend a third of the year with him in the underworld after
 having eaten a pomegranate seed, is well known. Here we have another set of
 three, three mythological seasons as opposed to the usual four. Demeter, the
 mother, is also Hecate, the moon goddess (see Kerényi 109-120), the female
 shadow, and with Persephone she makes a whole female Self. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>The
 tripartite female is clearly portrayed in <i>Goblin Market</i>. All three women—Laura,
 Lizzie, and Jeanie—are maidens. Jeanie, a victim of the shadow (the goblins and
 their fruit are both male and female, as we have seen), never realizes the
 Self. Laura and Lizzie, on the other hand, experience, as I have demonstrated,
 the archetypal shadow, both personal and collective. Each in different measure
 experiences the “forbidden fruit” of sexual knowledge, albeit Lizzie never
 indulges fully as does her sister. By the end of the poem, both have become
 mothers: “wives / <span class=GramE>With</span> children” (<i>CP</i> I: 25).
 Some of the numinous power of their experience lingers as Laura tells her “little
 ones” of “her early prime, / Those pleasant days long <span class=GramE>gone .</span> [. . .]” As more than one critic has observed, she has become an artist, a
 storyteller, and she tells the story of “the haunted glen, / <span class=GramE>The</span> wicked, quaint fruit-merchant men, / Their fruits like honey to the throat /
 But poison in the blood [. . .]” (25). She looks back with a mixture of
 nostalgia and regret, with feeling, in other words. Her final aphorism: “There
 is no friend like a sister” (26), shows that she’s developed the thinking
 function (already developed, as we’ve seen, in Lizzie). The most developed or “differentiated,”
 to use the technical term, function for both sisters has been the traditionally
 “feminine” intuition function. Of the inferior function (sensation for Laura
 and Lizzie), Jung writes: “Because of its contamination with the collective
 unconscious, it possesses archaic and mystical qualities, and is the complete
 opposite of the most differentiated function” (“A Psychological Approach to the
 Trinity” 121). Here the problem of the fourth is solved, for the sisters have,
 at least to some degree, developed all four functions of consciousness. The
 sensation function continues to be the weakest, but it has opened the door to
 individuation for both sisters, the equivalent of a “mystical” experience. When
 Laura awakens from her near-death nightmare, her hair is no longer gray, “Her
 breath was sweet as May / <span class=GramE>And</span> light danced in her eyes”
 (25). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Although
 the sisters have married, their husbands play no part in the poem; they are
 neither seen nor named. Laura and Lizzie’s most important relationship has been
 with each other. And it is clearly an erotic relationship that has brought them
 peace and psychic integration. Von Franz believes that Jung, in his <i>Memories,
 Dreams, <span class=GramE>Reflections<span style='font-style:normal'> ,</span></span></i> implies “that a preconscious spiritual order lies at the base of all love
 relationships” (<i>Number and Time</i> 293), and she speaks of “an all-uniting
 Eros” (292). It is, then, the archetype of love which has transformed the lives
 of both Laura and Lizzie in Christina Rossetti’s finest poem. </span></p>
 <h2><sup><span lang=EN-GB>Notes</span></sup></h2>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>1</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar
 note, for instance, that <i>Goblin Market</i> “has recently begun to be
 something of a textual crux for feminist critics” (566). See Katherine J.
 Mayberry (16). Also, Jan Marsh’s biography, <i>Christina Rossetti</i>, has
 recently appeared. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>2</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Here I disagree with some critics.
 Elizabeth Jennings, for instance, declares that “<i>Goblin Market</i>, though
 it is often set before children at school it is not, to my idea, a poem for
 young people at all; it is an adult, short epic which happens to make use of
 fairies and goblins” (10). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>3</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>It is true that <i>Goblin Market</i> was dedicated to Maria Francesca Rossetti. The best William Michael could come
 up with by way of explanation was the following: “apparently C. [Christina]
 considered herself to be chargeable with some sort of spiritual backsliding,
 against which Maria’s influence had been exerted beneficially” (qtd. by Packer
 150). No one has been able definitively to establish exactly what Christina
 might have owed to her sister Maria, who did indeed seem to have a firmer faith
 and who near the end of her life became an Anglican nun (Packer 304-305). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>4</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Christina Rossetti herself was, not
 surprisingly, a prude. William Michael Rossetti writes that she was “barely
 eighteen” when she gave up theater of any kind: “not perhaps that she
 considered plays and operas to be in themselves iniquitous, but rather that the
 moral tone of vocalists, actors, and actresses is understood to be lax, and it
 behoves a Christian not to contribute to the encouragement of lax moralists” (<i>Poetical
 Works</i> lxvi). She was, on the other hand, extremely tolerant of those, like
 her brother Dante Gabriel and Algernon Charles Swinburne, whose life styles she
 disapproved of. “Judge not, that ye be not judged” was the “precept of the
 Christian religion” she lived by (ibid. lxvii). Despite her tolerance for her
 relations and friends, she privately expurgated her own copy of Swinburne’s <i>Atalanta
 in Calydon</i> by pasting “strips of paper over the lines in the atheistic
 chorus” (Packer 353). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>5</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>I owe this idea to my colleague at </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>California</span><span
 lang=EN-GB> </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>State</span><span
 lang=EN-GB> </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>University</span><span
lang=EN-GB>, </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>Long Beach</span><span
lang=EN-GB>, <span class=GramE>Donald</span> J.
 Weinstock. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>6</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>In addition to <i>Goblin Market</i> itself, a famous exception is “A Birthday,” of which the first stanza goes: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>My heart
 is like a singing bird <br>
 Whose nest is in a watered shoot; <br>
 My heart is like an apple tree <br>
 Whose boughs are bent with thickset fruit; <br>
 My heart is like a rainbow shell <br>
 That paddles in a halcyon sea; <br>
 My heart is gladder than all these <br>
 Because my love is come to me. (<i>CP</i> I: 36). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>7</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Jerome J. McGann observes that for
 Rossetti “Erotic love must either be renounced altogether—an unimaginable
 project in itself—or it must be translated into forms of desire which are
 equally unimaginable or unspeakable” (14). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>8</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>I refer here to Jung’s theory of the
 four functions of consciousness. Thinking and feeling are rational responses to
 the world, the first through one’s intellect, the second through the
 unconscious. Feeling relates to values. Intuition and sensation are irrational
 functions. They perceive either through the unconscious (intuition) or through
 the conscious (sensation). See Snider 12-14. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>9</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>As a practicing poet, I have been on
 both sides of this issue. I must say, though, that my best work has never been
 deliberately willed; rather, it has come from an inner impetus that is largely
 outside my conscious control. Examples of suffering artists are far too
 numerable to mention, and, although I do not believe in the Freudian theory of
 sublimation, I do believe that some kind of psychic tension is necessary to
 produce lasting art. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>10</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Perhaps the most striking archetypal
 image in the book is Arthur Hughes’s illustration for the “Apple of Discord”
 which the children at Flora’s birthday party fight over. The Apple is depicted
 as a pointy-eared, bare-breasted, medusa-like woman with snakes in her long
 Pre-Raphaelite hair. A scowl on her face, an apple in her right hand, and a
 long dagger in her sash, she towers threateningly over the children (11). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>11</span></sup><i><span
lang=EN-GB>Sing-Song </span></i><span
lang=EN-GB>i. Rossetti herself approved of
 Hughes’s drawings. She wrote to her brother, Dante Gabriel: </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>What a
 charming design is the ring of elfs [sic] producing the <br>
 fairy ring—also the apple tree casting the apples—also <br>
 the three dancing girls with the angel—kissing one-- <br>
 also I liked the crow-soaked grey stared at by his <br>
 peers. (<span class=GramE>qtd</span>. by Zaturenska 195) </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><span lang=EN-GB>Notice
 the “fairy ring” (the verse is quoted above), another symbol, like the mother
 and child, for wholeness. The “three dancing girls” refers to the poem that
 begins: “Sing me a song--/<span class=GramE>What</span> shall I sing?--/Three
 merry sisters/Dancing in a ring [. . .]” (<i>Sing-Song</i> 73), an example of a
 set of three females (with a fourth, the angel, making a whole) and a mandala—the
 ring. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>12</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Marsh has a fairly balanced, albeit
 incomplete, discussion of the sexual imagery in <i>Goblin Market</i>. She
 concludes that “at some level . . . the sexual dimension was intentional. [. .
 . but] her deployment of erotic feeling in <i>Goblin Market</i> was [. . .]
 largely unconscious, derived from childish memories of sensual desire and
 perhaps other arousals” (234). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>13</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Ellen </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>Moers</span><span
lang=EN-GB> has made a similar observation: “Gorged
 on goblin fruit, Laura craves with all the symptoms of addiction for another
 feast, but craves in vain, for the goblins’ sinister magic makes their victims
 incapable of hearing the fruit-selling cry a second time.” For </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>Moers</span><span
lang=EN-GB>, “’Suck’ is the central verb of <i>Goblin
 Market</i>; sucking with mixed lust and pain is, among the poem’s
 Pre-Raphaelite profusion of colors and tastes, the particular sensation carried
 to an extreme that must be called perverse.” </span><span
 lang=EN-GB>Moers</span><span
lang=EN-GB> concludes “that Christina Rossetti
 wrote a poem, as Emily Brontë wrote a novel, about the erotic life of children”
 (102). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>14</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>In the more famous illustrations by
 Christina’s brother Dante Gabriel, the goblins are also menacing creatures, but
 the picture of Laura and Lizzie lying down and embracing asleep is the more
 remarkable for what it reveals about their relationship (see Fig. 2). An
 edition with color illustrations by George Gershinowitz published in 1981
 emphasizes the human, sensual side of the goblins, as well as their menacing
 quality. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>15</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Winston Weathers also sees a
 symbolic connection with the goblins and Dionysus, referring to “the deep,
 archetypal, even primordial freedom” he represents, at least in the paradigm
 posited by Nietzsche (83). </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>16</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>In her brief Jungian analysis of <i>Goblin
 Market</i>, Gwen Mountford too sees the “fatal fruit” as “addiction.” For
 Mountford, the poem is about “animus taking over in the field of a woman’s
 sensuality” (68). Mountford, who also analyzes Virginia Woolf’s </span><span
 class=GramE><i><span lang=EN-GB>Orlando</span></i></span><span
class=GramE><span lang=EN-GB> ,</span></span><span
lang=EN-GB> is heterosexist, as well as
 shallow, in her interpretations. She totally ignores the symbolism of same-sex
 love in both Rossetti and Woolf. </span></p>
 <p class=MsoBodyText><sup><span lang=EN-GB>17</span></sup><span
lang=EN-GB>Rod Edmond comments: “The fusion of
 eucharistic and sexual language in this scene makes it one of the most powerful
 in the <span class=GramE>poem,</span> and it dominates the final sections”
 (185). </span></p>
</div>

</body>
</html>
!Bad English
A seventh grade teacher can leverage the intuitive assessment management functionality to deliver practice tests and assess student progress.
[source: http://www.blackboard.com/k12_old/ls/index.htm]

The company - this leading global professional services organisation is passionately embracing change and as a result is actively recruiting talented professionals to drive forward the business. They have a number of values they are driving through the various business regions and they are seeking a new individual to help them bring these values to life. The role - the Knowledge Manager role is an exciting opportunity in a change oriented, forward thinking environment where the emphasis is very much on continuous improvement. - It combines the opportunity to help drive forward new projects and initiatives with the need to maintain, manage and improve the quality of systems and knowledge on an ongoing basis. - Working with the Group Leaders, you will proactively align knowledge content initiatives and activities to directly support the practice's overall strategy, therefore ensuring that professionals have access to the knowledge content they require to do their jobs. 

Global ICT issues have to be address collectively within a structure that clearly defines responsibility and accountability. There are not many areas ICT does not touch across the curriculum and the dependency on ICT will increase over time. Hi Tech work closely with a number of LEA’s to assist with long term strategy and roll-out programs.
Any strategy should not loose focus on the business of delivering education and this can easily be divided into “back office” and “front office” criteria. The “back office” is what we deem as technical development to meet the needs of the “front office” which is the curriculum demands. In schools that Hi Tech support, we have a position of control/management to ensure the technical position is always in front of any curriculum demands. This is providing the funds are available to meet these needs hence the requirement for projections and regular development meetings with Technical, Management and Curriculum staff. 
[source: http://hi-tech-group.hostinguk.com/edu_ict.htm]

“Validation” can take many forms, but the strongest form involves developing multiple sets of data that, together, provide a pattern of consistent support for the use of a test or other measure. Polaris Assessment Systems utilizes proprietary job analytic techniques to supply one part of that pattern. Its reliance on the use of testing approaches that the professional literature shows to be predictive of job success provides a second source of support.
[source: http://www.polaristest.com/validoc.aspx]
[[Euro-English]]
<html>
<div class="g-search">
<input
id="$1"
class="g-search-input"
type="text"
onkeydown="window.doCustomSearch(event,this)"
onfocus="
if(!window.doCustomSearch) {
window.doCustomSearch = function(e,el) {
var ev = e||window.event;
if(ev && ev.keyCode == 13) {
el.nextSibling.click();
}
}
}
"/><input
class="g-search-button"
type="button"
value="search"
onclick="javascript:
var el = document.getElementById('$1');
window.open('http://www.google.com/cse?cx=$1&q='+el.value, '_blank');
window.focus();
"/>
</div>
</html>
!Bulgur wheat
http://www.wikihow.com/Cook-Bulgur
Thanks to everyone who responded to our email on Monday with suggestions for great questions to ask at an interview 

What’s the best thing about working at your company? 

Why has the position become available? 

What can I expect from you in terms of development, support and motivation? 

Has this role been offered internally? 

What is the possibility of promotion within the company? 

What type of prospects does this role offer? 

If I was offered the job, what are the main monitors for success? 

What does the organisation expect from its employees? 

What behaviour is desired and rewarded (not financially) in this position? 

What is the turnover of staff like throughout the company? 

What elements of the job offer flexibility and variety? 

I do like a challenge; does this role involve me being in a status where I can use my initiative? 

What influence will I have over the size of budget and how it is managed? 

What aspirations do you have for me with this department? 

Where would you like to see me within the company in five years? 

Where will the job I am applying for fit into the team? 

In the department I would be entering, what is the age group? 

What do you think would attract me to accept this position, if I am to be the successful candidate? 

Are there any plans to expand the company? 

Why did you join the company and what are your long term goals? 

What is your management style like? 

Have you seen much growth since you were bought out by XXX?
+++[Guides to Greece]
Beach resorts - http://www.worldtravelguide.net/beach_resort/7/beach_resorts/Europe.html#grc
===
+++[Sites and Services]
|The British Haemorrhoid Centre|http://www.halocentre.com/|
|Relief|http://www.hemorrhoids-relief-guide.com/|
===

!Natural Remedies
*horse chestnut (which is known for its effect in reducing haemmeroid swelling)
*apple cider vinegar
A good idea for stopping bleeding hemmoroids is to use a few tea spoons of apple cider vinegar and to mix it with plain water in a large glass. Drink this mixture together with every meal - this is a well known way of treating hemroids. 
*High Fibre Diet
Another very good idea is to try and avoid constipation, which is best done by introducing a diet of high fiber content, known as a hemroid diet. This consists of mostly whole grain produce such as fruit and vegetables. It is also vital to try and make your stool softer and improve the natural bulking by taking in large amounts of water, best is to drink up to seven glasses of water per day. With the help of this you will minimize the toilet straining and this trick is also helpful in performing bowel movements when not stressed. Using home remedies for hemmroids can also be good.
*Cayenne and Cranberry
Mix a glass of water with a half teaspoon of cayenne, this here old trick has been known for long to stop bleeding hemmroids and using the trick for a couple of days, your hemmroids might disappear. After the first time, keep on with the cure about 1-2 treatments per week to keep the hemroids away. Using this method, you will wipe out hemriods and prevent them *recurring. Cayenne also has some good effects on the bloodflow. Adding to this, by using a diet with Cranberry can also be a very good cure. 
!NHS Remedies
http://www.surginet.org.uk/patients/pph.php
*Banding
*open haemorrhoidectomy - very painful
*stapled haemorrhoidectomy - less painful
*Sclerotherapy--A chemical solution is injected around the blood vessel to shrink the haemorrhoid
*Infrared coagulation. A special device is used to burn hemorrhoidal tissue.
*Hemorrhoidal arterial ligation - Doppler Transducer guided ligation
Or Hemorrhoidal artery ligation (HALO)- http://www.halocentre.com/whatishalo.html
!Food cure
*Figs are highest of all dried fruits followed by apricots and dates
*Prunes can also be good for you as they have a certain laxative effect and provides some softening of stool. 
*Flaxmeal can be helpful as well, one teaspoon and seven ounces of juice adds much fiber and also some of the very important fatty acids. These are essential in helping you to avoid constipation. 
*Don't forget to drink many glasses of pure water, or even distilled water. 
*C-vitamin is also a healthy additive, use to 1 gramme a number of times every day - this will assist you well. 
*Vitamin E
Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
!From the Chemist
*stool softener or a fiber supplement such as psyllium (Metamucil) or methylcellulose(Citrucel)
*Tucks suppositories
https://www.boots.com/en/Boots-Haemorrhoid-relief-suppositories-24-suppositories_1229332/
https://www.boots.com/en/Germoloids-Suppositories-24-suppositories_1850/
https://www.boots.com/en/HemorRite-Cryotherapy-Device_1549520/
!Alternative Medicine
*Hamamelis 6
*Self-heal herb
*Calc. phos. 6 - Piles which bleed and itch
*PILEWORT
*Rutin
!Alternative Medical
http://www.ultroid.com/
!Unproven or Hearsay
*Baby powder - external piles
*Vitamin E

	
!Shampoos
http://beautyeditor.ca/2014/03/13/clarifying-shampoo
!Grey hair
http://www.naturalhealthmagazine.co.uk/holistic-living/holistic-beauty-natural-ways-to-banish-grey-hair
!Retouch sprays and powders
L'Oreal Magic Retouch 
Schwarzkopf Coloriste Root Retoucher
!No PPDS
http://eluxemagazine.com/beauty/10-of-the-best-natural-hair-dyes/
!!Semi-permanent
[[Surya Henna Brasil Cream Dark Brown|http://www.suryabrasilproducts.com/collections/henna-cream/products/henna-hair-color-cream-dark-brown]]
Ingredients: Aqua, Propanediol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetrimonium Chloride, HC Blue N° 2, Dehydroacetic Acid, Benzyl Alcohol, Sorbitol, Orbignya Oleifera Seed Oil, Tocopherol, Hydroxyethylcellulose, HC Yellow N° 4, Disperse Black 9, Sodium Phytate, HC Red N° 3, Achillea Millefolium Extract (Aquiléia), Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract (Aloe Vera), Arnica Montana Flower Extract (Arnica), Bertholletia Excelsa Seed Extract (Brazil Nut), Corylus Avellana Seed Extract (Hazelnut), Daucus Carota Sativa Root Extract (Carrot), Euterpe Oleracea Fruit Extract (Açaí), Genipa Americana Fruit Extract (Jenipapo), Lawsonia Inermis Leaf Extract (Henna), Malpighia Glabra Fruit Extract (Acerola), Malva Sylvestris Leaf Extract (Malva), Paullinia Cupana Seed Extract (Guaraná), Phyllanthus Emblica Extract (Amla), Zizyphus Joazeiro Bark Extract (Juá), Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract (Camomile), Aminomethyl Propanol, Disperse Violet 1, 4-Amino-3-Nitrophenol.
----
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701893/DEHYDROACETIC_ACID/
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/703059/HYDROXYETHYLCELLULOSE/
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/723043/PROPANEDIOL/
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/723889/SODIUM_PHYTATE/
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700348/AMINOMETHYL_PROPANOL/
https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/716215/4-AMINO-3-NITROPHENOL/

BLACK:
Ingredients: Aqua, Propanediol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetrimonium Chloride, HC Blue N° 2, Dehydroacetic Acid, Benzyl Alcohol, Sorbitol, Orbignya Oleifera Seed Oil, Tocopherol, Hydroxyethylcellulose, Disperse Black 9, Disperse Violet 1, HC Yellow N° 4, Sodium Phytate, Achillea Millefolium Extract (Aquiléia), Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract (Aloe Vera), Arnica Montana Flower Extract (Arnica), Bertholletia Excelsa Seed Extract (Brazil Nut), Corylus Avellana Seed Extract (Hazelnut), Daucus Carota Sativa Root Extract (Carrot), Euterpe Oleracea Fruit Extract (Açaí), Genipa Americana Fruit Extract (Jenipapo), Lawsonia Inermis Leaf Extract (Henna), Malpighia Glabra Fruit Extract (Acerola), Malva Sylvestris Leaf Extract (Malva), Paullinia Cupana Seed Extract (Guaraná), Phyllanthus Emblica Extract (Amla), Zizyphus Joazeiro Bark Extract (Juá), Chamomilla Recutita Flower Extract (Camomile), Aminomethyl Propanol, HC Red N° 3.
----
[[Logona Henna Black|http://logona-cosmetics.co.uk//home/logona/hair-/natural-hair-dyes/henna-black-intense-herbal-hair-color/596-henna-black-intense-herbal-hair-color.html#]]
Indigofera Tinctoria (Indigo) Leaf Powder, Lawsonia Inermis (Henna) Leaf Extract*, Acacia Concinna Fruit Powder*, Emblica Officinalis Fruit Powder*
[[Lush Caca Noir|http://www.lushusa.com/hair/henna-hair-dyes/caca-noir/00683.html#pr-header-back-to-top-link]]
Indigo Herb (Fera Tinctoria) , Fair Trade Organic Cocoa Butter (Theobroma Cacao) , Red Henna (Lawsonia inermis) , Irish Moss Powder (Chondrus crispus) , Clove Bud Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) , *Citral , *Eugenol , *Geraniol , *Citronellol , *Limonene , *Linalool , Fragrance
[[NaturVital Organic Semi Permanent|http://naturvital.co.uk/buy/ppd-free-natural-hair-dye-colour/semi-permanent-organic-hair-dye-colour/organic-semi-permanent-black-hair-colour/]]
[[Tierra Colorganic Color Mud|http://www.fuente.nl/uk/news/fuente-colorganic-color-mud]]
[[L'Oreal Symbio & Chromative|L'Oreal Symbio & Chromative ]]
[[Herbal Time colouring cream|http://www.rosaimpex.com/en/content/colouring-cream-henna-extract-herbal-time?tid=88]]
[[Tints of nature|http://www.tintsofnature.com/black-semi-permanent]]
[[Saach Organics Soft Black Natural Hair Colour £11|http://www.saachorganics.com/product/saach-organics-soft-black-natural-hair-colour/]]
Indigo Leaf Powder, Indigo Extract , Natural Henna, Emblica Officinalis, Accacia Concinna , Eclipta Alba, Rubia Cordifolia, Alkaline Tinctoria
*Permanent - [[NaturVital ColourSafe|http://naturvital.co.uk/buy/ppd-free-natural-hair-dye-colour/coloursafe-no-ammonia-ppd-free-hair-colour/coloursafe-ppd-free-black-colour-no-1-hair-dye/]]
[[Naturigin brown|http://www.naturigin.com/natural-hair-dye/brown-4-0/]]
aqua/water, sodium coco-sulfate, ethanolamine, myristyl alcohol, cocamidemipa, cocamide mea, cetearyl alcohol, cocamidopropyl betaine, oleth-20, propylene glycol, tetrasodium edta, sodiumsulfite, p-phenylenediamine, 4-chlororesorcinol, parfum/ fragrance, triticum vulgare bran extract, simmondsia chinensis(jojoba) seed oil, m-aminophenol, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, ethoxydiglycol, vitis vinifera seed oil, butyrospermumparkii (shea tree) butter extract, 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate, aloe barbadensisleaf extract, 2-methylresorcinol, 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene, toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate, hydrolyzed soyprotein, prunus persica kernel oil, prunus armeniaca kernel oil, citrus medica limonum (lemon) peel extract*,citrus grandis (grape fruit) peel oil, citrus aurantium dulcis (orange) peel oil*ACTIVATOR/AKTIVATOR/AKTIVAATTORI: aqua/water, hydrogen peroxide, cetearyl alcohol, paraffinumliquidum (mineral oil), peg-20 hydrogenated lanolin, lanolin alcohol, ceteareth-20,glycerin, phosphoric acid, tetrasodium edta, disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate,etidronic acid, sodium stannate, oxyquinoline sulfate
[[Biokap Nutricolor|https://www.biosline.it/en/prodotti/biokap-nutricolor-tinta-2/]]
[[Biokap Nutricolor Delicate|https://www.biosline.it/en/prodotti/biokap-nutricolor-tinta-delicato-2/]]
Ingredients: Nutricolor Delicato Hair Color Cream: Aqua/water, stearic acid, lauramide MEA, ethanolamine, cetearyl alcohol, toulene-2,5-diamine, sulfate, glyceryl stearate, palmitic acid, glycerin, argania spinosa (kernel) oil*, hydrolyzed rice protein, hydrolyzed soy protein, hydrolyzed oats, myristyl alcohol, bis-dilyceryl polyacyladipate-2, ascorbic acid, salix alba (willow) bark extract, TRI-C14-15 alkyl citrate, C12-13 alkyl lactate, sodium gluconate, tridecyl salicylate, propylene glycol, sodium hydrosulfite, p-aminophenol 1-naphthol, oxyquinoline sulfate, 4-chloropresorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, 2,4-diaminophenoxyethanol HCI, 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene, m-aminophenol.
Color Revealer Nutrifix Emulsion: Aqua/water,hydrogen peroxide, cetearyl alcohol, hexyldecyl, laurate, hexyldecanol, ceteareth-20, laureth-3, etidronic acid, oxyqinoline sulfate. Contains hydrogen peroxide.
After Dye Conditioning Shampoo: Aqua/water, cetearyl alcohol, decyl glucoside, glycerin, behenyl alcohol, hydrolyzed rice protein, panicum miliaceum (millet) seed extract, rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaf extract, salix alba (willow) bark extract, DI-C12-13 alkyl malate, C12-13 alkyl lactate, cetrimonium chloride, tridecyl salicylate, propylene glycol, phenetyl alcohol, caprylyl glycol, sodium gluconate, citric acid, ceteareth-20, eucalyptus leaf oil, polyquaternium-47.
!Henna
http://www.beautiliciousdelights.com/blogs/news/19101851-lhenne-lawsonia-inermis-e-le-tinte-naturali-19-cose-da-sapere-prima-di-colorarti-i-capelli
!chemicals in hair dye
https://www.choice.com.au/health-and-body/beauty-and-personal-care/hair-care-and-removal/articles/chemicals-in-hair-dye
http://corneliadum.com/wpen/teintures-pour-les-cheveux/
hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate - less allergenic than ppd
----
http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cetrimonium-chloride

http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/ceteareth-25

http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/amodimethicone

http://www.whatsinsidescjohnson.com/us/en/ingredients/c11_15_pareth_7

http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/laureth-9

http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/trideceth-12

https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/705107/POLYQUATERNIUM-22/

http://www.goodguide.com/ingredients/209382-cetyl-triethylmonium-dimethicone-peg-ingredient-information-reviews

http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/propylene-glycol

http://www.thepoisongarden.co.uk/atoz/urtica_dioica.htm

http://thenakedchemist.com/what-is-urea-and-its-benefits-in-skincare/

http://www.skinsmatter.com/blog/?p=78

http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/methylisothiazolinone-allergy/

https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701923/DIAZOLIDINYL_UREA_(FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER)/

!Forums
http://www.network54.com/Forum/603111
!Hairdressers
http://hairdressers-near-me.lorealprofessionnel.co.uk/search?country=en&query=newcastle&55event=salonLocator&55locationInPage=ProductPage+summary
!shops
http://theasiancookshop.co.uk/health--beauty-137-c.asp
http://www.spicesofindia.co.uk/acatalog/Herbal-Hair-Powder.html
! Androgenetic alopecia - Male pattern baldness
http://www.belgraviacentre.com/
http://www.hairloss-research.org/index.html
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1218367/Battling-baldness-The-potions-really-work.html
!!Laser Treatments
7 Red 660 Nanometre Energy Diodes stimulate the deepest parts of hair follicles
7 Blue 470 Nanometre Energy Diodes regenerates surface of the hair follicle

http://hairmaxlasercombreviews.com/laser-comb-information/laser-combs-brands-comparisons-costs/
*http://www.hairmax.com - Laser comb
There is an optimum amount of energy needed for cellular regeneration. Based on some laser advocates the needed amount is three to six joules per/ square centimeter. This amount of energy can't be achieved during a 20 minute session of combing with the HairMax. 
http://www.articlesbase.com/hair-loss-articles/candid-review-of-the-hairmax-laser-comb-hair-growth-sensation-or-scam-2131063.html
*Power Grow comb £100 - £15 on Ebay
http://www.bestdirect.tv/product-power-grow-comb-powgc.htm
*Violet Wand
!!Drugs
Propecia  - http://www.hairtransplantsurgery.co.uk/propecia-finasteride-proscar-minoxidil-viagra-treatment-side-effects.html
!The little prince
Hans Christian Andersen won literary immortality with his stories of an outcast boy made good. But were his timeless fairytales thinly veiled parables of his own life as the illegitimate son of a future king? Neil Philip investigates - January 08, 2005.
Hans Christian Andersen spent most of 1848 feeling sorry for himself. It was not an unusual state for this hypersensitive hypochondriac, with his conflicted sexuality and his tortured awareness of his own genius. He had been flung into a gloom that January by the death of King Christian VIII of Denmark, “whom I loved unspeakably”, and had been unable to shake himself out of the depression.
His closest confidante, Henriette Wulff, sent him a letter on November 18 to try to cheer him up. “You have discovered that you are that prince’s child we talked about the other day,” she wrote, “and you are feeling it too much! But I wish you wouldn’t, because if you were descended from all the world’s kings, I could not be any more fond of you.”
“You have discovered that you are that prince’s child . . .” What does she mean? Is it a private joke, or a reference to a story? Or an inexplicable aberration, like the time in 1830 when Bishop Blok wrote to Andersen as “Your Majesty”? The whole world knows that Hans Christian Andersen was the son of a poor shoemaker and a washerwoman, who through his own efforts and the kindness of strangers raised himself from the gutter to become a great poet.
Andersen himself called this rags-to-riches story “the fairytale of my life”. But fairytale characters are not always what they seem. At the end of Adam Oehlenschläger’s play Aladdin, a favourite of Andersen’s, it turns out that Aladdin is not the son of a poor tailor, but instead the son of an emir. Andersen’s childish imagination cast himself in the same scenario; he was, he told his first schoolfriend, a switched child of noble birth.
It is not an uncommon fantasy; just the sort of thing to expect from a solitary and dreamy boy such as Hans Christian Andersen. But in Andersen’s case it is just possible that behind the consoling fantasy lies the naked truth.
Rumours about Andersen’s true parentage have swirled around Denmark for a century or more. The most persistent, championed in books published there by Jens Jørgensen and Rolf Dorset, is that he was the illegitimate son of Countess Elise Ahlefeldt-Laurvig by Crown Prince Christian Frederik, the future King Christian VIII. If true, it was not just Andersen’s king who died that January, but also his father.
Many Andersen experts dismiss this theory as preposterous. It relies on circumstantial evidence, gossip and guesswork. Royal patronage does not prove royal parentage, and without a DNA test it remains pure supposition. But it does raise some intriguing questions about the accepted “fairytale” of Andersen’s life.
Prince Christian Frederik and Elise Ahlefeldt-Laurvig's love affair was ignited in the summer of 1804. Gossip spoke of a baby, and even of a clandestine marriage, forbidden by the king. In 1807 Elise had a second child, Adolphine, who in old age claimed that Christian Frederik was her father.
Andersen was born in 1805. At this time, Denmark was still an absolute monarchy. Society was rigidly stratified, and there was little social mobility. A few managed, by hard work or exceptional talent, to climb the social ladder. One such was Andersen’s friend, the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. But a pauper boy stood little chance of escaping his class. As the heedless aristocratic children say in his story Kids’ Talk (given a sprightly new translation in the Franks ’ The Stories of Hans Christian Andersen): “Those people whose names end with sen, they can never, ever become anything in the world!”
Andersen’s father, Hans Andersen, who died when the boy was 11, was a shoemaker with few or no clients. His mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was an alcoholic washerwoman. His aunt ran a brothel in Copenhagen; his half-sister Karen Marie (always referred to as “my mother’s daughter”) was probably also a prostitute. Yet the young Hans Christian was coddled like a nobleman’s child.
His family, despite having few sources of income, wanted for nothing. There was no pressure on the boy to work. In fact, before the days of free universal education, he was sent to school. His mother even felt able to insist on an extraordinary proviso: in no circumstance was the boy to be beaten. When a teacher forgot this and birched him, Hans Christian was withdrawn and sent to another establishment.
In those days, corporal punishment, ranging from the birch to a clip around the ear, was the rule for all pupils save the children of royalty and the upper nobility - and Hans Christian Andersen. At his grammar school in Slagelse the same rule applied. His Latin master, Mr Snitker, was so frustrated by it that he kept his own son Georg handy, so that he could thwack him whenever Andersen made a mistake. “He is my own flesh and blood, so I am allowed to punish him.”
Andersen was miserable at Slagelse. He was dyslexic, his basic education was woefully deficient, and he was six years older than his fellow pupils. Worse, he was forbidden to write stories, plays or poetry. He was convinced that Simon Meisling, the principal, was trying “to destroy my soul”. Andersen had been sent to school after three wasted years spent hanging around the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen. Nobody seems to have seriously thought he showed great promise as a singer, dancer, actor or writer. Nevertheless he was indulged and financially maintained by a number of high-born people with close relations to the royal family.
The general view of Andersen in these years was that he was a figure of fun. The aim of sending him to school was not to fulfil his artistic ambition but to stamp it out. But why should this gawky boy, with his hopelessly misdirected enthusiasms, have seemed a suitable candidate to turn from a guttersnipe into a gentleman? His fees - twice those paid for other pupils - came directly from a royal fund. The Crown Princess sent him pocket money; all kinds of important people, most notably the State Councillor Jonas Collin, kept a careful eye on him. Andersen was to become Denmark’s greatest writer, the supreme master of the literary fairytale, but few would have predicted it then. They were more likely to agree with Simon Meisling’s furious description of his lanky pupil: “an insufferable skittle, a mad person, a stupid numskull!”
Could it be that Andersen really was the Crown Prince’s son? Contemporary rumour and oral tradition have it that such a child existed, and was given “into the hands of good people”. Was Andersen foisted on Hans and Anne Marie to raise as their own, like the unwanted baby in Andersen’s story Anne Lisbeth, who is given to the ditch digger’s wife because she asks the smallest payment?
Anne Marie and Hans had been married in St Knud’s Church two months before Andersen’s birth. She was in her late thirties, and already had one illegitimate daughter, who was raised by her parents; Hans was 22. Both were servants - Hans on the estate of the Ahlefeldt-Laurvigs, and Anne Marie with a family closely tied to Broholm Castle, where Elise Ahlefeldt-Laurvig’s baby is said to have been born.
The boy lived a life of extraordinary social isolation. But the young Hans Christian nevertheless received favourable attention from some of the Odense gentry, who had been asked by Rural Dean Gutfeldt (called by Andersen “my benefactor”) to keep their eyes on “a certain little boy”.
In 1816 the Crown Prince and his family moved to Odense Castle, as Christian Frederik had been made governor of Funen. In his early memoirs, privately written for a friend, Andersen describes how his mother used to take him to play at the castle with Prince Frits (later King Frederik VII), who was three years his junior. This pauper boy had no playmates on the street; only a royal prince in a castle.
When Andersen came to write his autobiography for publication he made no mention of this story, an odd omission for someone as vain as he was. But the closeness with Frits continued into adulthood. After he became king, Frits treated Hans Christian as an old friend. He liked to hear Andersen tell his fairytales, and once asked him: “How can you think up all these things? How does it all come to you? Have you got it all inside your head?” When Frits died, Andersen was the only non-family member allowed a private visit to the king’s body in its coffin.
Andersen looks back on this unlikely childhood friendship in one of his most finely crafted fairytales, The Bell, which is included in Tiina Nunnally’s meticulous translation of 30 of his best stories, Hans Christian Andersen: Fairy Tales. The story tells of two boys who search for the source of a great bell that sounds through the forest. One is a pauper, the other is a king’s son. Although they take different routes, one in sunshine and one in shadow, in the end they arrive at the same place and embrace like brothers: “The two boys ran to each other and held hands in the great cathedral of nature and poetry. Above them rang the invisible sacred bell, and blessed spirits hovered and danced around them to a jubilant ‘Hallelujah!’ ”
If it is true that Andersen himself had come to believe that he was the older son of King Christian VIII, the story becomes a parable of destiny in which both boys represent Andersen himself. If he were a king’s son or a pauper, it did not matter, for he would still achieve his goal.
It is possible that, despite his relentless hobnobbing with royalty, Andersen even felt some relief to have been allotted the role of the poor boy rather than the king’s son. His diary records a meeting with King Maximilian II of Bavaria in 1851: “I sat alone with the king on a bench. He spoke about everything God had given me, about the fates of men, and I said I would not like to be a king, it was such a great responsibility, I would be incapable of fulfilling the task; he said that God must give one power, and through him one did what one was capable of.”
The Bell was written in 1842. Prince Christian Frederik had become King Christian VIII in 1839, and it may be that Andersen was subsequently made aware of his true parentage. He was certainly from this time included in the intimate circle of the royal family. For instance, in 1844 he was invited to join them for a 12-day holiday on the island of Føhr; a fellow guest was the king’s illegitimate daughter, Franziska Enger, known as Fanny. She was born at Castle Ludwigslust in Schleswig four months after Andersen, and given away to a castle servant to raise.
Another of Andersen’s best-known stories, The Ugly Duckling, dates from this same period. It is usually seen as a fable of a disadvantaged child overcoming all obstacles to rise from obscurity to fame. But read in the context of the king’s-son theory, the tale’s conclusion has a slightly different ring. It becomes a story about an adopted child who rejects and is rejected by his adoptive milieu, but finds true happiness when he meets his own kind, the “regal” swans. Its moral is simple: It’s no wonder you don’t feel at home in the duckyard if you’ve been hatched from a swan’s egg.
Andersen was first formally introduced to Christian Frederik, his putative father, at Odense Castle in 1819. Advised to tell the prince that he wanted to go to the grammar school, Andersen blurted out that he longed to be a singer or a dancer. The answer did not please the prince.
In 1832, when Andersen had been published but had not yet made his name, Christian Frederik sought out Anne Marie Andersdatter in the almshouse where she was spending her last years in an alcoholic haze, especially to tell her that Hans Christian was a credit to her.
Elise Ahlefeldt-Laurvig lived out her life in Germany. Although they shared a passionate interest in the theatre, music, and literature, it does not seem that Hans Christian Andersen ever met her. In his later years he was once seen picking up a picture and sighing, “If only you were still alive”; it was a portrait of Elise.
Andersen’s cagey diaries are little help in solving the mystery of his parentage. But on January 3, 1875, the last year of his life, he does allow himself one bone-dry joke. Noting how many letters he has received asking for autographs, he writes: “One has my name and address: King Christian the Ninth.”
It does not really matter; whoever his parents were, Andersen remains one of literature’s great originals. And as the old baroness says in his 1848 novel The Two Baronesses: “We are all of one piece - all made from the same clod of earth; one came in a newspaper wrapping, another in gold paper, but the clod should not be proud of that. There is nobility in every class; but it lies in the mind, not in the blood, for we are also of one blood, whatever they may say.”
Read on
The Stories of Hans Christian Andersen by Diana Crone Frank and Jeffrey Frank (Granta); £15, offer £12
Hans Christian Andersen: Fairy Tales by Tiina Nunnally and Jackie Wullschläger (Penguin); £20, offer £16
Hans Christian Andersen: The Fan Dancer by Alison Prince (Allison & Busby); £10.99, offer £8.79
Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller by Jackie Wullschläger (Penguin); £9.99, offer £8.49
Andersen: A Biography by Jens Andersen, trans Tiina Nunnally (forthcoming, Duckworth)
Neil Philip’s translations of Andersen’s tales can be found in Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen (forthcoming, Reader’s Digest) 
[[Fitness, health and longevity]]
[[Science and evidence]]
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----
+++[Dietary recommendations for an adult]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_Reference_Intake#Current_recommendations
----
''Calories: 2550''
http://www.fatsecret.com/calories-nutrition/
[[List of foods and values|http://www.healthydoesit.co.uk/nutritional-values.htm]]  and http://skipthepie.org/
----
''Carbohydrates: 130g'' - some say 300g!
----
[[Protein]]: ''56g (46 females)''
Ham and pork tenderloin make healthier protein choices than lamb, beef sirloin, lean hamburger and veal. But not bacon, sausage, hot dogs and luncheon meat. 
----
''Fiber: 38 (25)''
	1 apple, 1 banana, 1 orange and porrige = 14g
----
''Fat: 65g''
===
----
http://mediawiki.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/index.php/Health_News
----
+++[Consumer sites]
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http://www.webmd.com/ owns
!Food and nutrition
*Food and Nutrition info	
[[Foods by nutient value|http://nutritiondata.self.com/]]
[[Amino acids|http://www.1choicevitamins.com/page/953393]]
''[[Whfoods - Great list of foods|http://www.whfoods.com/]]''
[[Has reviews of supplements|http://www.evitamins.com/]]
[[List all ingredients and dosages|http://www.anyvitamins.com/vitamin-info.htm]]
''[[''nutraingredients'' - interesting articles|http://www.nutraingredients.com/]]''
[[Pages of Atkins book|http://samsnyder.com/2011/05/27/healing-spices/]]
[[Vitamin chart + dosage|http://www.1choicevitamins.com/page/953358]]
[[healthsupplementsnutritionalguide|http://www.healthsupplementsnutritionalguide.com/]]
[[Ingredients A-Z|http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/infopages.html]]
[[natural-homeremedies.com/category/home-remedies/|http://www.natural-homeremedies.com/category/home-remedies/]]
[[Netdoctor vitamins|http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/vitamins_which.htm]]
[[nutritionreview.org/index.php|http://www.nutritionreview.org/index.php]]
[[optiderma.com/en/natural-remedies/skin-essential-oils.html|http://www.optiderma.com/en/natural-remedies/skin-essential-oils.html]]
[[Sports supplements|http://forum.bodybuilding.com/forumdisplay.php?f=70]]
[[stopagingnow.com/liveinthenow/|http://www.stopagingnow.com/liveinthenow/]]
[[supplementscompared.com/|http://www.supplementscompared.com/]]
!Other
[[Webmd|http://www.webmd.com/]]
[[advance-health.com|http://www.advance-health.com]]
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[[askmen.com/|http://www.askmen.com/]]
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[[Doctors reference site|www.drsref.com.au]]
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[[Everybody|http://www.everybody.co.nz/centre_arth.html]]
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[[everydayhealth.com/|http://www.everydayhealth.com/]]
[[fitfaqs.co.uk/|http://www.fitfaqs.co.uk/]]
[[food.gov.uk/|http://www.food.gov.uk/]]
[[healthcastle.com/|http://www.healthcastle.com/]]
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[[intelihealth.com|http://www.intelihealth.com]]
[[konkura.com/|http://www.konkura.com/]]
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[[Male health|www.malehealth.co.uk]]
[[Medhealth|http://www.rice.edu/~jenky/]]
*Medicines
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[[menshealth.co.uk/|http://www.menshealth.co.uk/]]
[[merckmanuals.com/home/index.html|http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/index.html]]
[[mercola.com/nutritionplan/foodalert.htm|http://www.mercola.com/nutritionplan/foodalert.htm]]
[[motherearthliving.com/|http://www.motherearthliving.com/]]
[[mrsupplement|http://www.mrsupplement.com.au]]
[[naturalfoodfinder|http://www.naturalfoodfinder.co.uk/]]
[[natural-medicine|http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/natural-medicine.htm]]
[[naturalproductsinsider.com/topics/heart-health.aspx|http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/topics/heart-health.aspx]]
[[Over the counter medicines lowdown|http://bnf.org/bnf/]]
[[sarsasparilla|http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm]]
[[sciencedaily|http://www.sciencedaily.com]]
[[spine-health.com/wellness/ergonomics/office-chair-how-reduce-back-pain|http://www.spine-health.com/wellness/ergonomics/office-chair-how-reduce-back-pain]]
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[[Time Halth and Family|http://healthland.time.com/]]
[[vitacost.com/science/index.html|http://www.vitacost.com/science/index.html]]
[[vitaminherbuniversity.com|http://www.vitaminherbuniversity.com]]
===
+++[Newcastle upon Tyne]
http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/services/urology.aspx
http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/services/renal.aspx
===
----
[[Cholesterol]]
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[[Diets and recipes]]
[[Health documents]]
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[[Healthy food and drink]]
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----
[[Tag index|Health]]
[[Key Herbs for Health]]
!Tea and coffee
Green tea and black tea are from the same plant but the curing process produces different effects. A tea extract seems to be as good as or even better than the real thing. You need to drink 3 to 6 cups a day for clinical benefits. Good for the heart, blood pressure, mental health and antioxidant activity.
Tea consumption consistently leads to a significant increase in the antioxidant capacity of the blood. 
http://www.webmd.boots.com/healthy-eating/guide/health-benefits-tea
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519827
*[[Black tea|http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-997-black%20tea.aspx?activeingredientid=997&activeingredientname=black%20tea]] is better for the heart than green tea - reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16855537
*[[Green tea|http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-960-green%20tea.aspx?activeingredientid=960]] has anti-oxidant effect
*[[Coffee|http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-980-coffee.aspx?activeingredientid=980&activeingredientname=coffee]]  reduces the risk of colorectal cancer
+++[Excel health notes]
<html><body>
<embed src="http://www.box.com/embed/tn62jxsysecsk5t.swf" width="950" height="600" wmode="opaque" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowFullScreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always">
</body></html>
===
+++[Tara Stiles Yoga]
<html><body>
<iframe frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Y8uBKkif-z8C&lpg=PA101&ots=pQ8qj1C-qW&dq=Tara%20Stiles%20%22Knee%20across%20%22&pg=PA224&output=embed" width=500 height=500></iframe>
</body></html>
===

[[Sources of Omega 3]]
----
Look for supplements that have minerals in a chelated form, or as orotates, citrates or gluconates. Alternatively, colloidal minerals are a good bet.
http://superfoodprofiles.com/
[[For a list of food ordered by nutritional content|http://www.healthaliciousness.com/nutritionfacts/]]
[[40 good foods]]
[[Recipes|recipes]]
[[Atkins Diet]]
[[Fat controversy]]
!The basis for a healthy body
*Keep your gut healthy by eating fermented products like yoghurt, kefir and even cheese. Yoghurt must be "live" with pro-biotic cultures.
*Watch your carbohydrate intake. Think protein first then vegetables and then carbs. 
**The best protein is from fish and chicken (25g from 100g). Eggs are a whole food.
!Supplements
*[[Brewers Yeast]]
!Snacks
*Hummus
*sardines on toasted whole meal bread
*cheddar cheese and apple slices
*baked beans on toast
*Egg - poached, boiled
*soup
!Food friends
Hummus
Cottage Cheese
Yoghurt
Smoothies
Eggs
Peanut Butter
Small salad with oil and vinegar dressing or as real mayonnaise
!!Fruit and nuts
Nuts, seeds and dried fruit mix
Berries - blueberries
Apples - fibre
Grapefruit
!!Protein
[[Protein]]
----
Poultry
Calf's liver
Beans - protein and fibre
Tofu - yuk
Salmon - wild
!!Fiber
*Oats - esp. wholegrain  - esp. oatbran
*Wheatbran - mix with oatbran = 70% oatbran and 30% wheatbran
!!Healthy fats
Olive oil - monounsaturated fat
Avocados
Coconut oil
!!Good carbs
Eat foods that'' improve insulin sensitivity'' with higher carb foods.
Certain foods increase insulin sensitivity and improve the body’s ability to store the carbs you eat as muscle glycogen, which is a fuel source for the muscle, instead of as fat.
* ''Vinegar, green tea, nuts, and berries'' are among the foods that are beneficial for insulin sensitivity. For example, vinegar improves something called “nutrient partitioning” that makes muscle cells more sensitive to insulin so that carbs get stored as glycogen.
* Vinegar also improves pancreatic function so that your body releases less insulin in response to the carbs you eat. This is useful because when you eat high-glycemic carbs, the pancreas tends to overestimate the amount of insulin needed and releases too much.
How to do it: Cook carbohydrates with any of the following:
•    Healthy fats such as butter, olive oil, or coconut oil
•    Flavor food with acids such as vinegars, lemon, or lime
•    Eat ''pickled foods'' such as kim chi, sauerkraut, or pickled ginger as condiments
•    Use cinnamon, fenugreek, and turmeric to spice foods
•    Pair high-carb and antioxidant-rich foods like oatmeal and blueberries or rice and kale
!!Drink
Water
Red wine - darker better
Green tea
Buttermilk
!Apple Cider Vinegar
http://www.care2.com/greenliving/apple-cider-vinegar-miracle-for-home-and-body.html
!!Evidence
http://www.webmd.com/diet/apple-cider-vinegar?page=2
!Lowers glycemic response
The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG by 20% compared to placebo.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20068289
the addition of vinegar or peanut products to a high-glycemic load meal significantly reduced postprandial glycemia.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16321601
http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/generalfiction/story/0,,2030237,00.html Saturday March 10, 2007

Mocked for the swooning obstructiveness of his style, and lambasted for his doctrinal tone, DH Lawrence is often described as a difficult novelist. But this is to ignore the daring beauty of his writing, which is nowhere more evident than in The Rainbow, argues James Wood

In several senses of the word, DH Lawrence is a difficult writer - difficult to follow at times, difficult to like at others. There must be many who agree with the young Samuel Beckett, who read Lawrence's novella St Mawr in 1930, and afterwards wrote in a journal: "lovely things as usual and plenty of rubbish". Lawrence's religious language can sound merely religiose, and his attempts to describe the indescribable can lapse into ponderous, melodramatic floridity, as people wince through their wombs, swoon into helplessness, and feel flames of nausea in their bellies.

It is Lawrence's misfortune that this highly doctrinal and metaphysical writer is more often discussed doctrinally and metaphysically than aesthetically. The Rainbow is indeed full of "lovely things", yet it's rare to find detailed advocacy on behalf of its many verbal beauties. Lawrence is famous for his desire to capture the ineffable, to put into words the shifting ecstasies, both negative and positive, of the human soul in flux. His reputation for "obscurity" is founded on such efforts. But at bottom he is an extraordinarily acute noticer of the world, human and natural.
The Rainbow, perhaps his greatest novel, abounds in moments of stunning exactitude, as words strange yet precise are finely marshalled. Again and again the narrative pauses to take the most sensitive inventory of the passage of the seasons. Autumn comes, bringing a nakedness "under the wind, showing the birds' nests no longer worth hiding". Christmas passes, and there are bright winter days "when every sound rang again, and the birds were many and sudden and brusque in the hedges". In summer weather, "the moors were tangled with harebells like water in the ruts of the road", and Anna lifts her throat to "the breeze that came across the fields, and she felt it handling her like sisters fondling her, she drank it in perfume of cowslips and of appleblossoms". And autumn comes round again, and Ursula goes walking "among the yellows and the deep-vibrating reds". And winter follows again, when the sun "went down in his fiery winter haste", and "pine branches were torn down in the snow, the green pine needles looked rich upon the ground. There was the wonderful, starry, straight track of a pheasant's footsteps across the snow imprinted so clear; there was the lobbing mark of the rabbit, two holes abreast, two holes following behind."

Lawrence's father, a Nottinghamshire miner, knew all the names of the plants and trees in his area and taught them to his son. A miner, underground all day and rising to the surface to find, at least in winter, that night has fallen, might indeed cherish the visible palpabilities of the natural world. Lawrence is his father's son, heir to all the senses: he sees, so beautifully, the "little fumes like fire" bursting out of the yew-tree as a bird settles on its branches; he sees the difference between the track of a pheasant's footsteps in snow and a rabbit's; he hears the birds "sudden and brusque" in the trees.

More than this preternatural sensitivity, what is striking is the delicacy of Lawrence's metaphorical power. And he is happy to be bold with metaphor, mixing different sensory experiences: when we first encounter the "deep-vibrating reds" of autumn, we are momentarily stopped, because colour is not sound. But we know exactly what Lawrence means by "deep-vibrating reds"; we know that dark colour resonates.

And it is not just the natural world that beckons Lawrence to flood it with beautiful language. For all of his reputation as the great rhapsodist of "blood" and the dark, dim tides of feeling, he can be as precise and compact an observer of human interaction as Flaubert or Forster. When Will is angry with Anna, "his wrists quivered murderously". Will notices that, as his pregnant wife is nearing her due date, she is becoming rounder "and the breasts becoming important". When Tom dies in the great flood - a marvellous scene - his final moment is seen thus: "something struck his head, a great wonder of anguish went over him, then the blackness covered him entirely". A great wonder of anguish: that, we feel, is just what an unexpected death might feel like, and Tolstoy did not better it in his many descriptions of death. At the school where Ursula goes to teach, she notices that "horrible dry plants were shadowily looking through the windows": "shadowily" has the nice Lawrentian touch, but the idea of the plants "looking through the windows" is wonderfully strange, reversing the accustomed view and turning the plants into forlorn voyeurs, old people or cats condemned to watch a more vivid world go by.

Lawrence may have finally disliked Flaubert for his fatalism, but he must have learned from him something about sensuous tactility, especially when describing erotic excitement: for every passage of ecstatic swooning there is another of closely observed exactitude, as when, in a famous scene, Will and Anna stack sheaves of corn under a harvest moon, and the sheaves are brought together "with a faint, keen clash", or when Skrebensky rides home with Ursula and, under cover of her blanket, takes her hand "to push back her glove from her hand, carefully laying bare her hand". (Lawrence may have had in mind the scene in Madame Bovary when Léon and Emma go for a ride in a curtained carriage, the erotic journey ending with Léon putting his "naked hand" out of the window, proof of mutual uncovering.) Even the urban world can be naturalised: dawn in London from a hotel balcony is seen like this: "the lamps of Piccadilly, stringing away beside the trees of the park, were becoming pale and moth-like, the morning traffic was clock-clocking down the shadowy road". Pale and moth-like!

Lawrence writes the way he does because he wants to bring language closer to life than it has ever been, and is willing to take the risk of inscribing in the language itself the difficulty of this enterprise. "The struggle for verbal consciousness should not be left out of art," he wrote. "It is a very great part of life ... It is the passionate struggle into conscious being." Lawrence's generation felt its difference from its Edwardian predecessors, those confident writers like HG Wells, Arnold Bennett and John Galsworthy, who seemed to have such easy relations with the known, and for whom reality, in the late-19th-century naturalistic or realist tradition, was full of inventoried things. Ford Madox Ford, Lawrence, Joyce, Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf felt that they had broken with such confidence. Bennett thought that Sherlock Holmes was a "real character"; for Woolf, he was empty, just "a sack stuffed with straw". Woolf and Lawrence wanted to sharpen reality into the invisible, while the Edwardians blunted it by stubbing it into things - houses, income, furniture, clothes. Lawrence's generation was willing to risk what might look like failure.

It is this struggle that produces the distinctive, much-mocked obstructiveness of Lawrence's mature style, with its compounds, its omission of the definite article, its repetitions, its massing of nouns and adjectives, its threat of tautology, its earnest, romantic approximations: "the swerving, the declination, ah, to the ecstasy, the touch, to the meeting and the consummation, the meeting, the clasp, the close embrace, the neutrality, the perfect, swooning consummation, the timeless ecstasy". Popular myth holds that Lawrence's prose is mimicking sexual desire or sexual activity; but it would be more accurate to say that for Lawrence all life possesses a findable ecstasy which, for many of us, is only discovered during sexual rapture: Lawrence is a religious writer, through and through (the sentence above concerns not sex, but Will Brangwen's response to Lincoln Cathedral). His language often strives to capture difficult feeling while gesturing towards the difficulty of doing so; his language, in its effort of continual, ragged expiration, is a cloud always chasing the sun of experience.

Repetition, so often misunderstood, is a good test-case of how Lawrence strives to capture the trembling stream of existence. Take this description of a hen on the Brangwen farm:

A grey hen appeared stepping swiftly in the doorway, pecking, and the light through her comb and her wattles made an oriflamme tossed here and there, as she went, her grey body was like a ghost.

Here, "grey" is repeated in the same sentence. And there is the peculiar little comma-enforced hiccup between "here and there" and "as she went", and the run-on of "her grey body was like a ghost". All in all, a grammarian's nightmare. But surely the repetition, the run-on and the rhythmic jumpiness are all related: the hen is passing by our eyes, is on the move, and the prose is adjusting itself to the hen's movement - first a grey hen (our first sighting); and then the light though her comb and wattles making a flaming banner (our more delighted viewing as the now-golden hen moves past us); and then the hen seen moving away, now no longer in the sun, its body merely grey once again - and not merely grey, but especially grey when compared to the remembered radiance of the comb and wattles (hence not just a grey hen, but now a "grey ghost"). So the word "grey" has changed its meaning in the course of the sentence: the second "grey" is not the same as the first; the word is the same, but the meaning is not.

The Rainbow, written between 1913 and 1915, was Lawrence's attempt to blend at least three literary elements: biblical myth, of the kind found in Genesis, Exodus and Deuteronomy; historical realism, of the kind found in such 19th-century examples as Anna Karenina and Middlemarch; and a new form of fiction-telling, in which the young modernist writer attempts to explode the norms of realist writing, and plunge into the self in ways not comprehended even by the likes of Flaubert and Henry James. It recounts the passage of three generations of the Brangwen family, from about 1840 to about 1905, and from pastoral idyll to modern, urban complication.

We begin with an explicitly mythical description of the rural Nottinghamshire landscape, where the Brangwens have lived and worked "for generations". Around 1840, explains the novel, a railway arrived, and then a colliery, and now the Brangwen farm, The Marsh, is cut off from the surrounding countryside. Myth breaks off here, and history begins.

Tom Brangwen, a farmer who is full of "inarticulate, powerful religious impulses", marries Lydia Lensky, a Polish incomer with German blood, who is the widow of a Polish doctor and nationalist. Lydia is proud, separate, and the unreachability of her European past makes her to some extent always foreign to Tom. Yet their marriage is a great success, partly because they are at once separate to each other and deeply united. They both, for instance, tend to throw away the formal husk of Christianity - they are not interested in dogmas and rites - and retain what Lawrence calls "some fundamental religion".

Lydia has a daughter from her first marriage, and it is clear from the start that Anna is a more curious, self-conscious being than her mother. She is "only half safe within her mother's unthinking knowledge". Sometimes Anna tries to talk to her stepfather, Tom, about such matters, and he becomes uneasy. "He did not want to have things dragged into consciousness." Anna grows up and meets Will Brangwen, Tom's nephew. A shift has occurred: Tom worked on the farm, but Will works in Nottingham, in the town, as a lace-maker. Like his uncle, he has a powerful attraction to religion, and works on a wood-carving, a "Creation-panel" about Adam and Eve in Eden.

But another shift has occurred: Anna has a restless, sceptical, modern quizzicality when it comes to religion, and is easily irritated by the way, in church, Will wants "a dark, nameless emotion, the emotion of all the great mysteries of passion. There was something subterranean about him, as if he had an underworld refuge." He feels she jeers at his soul, and the famous chapter, "The Cathedral", dramatises their sharply divergent responses to the religious impulse as they visit Lincoln Cathedral. The marriage is passionate, but often murderously combative, too, and it appears that the couple find the balance achieved by Tom and Lydia harder to inhabit. When Will sees his pregnant wife dancing naked in her bedroom, "lifting her hands and her body to the Unseen, to the Unseen Creator who had chosen her, to whom she belonged", he feels alienated from her.

Despite her restless curiosity, Anna is fulfilled by motherhood, and her house is soon full of children. Among them are Ursula and Gudrun, who will go on to dominate Women in Love. Ursula belongs to the third Brangwen generation. Like her father and great-uncle, she has religious impulses and little time for the literalism of Christianity. Unlike her mother or grandmother, she is not content with motherhood and wifehood, and must live out the new, modern, female question: "Whither to go, how to become oneself?" She falls in love with Anton Skrebensky, a lieutenant in the army.

But another generational shift has occurred, and this relationship, for all its passion, both spiritual and erotic - unlike her mother and grandmother, she has sex before marriage with her lover - founders on the rock of this new historical moment. She finds Skrebensky "inert" and "persistent", and not enough of an individual. She has a lesbian affair with her schoolmistress, Miss Inger, and teaches at a grim school in Ilkeston. She gets engaged to Skrebensky, but changes her mind.

The novel ends with her decision to return home, a two-week bout of sickness, and what looks like a spiritual regeneration: from the window of the family home, she sees the colliers, who seem already "buried alive", the "raw new houses" on the crest of the hill, and the encroaching "corruption" of modernity. But she also sees a rainbow, and sees in this "the earth's new architecture, the old, brittle corruption of houses and factories swept away, the world built up in a living fabric of Truth, fitting to the over-arching heaven".

This rather dull, uninflected version of the novel's events passes over its many astonishing and memorable scenes: Will and Anna stacking sheaves of corn in the harvest moonlight; the chapter called "Anna Victrix", which describes the first, swooning months of the marriage, as the two discover the sublimity of their sexual union and realise that the world is insignificant to the passion they share; Anna dancing naked in her bedroom, as David once danced before the Lord; the chapter devoted to the visit to Lincoln Cathedral; the great flood, which kills Tom Brangwen; Ursula and Skrebensky, kissing under the moon; Ursula at the oppressive school in Ilkeston (surely one of the best accounts in literature of the hardships of teaching); the marvellous scenes in which Skrebensky and Ursula run away to London and Paris, striking for their fearless sensuality - for this is a great novel about female sexual self-awakening, and there is something very simple and beautiful about the way Ursula, while always finding something spiritually lacking in Skrebensky, emphatically falls in love with sex, and with her lover's body. In a London hotel room she watches him bathing: "He was slender, and, to her, perfect, a clean, straight-cut youth, without a grain of superfluous body."

Lawrence was quite explicit about his attempt to write a new version of Genesis. The Rainbow is a mythical-historical account of the development of modern consciousness, particularly as it makes its way through three generations of women. In mythical or sacred time - ie before 1840 - the Brangwens live in thoughtless, sensuous communion with the earth. The women look beyond, but are satisfied by local consolations, like the vicar and the gentry. But after 1840, a Fall into historical time occurs, and the Brangwens, generation by generation, are successively driven from this Eden into modern, profane time.

Each generation, more keen than the last to "drag things into consciousness", finds it harder to achieve a fulfilled marriage - marriage being, for Lawrence, the emblem of fulfilment, and indeed of the eternal and infinite. The self-confidence and curiosity of the women increases as the individuality of the men seems to wane. Certain impulses remain strong, notably a fundamental religious hunger, in all three generations; but a deep fracture has been revealed, and the novel ends optimistically yet uncertainly: the rainbow is a promise that may, after all, be broken.

Lawrence's biblical scheme allows him to draw on an enormous range of motifs from both the Old and New Testaments - the Lord appearing in the burning bush; Noah's Flood and the rainbow that God hangs in the sky as his covenant that he will never destroy mankind again; Moses and the Promised Land; and the promise of the renewal of the spirit held out by Jesus in the Gospels and especially by the writer of the Book of Revelation. This religiosity is blended with other influences: from Flaubert, George Moore and Arnold Bennett, Lawrence learned something, more perhaps than he would like to admit, about the female heroine kicking against the walls of bourgeois life. In Thomas Hardy, he admired the way individuals were seen against an enormous, cosmic background. In Middlemarch and Anna Karenina he had a model of spacious realism, the relaxed capturing of the passage of time in rural and urban communities.

The most immediate literary precursor was probably Thomas Mann's novel Buddenbrooks (Lawrence had read, though not liked, Mann), which describes the slow decline, over three generations, of a merchant family. Just as, in The Rainbow, social realism gives way to anguished, passionate spiritual history, so Buddenbrooks moves from a solid, bourgeois notation of the mercantile and familial world to an involved personal spiritual history, in which the last representative of the family surrenders bourgeois success to a lengthy immersion in music and Schopenhauer (another writer Lawrence had recently read).

It is always difficult to know how seriously to take Lawrence's "doctrine". As philosophy, it hardly bears serious examination; as a kind of alternative religion, it is often moving and eloquent. But its religiosity is precisely what creates a number of contradictions, both in itself and in The Rainbow. It is not clear, for instance, that Lawrence can inhabit such a markedly religious discourse without dragging behind him a great deal of markedly religious baggage. It is all very well for Lawrence to tell us that the Brangwens have no time for the formal husks of Christianity; yet the novel itself insists on using a series of motifs and words that belong to this formal husk (baptism, spirit, the covenant, and so on). If Lawrence wants only the metaphorical power of biblical religious language, why not find a new, non-biblical language? Can you invent a new religion while refusing to abandon the terms of an old one?

Lawrence's "doctrine" impales him on a paradox. He emphasised again and again that the novel dissolves doctrine, that one should trust the tale not the teller. The novel, he says, refuses the absolute. Most novelists, he felt, were like Tolstoy, "little Jesuses" strutting on the page with their ennobling philosophies, thrusting their thought upon their characters. The novel should contain "no didactive absolute". But how often Lawrence seems to break his own commandments! He bullies his characters with precisely "the didactive absolute". The difficulty is that Lawrence is the great expounder, and novelistic enactor, of that impossible thing, a religion of the absolute that insists on its own anti-absolutism. That is why his work seems so often to be trying to dissolve the absolute in absolutist ways. This can sometimes get unwittingly comic, as when, in his essay "The Crown", Lawrence seems to thump the table, and yells in absolutist tones: "Damn all absolutes. Oh damn, damn, damn all absolutes! I tell you, no absolute is going to make the lion lie down with the lamb." He is like a fat man ordering us to go on a diet.

This religiosity of Lawrence's is an essentialism that dare not speak its name, and the contradiction is most strongly felt in Lawrence's desire to write about a self that is at once continually in flux and yet stays the same. In June 1914, Lawrence wrote a now- famous letter to his editor, Edward Garnett, in which he claimed that his characters are always changing - there can be no "stable ego", he said - but that underneath they are always the same, just as diamond and coal are the same "pure single element of carbon. The ordinary novel would trace the history of the diamond - but I say, 'Diamond, what! This is carbon.' And my diamond might be coal or soot, and my theme is carbon." In other words, characters change but are essentially the same, as coal and diamond are essentially always carbon. This is why, in his fiction, his characters are always disdaining their "social" selves and proclaiming the authenticity of their "permanent" or "fundamental" selves. Lawrence announces his escape from the old 19th-century novel, but it sounds as if his own novel has just replaced the schematic fatalism of the naturalists (in which social and economic forces determine a character's fate) with the schematic fatalism of religion (in which what he calls "some greater, inhuman will" determines a character's fate instead).

Can the novel describe both flux and essential stasis? Can Lawrence escape this contradiction? Partly, I think. First of all, more than any of his novelistic predecessors, he is willing to take these paradoxes and incoherencies to the forge of language, to let language take the risk of failure. As we saw, his use of repetition is a pretty good example of how his language can precisely register the paradox of something simultaneously changing and staying fundamentally the same.

Second, and just as important, though Lawrence's doctrine is schematic, his greatest novels strive to escape absolutism. The Rainbow ends on a note of optimism, which readers may or may not find convincing, but it also ends in uncertainty, and Lawrence liked to keep his novels open-ended in this way. Ursula is at home, and poised on the cusp of a new life. Her engagement to Skrebensky is over, but the questions she has wrestled with over the preceding 150 pages are decidedly not.

The best example of the way in which Lawrence proceeds dialectically and not schematically can be found in how he deals with the relations between men and women in this novel. Ever since Kate Millett launched her famous attack, Lawrence has been seen as the great misogynist. This is true, in some ways, but notice how The Rainbow reverses the polarities of male strength and female submission. It is the men who are sunk in blood consciousness, who are "inert", bloated with their own sensual wordlessness, afraid of dragging knowledge into consciousness, while the women want to pull away into individuation - the women, especially Anna and Ursula, are curious, rational, sceptical, proud, powerful, and so on.

This is why, despite Lawrence's obvious disapproval of the mechanistic "weekday world" which Ursula wants to enter, despite his characterisation of Ursula as a "harpy", despite his palpable lack of interest in Miss Inger's work as a suffragette, he seems - as a novelist - more interested in what Ursula will make of the "weekday world" than in fondling his own little condemnations. The Rainbow can easily be read in feminist terms, and it is a great comic paradox that the hated misogynist author was surely the first novelist in English literature to describe, in Ursula's frank erotic pleasure in both Miss Inger and Anton Skrebensky, the sexual awakening of a young woman. There is something finally magnificent, triumphant indeed, about the novel when Ursula writes to Skrebensky: "I love you very much. I love your body. It is so clear and fine. I am glad you do not go naked, or all the women would fall in love with you. I am very jealous of it, I love it so much."
!Dialogue
Wáng  xiān  shēng/ nín zǎo.
Good morning, Mr.Wang.
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Lǐ     tài    tai/  nín   zǎo  
Mrs. Li.  Good morning to you.
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Nín   hǎo   ma 
How are you?
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wǒ   hěn   hǎo        xiè   xie   nín  
I'm fine. Thank you.
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Wáng   tài     tai   hǎo   ma  
How is Mrs. Wang?
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tā    hěn   hǎo         xiè   xie  
She's fine. Thank you.
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!Words and phrases
ní zǎo
Goog morning
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xiàwǔ hǎo 
Good afternoon
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wǎn​shàng ​hǎo​
Good evening
----
hǎo  ma 
Are you all right? OK? All right?; Shall we?
----
 tā     hǎo   ma 
How is he?
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 tā     hěn   hǎo 
She's very well.
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wǒ    tài    tai    hěn   hǎo        xiè   xie̊
My wife is fine.  Thank you.
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Qiān xiè wàn xiè	I cannot thank you enough! (lit. a thousand thanks) qiān = one thousand wàn = ten thousand
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Wéi
hello; hey there! (Used on the telephone or to attract someone’s attention.)
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Nĭ zhēn hăo
How good of you; You’re really good.
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Hăo jí le
That’s delightful; I’d be delighted.
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!Extra vocabulary
Nán​péng​you​	
male friend / boyfriend
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mǔ​qīn
mother 
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mā​ma​	
mama 
----
fù​qīn
father
----
bà​ bà​
father / dad
----
gǒu​
dog
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http://www.greenworks.com/plants.htm#RecommendedPlants
http://www.gardenguides.com/index.htm
!Creams
Basically infused oil + beeswax + essential oils + water or infused water
----
[[Creams]] are used to treat skin conditions of all kinds. They can be made by melting petroleum jelly and adding the herbs, although that is rather messy. A better method is to boil approximately 1 cup of the herb(s) to be used in 3 to 4 cups of water, in a non-metallic container, for about 15 minutes for leafy herbs and 30 minutes for root herbs to extract the volatile oils. You can then strain the herbs out, or leave them in if you so desire, depending on the kind of cream you are making. Add 5 ounces of sesame or olive oil to the water remaining and continue to simmer over low heat until all of the water has evaporated. Melt 2 ounces of beeswax, and stir into the oil mixture. TIP: try to have the wax and the oil near the same temperature, and stir vigorously! After the mixture cools a bit, add 2 teaspoons (or 4 to 6 capsules) of Vitamin E oil as a preservative, and mix it in well. Pour into containers and allow to cool completely. Most creams will keep for up to one year.
 Gathering 
http://www.allnatural.net/pages/index.shtml
!GATHERING
When gathering or harvesting your herbs, first be absolutely sure you know what you are gathering! This is very important when gathering plants from the wild. Be absolutely certain you know what the plant is before you attempt to use it. If you are not sure of a particular plant, or it “looks like” something but could be something else, leave it alone. You would be better off to purchase the herb through a store or mail order. The alternative may leave you dead. If you care about our natural plants, you will prefer to purchase or grow what you need. Today’s herbal needs are creating quite a strain on the numbers of medicinal plants in the wild.
Know what part of the plant you need. Some plants are used in their entirety, others only specific parts. When you are gathering plants from the wild, or even your own garden, remember not to take all of a particular species you may find in an area. Leave some to grow and seed and flourish for the next time you need them. Removing all of a group of plants is irresponsible (unless it is from your own herbal garden). Sprinkle around some of their seeds, to help them propagate. Also remember to give them some natural fertilizer. When taking leaves or branches of a plant, leave plenty for the plant to survive. You should offer the same respect to those plants you gather from your own gardens.
The parts of the plant above ground should be harvested in the morning, before the heat of the sun has a chance to wilt them. It is preferable to do so when the dew is still on the plants. Leaves should be harvested before the buds and blooms appear, and flowers should be harvested before the fruits and seeds appear. Bark and roots should be harvested in the early spring, just as the plant is beginning to show its leaf buds, or in the fall. Don’t strip bark from around the trunk of the tree, as this will kill it. Instead, strip bark from small patches, or particular limbs, to preserve the plant for later use, and to preserve its life.
!Liniments
Liniments are made very similar to tinctures. Since these are for external applications only, rubbing alcohol is used in place of the grain alcohol for tinctures. Crush the herbs to be used, then steep for two weeks in 12 to 16 ounces of rubbing alcohol. Herbs that are recommended for easing rheumatism, arthritis, and muscle aches and pains are the ones used in making liniments. Before use, a dropperful of olive or almond oil may be added to a small amount of the mixture, to ease the skin around the affected area as well as the joint or area itself.
 Oil infusions 
!Oils
Oil extracts are made from fresh herbs that contain volatile oils used for healing. Fresh herbs are necessary for the extraction of the oils. The fresh herbs are usually crushed with a mortar and pestle. Olive or sesame oil is then added, at the rate of one pint of oil to every two ounces of herbs. The mixture is allowed to stand in a warm place, out of direct light, for three days. The oils are stored in dark, air-tight, glass containers. Add one to two capsules of Vitamin E to each bottle for preserving the extracted oils. This is a process that is best begun on the new moon.
http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/modeuse/oilinfus.htm
!Oil Infusions
Infusing an herb in oil allows its active fat-soluble ingredients to be extracted. Hot infused oils are simmered, while cold infused oils are heated naturally in the sun. Both types of oil can be used externally as massage oils or added to creams and ointments. 
!Preparation
Oil Infusion—Hot Method 250 g dried (500 g fresh) herb 750 mil olive, sunflower, or other good quality oil 
Stir the chopped herb and oil together in a glass bowl over a saucepan of boiling water. Cover and simmer gently for two to three hours. Remove from heat and allow to cool. Pour into a wine press or jelly bag secured in a jug and press out as much of the liquid as possible. Collect all the strained oil and pour into clean, dark bottles. Seal and label. Store in sterilized, airtight, dark glass bottles for up to a year; but for best results, use within six months. Although hot infused oils can last up to a year, they are most potent when made fresh. 
Many herbs make effective hot infused oils, especially such spicy herbs as ginger, cayenne, and pepper. These oils can be rubbed into the skin to relieve rheumatic and arthritic pain, improve local blood flow, and relax muscles. Other hot infused oils from such leafy herbs as comfrey speed wound healing; mullein is used for earaches and ear infections; and chickweed ointment may also be produced from a hot infused oil. 
!Oil Infusion—Cold Method
Fill a clear, glass jar with an herb. Cover the herb completely with oil. Close the jar and shake well. Place in a sunny spot and leave for two to six weeks. Strain the oil through a jelly bag or wine press squeezing out as much of the oil as possible. Pour the infused oil into dark glass bottles and label. 
This is a slow process and involves leaving a jar packed with herbs and oil to stand for several weeks. Sunlight encourages the plant to release its active constituents into the oil. It is the most suitable method for fresh plant material, especially the more delicate parts as flowers. 
St. John’s wort (anti-inflammatory and analgesic) and calendula are the most commonly produced cold infused oils. Olive oil is particularly suitable for cold infusion as it rarely turns rancid. The intensity of the sunlight and length of time an herb is infused affect the concentration of its medicinal constituents. For greater strength, add the extracted oil to a fresh supply of herbs and infuse again. 
 Storing 
http://www.allnatural.net/pages/index.shtml
!STORING
When using an entire plant, it is customary to hang the plant upside down in a dry area free from pests to allow the plant to dry. Make sure your herbs have dried thoroughly before storing them for further use, or you may discover that you have a moldy mess instead of a useful herb. Roots should be carefully washed, scraped, and chopped into small pieces, then laid on an elevated screen for circulation, to be sure they dry uniformly and thoroughly. Bulbs should be tied together and hung up to dry. Individual leaves can be laid out on a raised screen to dry completely.
The dried portions can then be stored according to your needs. Roots are usually ground into powder for use, or left in small chunks for uses in decoctions, tinctures, and syrups. Leaves are usually stored in their entirety, or crumbled for use in teas. The same applies for blossoms. Store your herbs in air-tight containers. The best containers to use are colored dark glass. The herb then does not pick up impurities from plastics, and does not eat through your plastics, as can happen.
Store in a dry, cool area, and keep out of the light. This is the reason for using colored glass. Light can often break down the remains of your gathered herbs, shortening their shelf life and rendering them nearly useless after a short period of time. So if you can only use normal glass, store those containers in a dark pantry or cabinet. If stored properly, the shelf life of dried herbs is approximately one year. Tinctures can be stored for up to five years. Capsules should be used within one year. Once an herb has been ground, it shortens the amount of time the herb is effective. So do pay careful attention to when you have purchased or stored an herb, for maximum effectiveness.
 !Syrups 
http://www.allnatural.net/pages/index.shtml
Syrups are used for treating coughs and sore throats, and is an easy way to give herbs to children. Two ounces of herb are added to 4 cups of water in a nonmetallic container, and boiled down slowly and gently until about 2 cups of liquid is left. Strain while it is still warm, and add two ounces of honey and/or glycerine. Lemon juice can also be added for flavor. Store in a dark glass container.
!Teas
The herbs that will be used for herbal teas are generally the cut and sifted form, or the crumbled dried leaves. Herbs should always be prepared in nonmetallic containers. This prevents the herb from picking up impurities in the metals, and prevents the breakdown of the essential oils in the herbs which can occur when they come in contact with metallics. Steep the herbs in a nonmetallic container with water that has just been brought to a boil. This is an infusion and is used for the more delicate herbs to prevent destroying their healing agents.
A decoction is used to extract the healing agents from herbs that are roots and barks. The herbs are simmered in a nonmetallic cooking container for about one hour. Simmer uncovered until the amount of water is reduced by one half. Those herbs that contain important volatile oils should be simmered slowly in a tightly covered pot.
Don’t add table sugar to herbal teas. If a sweetener is needed, use pure, unmolested honey. Refined sugars are unhealthy for our digestive systems, and can actually interfere with the effectiveness of many herbs, as well as aggravate several diseases. If you are allergic to honey and other bee products, you can substitute stevia.
!Tinctures
Tinctures are easy to make, and are a very convenient way to make use of the healing herbs in today’s fast society. They are made with the more potent herbs that are generally not taken as herbal teas.
Tinctures are made by combining 1 to 4 ounces of a powdered or thoroughly crushed herb with one pint of alcohol. The alcohol most often used is vodka. The amount of liquid should be more than the herbs can absorb, so you may need to add more liquid as the days go by. Shake it daily and allow to stand in a warm place, out of direct light, for two weeks. The liquid is then poured through a cloth, such as layers of cheesecloth. The herbs that remain are squeezed thoroughly to remove as much of the liquid from them as possible. Keep the tincture stored in a dark glass bottle or jar.
Tinctures are used by the drop, or teaspoon. If you want to be sure the alcohol won’t affect you, or you are a recovering alcoholic, add the recommended number of tincture drops into a 4 ounce cup of hot water, wait a few moments, and then drink. The alcohol will evaporate. Tinctures can be made of single herbs, or herbal combinations, depending upon your needs.
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http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/modeuse/tincture.htm
!!Dosage
A dropperful is about 15-20 drops, or 1ml. A teaspoon is roughly equivalent to 5ml. The most commonly used dose for tinctures is 20-40 drops or 1-2 dropperfuls. In general, the more acute a condition, the more frequent the doses. 
!Tinctures and Vinegars
Tinctures are made by extracting, and preserving, the active properties of herbs using alcohol. In early times, this was accomplished by boiling the herb in wine. Tinctures have a stronger action than infusions or decoctions and can be made with fresh or dried herbs, but some herbs may require different strengths of alcohol (15-90% proof). 
DO NOT use industrial alcohol, methyl alcohol, or rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol). To make non-alcoholic tinctures, replace the alcohol with vinegar or glycerol. 
!!Recipes
!!!Tincture
The standard guide is 1:4 or 1:5 (one part herb to four or five parts alcohol) 
25 g (1 oz) dried herbs or 50 g (2 oz) fresh 
600 ml (1 pint or 2 ½ cups) alcoholic liquid (usually vodka or rum) 
OR
1 kg (2 pounds) herb 
4 liters or pints alcohol/water mix 
OR
100 g herb 
400-500 ml alcohol/water mix
Place the herb in a large, clean, glass jar and cover with the alcohol. Close the jar and label. Shake well and store in a cool, dark place for ten to fourteen days, shaking the jar every one or two days. At the end of that time, pour the mixture into a wine press or cloth bag and express the liquid from the herb. Discard the herb. Pour the tincture into clean, dark, glass bottles and close the bottle with a cork or screw top lid. Label. Tinctures will generally keep indefinitely. The amounts are really immaterial and can be large or small, depending on the need. 
!!!Non-alcholic Tincture
In some cases, a tincture made from alcohol is unsuitable or undesireable as an herbal remedy. Such cases include pregnancy, gastric or liver inflammations, and for children or recovering alcoholics. It also includes those who choose not to take alcohol of any kind in any amount, including that found in vanilla extract. For these people, a non-alcoholic tincture is prescribed. 
Preparation
Put the tincture dose (usually about 5 ml) into 25-50 ml (5-10 teaspoons) of almost boiling water in a cup and leave uncovered for five minutes while the alcohol evaporates. 
Another method is to use vinegars rather than tinctures. ''Organic apple cider vinegar or wine vinegars'' are the most versatile. They contain ''acetic acid which helps to preserve and extract the essential ingredients of herbs''. 
!Vinegar
Place herbs in a wide mouth glass jar and cover with vinegar. Cover and store for a minimum of two weeks, although some prefer to leave it for one or two months, in a cool, dark place, shaking every day. Strain off liquid and bottle. The vinegar should be left for another two weeks before using. 
Herbal vinegars can be taken internally in the same way as tinctures; or they can be added to salads, soups, or as an ingredient in pickles. Externally, they can be added to bathwater or used as a lotion or hair rinse. Combining apple cider vinegar with elderflowers, for example, makes a good remedy for itchy skin. 
 Plants as medicine 
http://2bnthewild.com/phvsixn.htm
http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/default.htm

The elimination of transitive meaning has remained a feature of empirical sociology.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 114


Where these reduced (operational - E.W.) concepts govern the analysis of the human reality, individual or social, mental or material, they arrive at a false concreteness - a concreteness isolated from the conditions which constitute its reality. In this context, the operational treatment of the concept assumes a political function. The individual and his behavior are analyzed in a therapeutic sense - adjustment to his society. Thought and expression, theory and practice are to be brought in line with the facts of his existence without leaving room for the conceptual critique of these facts. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 106-107


The society which projects and undertakes the technological transformation of nature alters the base of domination by gradually replacing personal dependence (of the slave on the master, the serf on the lord of the manor, the lord on the donor of the fief, etc.) with dependence on the "objective order of things" (on economic laws, the market, etc.).
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 144


Nature, scientifically comprehended and mastered, reappears in the technical apparatus of production and destruction which sustains and improves the life of the individuals while subordinating them to the masters of the apparatus.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 166


Observation and experiment, the methodical organization and coordination of data, propositions, and conclusions never proceed in an unstructured, neutral, theoretical space. The project of cognition involves operations on objects, or abstractions from objects which occur in a given universe of discourse and action. Science observes, calculates, and theorizes from a position in this universe.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 157


... all cognitive concepts have a transitive meaning: they go beyond descriptive reference to particular facts.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 106


If the linguistic behavior blocks conceptual development, if it militates against abstraction and mediation, if it surrenders to the immediate facts, it repels recognition of the factors behind the facts, and thus repels recognition of the facts, and of their historical content. In and for the society, this organization of functional discourse is of vital importance; it serves as a vehicle of coordination and subordination. The unified, functional language is an irreconcilably anti-critical and anti-dialectical language. In it, operational and behavioral rationality absorbs the transcendent, negative, oppositional elements of Reason.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 97


The abbreviations (e.g. NATO, UN, USSR - E.W.) denote that and only that which is institutionalized in such a way that the transcending connotation is cut off. The meaning is fixed, doctored, loaded. Once it has become an official vocable, constantly repeated in general usage, "sanctioned" by the intellectuals, it has lost all cognitive value and serves merely for recognition of an unquestionable fact.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 94


The functional language is a radically anti-historical language: operational rationality has little room and little use for historical reason.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 98


"Concept" is taken to designate the mental representation of something that is understood, comprehended, known as the result of a process of reflection.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 105


This (functional - E.W.) language controls by reducing the linguistic forms and symbols of reflection, abstraction, development, contradiction; by substituting images for concepts. It denies or absorbs the transcendent vocabulary; it does not search for but establishes and imposes truth and falsehood.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 103


If I speak of the mind of a person, I do not merely refer to his mental processes as they are revealed in his expression, speech, behavior, etc., nor merely of his dispositions or faculties as experienced or inferred from experience. I also mean that which he does not express, for which he shows no disposition, but which is present nevertheless, and which determines, to a considerable extent, his behavior, his understanding, the formation and range of his concepts.

Thus "negatively present" are the specific "environmental" forces which precondition his mind for the spontaneous repulsion of certain data, conditions, relations. They are present as repelled material.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 209


The disharmony between the individual and social needs, and the lack of representative institutions in which the individuals work for themselves and speak for themselves, lead to the reality of such universals as the Nation, the Party, the Constitution, the Corporation, the Church - a reality which is not identical with any particular identifiable entity (individual, group, or institution). 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 206


Critical thought strives to define the irrational character of the established rationality (which becomes increasingly obvious) and to define the tendencies which cause this rationality to generate its own transformation.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 227


At its most advanced stage, domination functions as administration, and in the overdeveloped areas of mass consumption, the administered life becomes the good life of the whole, in the defense of which the opposites are united.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 255


If the completion of the technological project involves a break with the prevailing technological rationality, the break in turn depends on the continued existence of the technical base itself. For it is this base which has rendered possible the satisfaction of needs and the reduction of toil - it remains the very base of all forms of human freedom. The qualitative change rather lies in the reconstruction of this base - that is, in its development with a view of different ends.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 231


Multi-dimensional language is made into one-dimensional language, in which different and conflicting meanings no longer interpenetrate but are kept apart; the explosive historical dimension of meaning is silenced.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 198


The social position of the individual and his relation to others appear to be determined by objective qualities and laws, but these qualities and laws seem to lose their mysterious and uncontrollable character; they appear as calculable manifestations of (scientific) rationality. The world tends to become the stuff of total administration, which absorbs even the administrators.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 169


The rational society subverts the idea of Reason.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 167


Under the repressive conditions in which men think and live, thought - any mode of thinking which is not confined to pragmatic orientation within the status quo - can recognize the facts and respond to the facts only by "going behind" them. Experience takes place before a curtain which conceals and, if the world is the appearance of something behind the curtain of immediate experience, then, in Hegel's terms, it is we ourselves who are behind the curtain. We ourselves not as the subjects of common sense, as in linguistic analysis, nor as the "purified" subjects of scientific measurement, but as the subjects and objects of the historical struggle of man with nature and with society. Facts are what they are as occurrences in this struggle. Their factuality is historical, even where it is still that of brute, unconquered nature.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 185


Society is indeed the whole which exercises its independent power over the individuals, and this Society is no unidentifiable "ghost". It has its empirical hard core in the system of institutions, which are the established and frozen relationships among men. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 191


The trouble is that the statistics, measurements, and field studies of empirical sociology and political science are not rational enough. They become mystifying to the extent to which they are isolated from the truly concrete context which makes the facts and determines their function. This context is larger and other than that of the plants and shops investigated, of the town and cities studied, of the areas and groups whose public opinion is polled or whose chance of survival is calculated. And it is also more real in the sense that it creates and determines the facts investigated, polled, and calculated. This real context in which the particular subjects obtain their real significance is definable only within a theory of society.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 190


The impact of progress turns Reason into submission to the facts of life, and to the dynamic capability of producing more and bigger facts of the same sort of life.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 11


Indeed, in the most highly developed areas of contemporary society, the transplantation of social into individual needs is so effective that the difference between them seems to be purely theoretical. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 8


Technological rationality reveals its political character as it becomes the great vehicle of better domination, creating a truely totalitarian universe in which society and nature, mind and body are kept in a state of permanent mobilization for the defense of this universe.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 18


Domination is transfigured into administration. The capitalist bosses and owners are losing their identity as responsible agents; they are assuming the function of bureaucrats in a corporate machine. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 32


To the extent to which the machine becomes itself a system of mechanical tools and relations and thus extends far beyond the individual work process, it asserts its larger domination by reducing the "professional autonomy" of the laborer and integrating him with other professions which suffer and direct the technical ensemble.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 27-28


Free election of masters does not abolish the masters or the slaves. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 7


Technology serves to institute new, more effective, and more pleasant forms of social control and social cohesion.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, xlvii


Contemporary society seems to be capable of containing social change - qualitative change which would estalish essentially different institutions, a new direction of the productive process, new modes of human existence.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, xliv


Under the conditions of a rising standard of living, non-conformity with the system itself appears to be socially useless, and the more so when it entails tangible economic and political disadvantages and threatens the smooth operation of the whole.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 2


To impose Reason upon an entire society is a paradoxical and scandalous idea.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 7


The government of advanced and advancing industrial societies can maintain and secure itself only when it succeeds in mobilizing, organizing, and exploiting the technical, scientific, and mechanical productivity available to industrial civilization. And this productivity mobilizes society as a whole, above and beyond any particular individual or group interest.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), The one-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 3


This society turns everything it touches into a potential source of progress and exploitation, of drudgery and satisfaction, of freedom and of oppression.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 78


Sex is integrated into work and public relations and is thus made more susceptible to (controlled) satisfaction.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 75


Just as this society tends to reduce and even absorb opposition (the qualitative difference!) in the realm of politics and higher culture, so it does in the instinctual sphere. The result is the atrophy of the mental organs for grasping the contradictions and the alternatives and, in the one remaining dimension of technological rationality, the Happy Consciousness comes to prevail.

It reflects the beliefe that the real is rational, and that the established system, in spite of everything, delivers the goods. 
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 79


Propositions assume the form of suggestive commands - they are evocative rathern than demonstrative. Predication becomes prescription; the whole communication has a hypnotic character. At the same time it is tinged with a false familiarity - the result of constant repetition, and of the skillfully managed popular directness of the communication. This relates itself to the recipient immediately - without distance of status, education, and office - and hits him or her in the informal atmosphere of the living room, kitchen, and bedroom.

The same familiarity is established through personalized language, which plays a considerable role in advanced communication.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 91-92


The unification of opposites which characterizes the commercial and political style is one of the many ways in which discourse and communication make themselves immune against the expression of protest and refusal.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 90


The organism is thus being preconditioned for the spontaneous acceptance of what is offered. Inasmuch as the greater liberty involves a contraction rather than extension and development of instinctual needs, it works for rather than against the status quo of general repression - one might speak of "institutionalized desublimation". The latter appears to be a vital factor in the making of the authoritarian personality of our time.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 74


The growing productivity of labor creates an increasing surplus-product which, whether privately or centrally appropriated and distributed, allows an increased consumption - notwithstanding the increased diversion of productivity. As long as this constellation prevails, it reduces the use-value of freedom; there is no reason to insist on self-determination if the administered life is the comfortable and even the "good" life. This is the rational and material ground for the unification of opposites, for one-dimensional political behavior.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 49


The prospect of containment of change, offered by the politics of technological rationality, depend on the prospects of the Welfare State. Such a state seems capable of raising the standard of administered living, a capability inherent in all advanced industrial societies where the streamlined technical apparatus - set up as a separate power over and above the individuals - depends for its functioning on the intensified development and expansion of productivity. Under such conditions, decline of freedom and opposition is not a matter of moral or intellectual deterioration or corruption. It is rather an objective societal process insofar as the production and distribution of an increasing quantity of goods and services make compliance a rational technological attitude.

However, with all its rationality, the Welfare State is a state of unfreedom because its total administration is systematic restriction of (a) "technically" available free time; (b) the quantity and quality of goods and services "technically" available for vital individual needs; (c) the intelligence (conscious and unconscious) capable of comprehending and realizing the possibilities of self-determination.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 48-49


If mass communications blend together harmoniously, and often unnoticeably, art, politics, religion, and philosophy with commercials, they bring these realms of culture to their common denominator - the commodity form. The music of the soul is also the music of salesmanship. Exchange value, not truth value counts.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 57


Artistic alienation is sublimation. It creates the images of conditions which are irreconcilable with the established Reality Principle but which, as cultural images, become tolerable, even edifying and useful. Now this imagery is invalidated. Its incorporation into the kitchen, the office, the shop; its commercial release for business and fun is, in a sense, desublimation - replacing mediated by immediate gratification.
(...)
The Pleasure Principle absorbs the Reality Principle
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 72


In the realm of culture, the new totalitarianism manifests itself precisely in a harmonizing pluralism, where the most contradictory works and truths peacefully coexist in indifference.
Marcuse, Herbert (1964), One-dimensional man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. With a new introduction by Douglas Kellner. Boston (Beacon Press) 1991, 61

Copyright © by Eberhard Wenzel, 1997-2000 
"Economic freedom would mean freedom from the economy - from being controlled by economic forces and relationships; freedom from the daily struggle for existence, from earning a living. Political freedom would mean liberation of the individuals from politics over which they have no control. Similarly, intellectual freedom would mean the restoration of individual thought now absorbed by mass communication and indoctrination, abolition of "public opinion" together with its makers." (p.4) 



"...the spoken phrase is an expression of the individual who speaks it, and of those who make him speak as he does, and of whatever tension or contradiction may interrelate them." (p.193)



"The inherent limit of the established science and scientific method, by virtue of which they extend, rationalize, and insure the prevailing Lebenswelt without altering its existential culture - that is without envisaging a qualitatively new mode of "seeing" and qualitatively new relations between men, and between men and nature." (p.165)



"'The power of the negative' is the principle which governs the development of concepts, and contradiction becomes the distinguishing quality of Reason. (Hegel)" (p.171)



"[The philosopher`s job is] to understand [the world in which we live] in terms of what it has done to man, and what it can do to man." (p.183)



"Today, in the prosperous warfare and welfare states, the human qualities of a pacified existence seem asocial and unpatriotic - qualities such as the refusal of all toughness, togetherness, and brutality; disobedience to the tyranny of the majority; profession of fear and weakness (the most rational reaction to this society!); a sensitive intelligence sickened by that which is being perpetrated; the commitment to the feeble and ridiculed actions of protest and refusal." (p.243)



"...a freedom which is a necessary a priori of liberation. This is freedom of thought in the only sense in which thought can be free in the administered world - as the consciousness of its repressive productivity, and as the absolute need for breaking out of this whole." (p.253)



"...the outcasts and outsiders, the exploited and persecuted of other races and colors, the unemployed and the unemployable...Their opposition hits the system from without, and is therefore not deflected by the system; it is an elementary force which violates the rules of the game and, in doing so, reveals it as a rigged game...The fact that they start refusing to play the game may be the beginning of the end of a period." (p.256)





Herbert Marcuse, An Essay On Liberation, Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.




"How can [the individual] satisfy his own needs without hurting himself, without reproducing, through his aspirations and satisfactions, his dependence on an exploitative apparatus which, in satisfying his needs, perpetuates his servitude?" (p.4) 



"This 'voluntary' servitude (voluntary inasmuch as it is introjected into the individuals), which justifies the benevolent masters, can be broken only through a political practice which reaches the roots of containment and contentment in the infrastructure of man, a political practice of methodological disengagement from and refusal of the Establishment, aiming at a radical transvaluation of values." (p.6)



"Such a practice involves a break with the familiar, the routine ways of seeing, hearing, feeling, understanding things..." (p.6)



"Prior to all ethical behavior in accordance with specific social standards, prior to all ideological expression, morality is "a disposition" of the organism, perhaps rooted in the erotic drive to counter aggressiveness, to create and preserve 'ever greater unities'." (p.10)



"Science and techmology [are] the great vehicles of liberation, and it is only their use and restriction in the repressive society which makes them into vehicles of domination?" (p.12)



"...a sensitivity receptive to forms and modes of reality which thus far have been projected only by the aesthetic imagination." (p.27)



"Reality has to be discovered and projected." (p.39)



"Radical change in consciousness is the beginning, the first step in changing social existence: emergence of the new Subject." (p.53)



"And the driving force is the refusal to grow up, to mature, to perform efficiently and "normally" in and for society, which compels the vast majority of the population to "earn" their living in stupid, inhuman, and unnecessary jobs..." (p.62)



"The translation of the potential into the actual is the work of political practice." (p.79)



"The possibilities of the new society are sufficiently abstract, i.e. removed from and incongruous with the established universe, to defy any attempt to identify them in terms of this universe." (p.86)

"Negative thinking is by virtue of its own internal concepts 'positive': oriented toward, and comprehending a future which is 'contained' in the present." (p.87)





Herbert Marcuse, Five Lectures: Psychoanalysis, Politics, And Utopia , Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.




"Freedom is a form of domination: the one in which the means provided satisfy the needs of the individual with a minimum of displeasure and renunciation." (p.2) 



"Under optimal conditions, domination is reduced to a rational division of labor and experience." (p.2)



"The individual reproduces on the deeper level, in his instinctual structure, the values and behavior patterns that serve to maintain domination." (p.3)



"The pleasure principle: the instincts strive for pleasurable release of tension, for painless satisfaction of needs." (p.5)



"But culture is sublimation: postponed, methodically controlled satisfaction which presupposes unhappiness." (p.5)



"The idea that mankind, in general and in its individuals, is still dominated by "archaic" powers is one of Freud`s most profound insights." (p.8)



"'love' - the ethical taming and inhibiting of Eros." (p.9)



"The suppression of instincts - for sublimation is also supression - becomes the basic condition of life in civilized society." (p.9)



"In psychoanalysis the private reveals itself to be a particular instance of the general destiny, of the traumatic wound that the repressive transformation of the instincts has inflicted on man." (p.13)



"It is as though the free space which the individual has at his disposal for his psychic processes has been greatly narrowed down: it is no longer possible for something like an individual psyche with its own demands and decisions to develop, the space is occupied by public, social forces." (e.g. "people`s frozen gestures, the de-privatized, centralized, universalized, controlled leisure-time activities." (p.14)



"All freedoms are predetermined and preformed by [the whole] and subordinated not so much by political force as to the rational demands of the apparatus." (p.16)



"...the governed who are no longer in opposition, or whose opposition itself is integrated into the positive whole, as a calculable and manipulable corrective that demands improvement in the apparatus." (p.16)



"The energy won from sexuality and sublimated constantly increases the psychic "investment fund" for the increasing productivity of labor (technical progress." (p.21)



"The degree of domination of nature and of social wealth attained makes it possible to reduce ungratifying labor to a minimum: quantity is transformed into quality, free time can become the content of life and work can become the free play of human capacities." (p.22)



Alienated Labor - "labor that denies individuals the fulfillment of their human capacities and needs, and grants gratification, if at all, only secondarily or after work." (p.30)



"Are revolutions perhaps not only vanquished, reversed, and unmade from outside; is there perhaps in individuals themselves already a dynamic at work that internally negates possible liberation and gratification and that supports external forces of denial." (pp.38-39)



"The less renunciation and denial are biologically necessary, the more must men be made the instruments of repressive policies that restrain them from realizing the social potentialities they would otherwise think of by themselves." (p.43)



"The psychological categories do not have to be "related" to social and political conditions - they are themselves social and political categories." (p.44)



"These star-leaders...are in turn functionaries of a higher authority which is no longer embodied in a person: the authority of the prevailing apparatus... This apparatus includes the whole of the physical plant of production and distribution, the technics, technology, and science applied in this process, and the social division of labor sustaining and propelling the process." (p.54)



"...letting the realm of freedom appear within the realm of necessity - in labor and not only beyond labor." (p.63)



"The material and intellectual forces for the transformation are technically at hand though their rational application is prevented by the existing organization of the forces of production." (p.64)



"...these historical possibilities must be conceived in forms that signify a break rather than a continuity with previous history..." (p.65)



"Human nature is a historically determined nature and develops in history." (p.72)



"But the aim here is to transform the will itself, so that people no longer want what they want now." (p.77)



"Technification of domination means that if we rationally think through technological processes to their end, we find that they are incompatible with existing capitalist institutions." (p.78)



"The result of [the integration of the dominated class] is the absence of the subjective necessity of a radical transformation whose objective necessity becomes ever more flagrant." (p.84)



"Preaching nonviolence on principle reproduces the existing institutionalized violence." (p.90)



"Appealing to the right of resistance is an appeal to a higher law, which has universal validity, that is, which goes beyond the self-defined right and privilege of a particular group." (p.105)





Herbert Marcuse, The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward A Critique Of Marxist Aesthetic , Boston: Beacon Press, 1978.




"By virtue of its aesthetic form, art is largely autonomous vis a vis the given social relations. In its autonomy, art both protests these relations, and, at the same time, transcends them. Thereby art subverts the dominant consciousness, the ordinary experience." (p.IX) 



"A work of art can be called revolutionary if, by virtue of the aesthetic transformation, it represents, in the exemplary fate of individuals, the prevailing unfreedom and the rebelling forces, thus breaking through the mystified (and petrified) social reality, and opening the horizon of change (liberation)." (p.XI)



"[Art`s] relation to praxis is inexorably indirect, mediated, and frustrating." (p.XII)



"With the affirmation of the inwardness and subjectivity, the individual steps out of the network of exchange relationships and exchange values, withdraws from the reality of bourgeois society, and enters another dimension of existence." (p.4)



"Art envisions a concrete universal, humanity, which no particular class can incorporate (embody)." (p.16)



"[What is needed] is a radical transformation of the drives nad needs of the individuals: an organic development within the socio-historical." (p.17)



"In a free society the images become aspects of the real." (p.28)



"Art cannot change the world, but it can contribute to changing the consciousness and drives of the men and women who could change the world." (pp.32-33)



"To work for the radicalization of consciousness means to make explicit and conscious the material and ideological discrepancy between the writer and "the people". Revolutionary art may well become 'the Enemy of the People.'" (p.35)



"[The world of a work of art] is "unreal" not because it is less, but because it is more as well as qualitatively "other" than the established reality." (p.54)



"(Quote by Hegel) The entire sphere of the empirical inner and outer reality is to be called, in a stronger sense, than that reserved for art, the world of mere illusion and a bitterer deception, rather than the world of reality. True reality is to be found only beyond the immediacy of sensation and of external objects." (p.55)



"The accomplished work of art perpetuates the memory of the moment of gratification." (p.64)



"The ultimate goal of all revolutions [is] the freedom and happiness of the individual." (p.69)



"The utopia in great art is never the simple negation of the reality principle, but its transcending preservation (Aufhebung) in which past and present cast their shadow on fulfillment." (p.73)



"The horizon of history is still open." (p.73)





Herbert Marcuse, Eros And Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry Into Freud, Boston: Beacon Press, 1974.




"The very forces that rendered society capable of pacifying the struggle for existence [serve] to repress in the individuals the need for a liberation." (p.XI) 



"[thesis]... to make the human body an instrument of pleasure rather than labor." (p.XV)



"No philosophy, no theory can undo the democratic introjection of the masters into their subjects." (p.XV)



"... revolt as a matter of physical and mental hygiene." (p.XVII)



"Is the conflict between pleasure principle and reality principle irreconcilable to such a degree that it necessitates the repressive transformation of man's instinctual structure?" (p.5)



"[instinct] ...a primary drive of the human organism which is subject to historical modification." (p.8)



"... a commitment to the past experience of pleasure which spurns the desire for its conscious recreation." (p.19)



"(Freud) The memory of gratification is at teh origin of all thinking, and the impulse to recapture past is the hidden driving power behind the process of thought." (p.31)



"Performance principle: the prevailing historical form of the reality principle." (p.35)



"The sex instincts bear the brunt of the reality principle."(p.40)



"Performance principle - society is startified according to the competitive economic performances of its members." (p.44) 



"(Freud) [The archaic heritage] includes memory traces of the experiences of former generations." (p.56)



"Free choice - a small selection between pre-established necessities." (p.85) 



"The existing liberties and the existing gratifications are tied to the requirements of repression: they themselves become instruments of repression." (p.92)



"The destructiveness of the present stage reveals its full significance, only if the present is measured, not in terms of past stages, but in terms of its own potentialities." (p.102)



"Consciousness, increasingly less burdened by autonomy, tends to be reduced to the task of regulating the co-ordination of the individual with the whole." (p.103)



"Knowledge of the whole truth is hardly conducive to happiness." (p.104)



"The true mode of freedom is not the incessant activity of conquest, but its coming to rest in the transparent knowledge and gratification of being." (p.115)



"The tyranny of becoming over being must be broken if man is to come to himself in a world which is truly his own." (p.122)



"The eternal return is the will and vision of an erotic attitude toward being for which necesity and fulfillment coincide." (p.122)



"(Freud) Being is striving for pleasure." (p.125)



"[Phantasy] links the deepest layers of the unconscious with the highest products of consciousness (art)." (p.140)



"[goals] ...general automatization of labor, reduction of labor time to a minimum, and exchangeability of functions." (p.152)



"(Baudelaire) La, tout n'est qu'ordre et beaute' / Luxe, calme, et volupte'. - There all is order and beauty / Luxury, calm, and sensuousness." (p.164)

"The discipline of aesthetic installs the order of sensuousness as against the order of reason." (p.181)



"Only an order of abundance is compatible with freedom." (p.194)



"The free development of transformed libido beyond the institutions of the performance principle differs essentially from the release of constrained sexuality within the dominion of these institutions." (p.202)



"Work as free play cannot be subject to administration: only alienated labor can be organized and administered by rational routine." (p.218)



"... the quantitative reduction in labor time and energy leads to a qualitative change in the human existence." (p.222)



"... a rationality of gratification in which reason and happiness converge." (p.224)



"Time loses its power when remembrance redeems the past." (p.233)



"The powers that be have a deep affinity with death: death is a token of unfreedom, of defeat." (p.236)



"At the present stage, the personality tends toward a standardized reaction pattern established by the hierarchy of power and functions and by its technical, intellectual, and cultural apparatus." (p.252)




Marcuse, Herbert, Negations: Essays in Critical Theory , Trans. Jeremy Shapiro, Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.




"On Hedonism" (1938)




"Insofar as the individual partakes of universality only as a rational being and not with the empirical manifold of his needs, wants, and capacities, this idea of reason implicitly contains the sacrifice of the individual." (p.159) 



"In the principle of hedonism, in an abstract and undeveloped form, the demand for the freedom of the individual is extended into the realm of the material conditions of life." (p.162)




"Happiness, as the fulfillment of all potentialities of the individual presupposes freedom: at root, it is freedom." (p.180) 



"Historical facts [(the needs and wants) should be] subject to questioning as to their 'right:' Are they of such a sort that their gratification can fulfill the subjective and objective potentialities of individuals." (pp.189-190)



"Many instincts and wants become false due to the false forms into which their satisfaction is channeled." (p.189)



"Truth to which the liberated individual relates in happiness is both general and particular." (p.194)





"The Concept of Essence" (1936)




"Form and content can be separated, for the former is only a particular historical pattern in which the latter is realized... There are tendencies toward the abolition of the form at work in the content." (pp.82-83) 




"Theory ... has the task of moving beyond appearance to essence and explicating its content as it appears to true consciousness." (p.85) 



"The dialectical concepts transcend the given social reality in the direction of another historical structure which is present as a tendency in the given reality." (p.86)



"All materialist concepts contain an accusation and an imperative." (p.86)





"The Affirmative Character of Culture" (1937)




affirmative culture - "...the culture of bourgeois epoch [which led] to the segregation from civilization [from the totality of social relations] of the mental and spiritual world as an independent realm of value that is also considered superior to civilization... [it was postulated to be] universally obligatory, eternally better and more valuable world, realizable by every individual from 'within' himself, without any transformation of the state of fact." (p.95) 



"For the bourgeoisie, when it came to power, abstract equality sufficed for the flourishing of real individual freedom and real individual happiness, since it already disposed of the material conditions that could bring about such satisfaction." (p.97)



"... materialist philosophy takes seriously the concern for happiness and fights for its realization in history." (p.100)



"[The bourgeios] culture exalts the individual without freeing him from factual debasement." (p.103)



"The medium of beaty decontamines truth and sets it apart from the present." (p.114)



"[Beauty] contains a dangerous violence that threatens the given form of existence. ... Stendhal 'une promess de bonheur" (p.115)



"From the beginning, the prohibition of pleasure was a condition of freedom." (p.115)



"When the body has completely become an object, a beautiful thing, it can foreshadow a new happiness. In suffering the most extreme reification man triumphs over reification (e.g. circus, vaudeville)" (p.116)



"Culture individuates men to the isolation of self-contained personalities whose fulfillment lies within himself." (p.124)



"It is precisely because the soul dwells beyond the economy that the latter can manage it so easily." (p.126)



"In utilitarianism the interest of the individual remains linked to the basic interest of the established whole." (p.130)



"When culture gets to the point of having to sustain fulfillment itself and no longer merely desire it, it will no longer be able to do so in contents that, as such, bear affirmative character." (p.131)
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http://www.historychannel.com
http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Bentley_s_miscellany.html?id=0jsFAAAAQAAJ

|Chinese History via Official Posters| http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/plpk.html|
!HoMedics IH-100 theraP
The [[iHeal|http://www.homedics.co.uk/health/homedics-iheal.html]] Uses [[PEMF|http://www.pemft.com/pulseform-for-PEMF-therapy]] (pulsed, electro-magnetic field) technology to treat tendonitis, carpel tunnel syndrome, arthritic inflammation, sports tendon injuries, repetitive strain injury, tennis and golfers elbow etc
It emits a ''pulsating magnetic field using a modified saw tooth waveform'' - every 1 second. The magnetic field is ''100 Gauss'' approx
Sustained iHeal therapy has two effects on the body’s natural healing - enlarging blood capillaries within the damaged tissue (bringing more blood to the treated area) and increasing the cell metabolic rate (speeding natural cell repair). Healing time is dramatically reduced - up to 30% faster. 
Use for 4 hours a day minimum. 
A Class IIa certified medical device
Use Micropore Surgical Tape to keep it in place.
Powered by 2 CR2025 batteries - positive facing upwards.
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https://home.gocompare.com/
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The issue with additives in ‘adult’ foods is not so much that scientists fear they will give us all ADHD, but rather that they are strong indicators that the food we are eating is far from fresh. The party foods identified by our experts as being high in additives or highly processed, represent a small sample of the chemically-laden foods we could eat most days. As with additives in kids’ food, scientists don’t really know the long-term effects of eating highly processed foods, or what happens when lots of additives are consumed at the same time.
All the additives and processing methods used in the UK are approved by the Food Standards Agency and E numbers are approved by the European Union. None the less, some scientists and nutritionists still question their use and safety.
What is certainly true is that the increasing availability of processed food makes it easier for us to avoid the fresh produce we need while eating certain foods that may taste pleasant but are nutritionally suspect. Processed meats like cheap pâté are often simply saturated fats and salt mixed with preservatives, flavourings and bulking agents, and are relatively low in protein, essential minerals and vitamins. Full- or reduced-fat desserts can be empty of anything but calories.
It’s hardly surprising then that nutritionists like Jane Clarke and Patrick Holford suggest avoiding additives like these in order to keep your diet as healthy as possible.
!! Maltodextrin
Maltodextrin is a sweet polysaccharide made from corn. Arguably, it has no real nutritional value beyond that of sugar as it is as rapidly absorbed as glucose. It is used primarily to give body, flavour and viscosity to foods like packaged desserts and crisps as well as having a nice ‘mouth feel’.
!! Emulsifiers, thickeners and stabilisers
Emulsifiers, thickeners and stabilisers are designed to add viscosity to liquids while still feeling right in the mouth, as well as binding or stabilising other ingredients. They are common in dressings, sauces and desserts. Many of these have natural sources, such as guar gum ( E412 from the guar bean), xantham gum (E415 from glucose), carrageenan ( E407 from seaweed) and pectin (from fruit).Mono and di-glycerides of fatty acids (and E numbers from 471-9) are sometimes derived from genetically modified soy beans. These products do not pose any specific health risks; they merely suggest the finished product is a processed one.
!! Potassium sorbate
Potassium sorbate (E203) is an [[antifungal]], increasing shelf life.
Dr Richardson has ‘come across offenders who consume so much sugar in drinks that they are virtually flatline hypo-glycaemic, which can contribute to offending behaviours’.
Sodium acetate (E262i) is a chemical used in the paper industry and in heating pads. In food it is used as a preservative.
!! Flavour enhancers
Flavour enhancers may be included in foods marketed for adults, such as disodium inosate (E631), disodium 5-ribonucleotide (E635), ordisodium guanylate (E627), which is not permitted in foods for infants and young children under the age of three in some countries.
!! Stimulants
Stimulants taurine, glucuronolactone andcaffeine are present in some fizzy and ‘energy’ drinks. Caffeine is the world’s most popular psychoactive drug. Renowned nutritionist Patrick Holford points out that combined with large amounts of sugar it may have a ‘behavioural effect causing aggression and irritability’.
!! ‘Reclaimed’ meat
‘Reclaimed’ meat, such as pork connective tissue, is common in cheap meat-based products such as paté and sausages. Made from the last scraps of meat and offal left on the carcass after the more nutritious cuts of meat have been removed, it goes through a number of processes in order to make it palatable.
!! Potassium nitrate
Potassium nitrate (E249 or saltpetre) is a preservative, which also happens to be used in fireworks.
!! Sodium nitrite
Sodium nitrite is a colour-fixative and preservative. It can only be used in EU countries in very tiny quantities as it is toxic to mammals and is banned in foods for under-threes.
!! Sodium metabisulphite
Sodium metabisulphite (E223) is a preservative sometimes associated with skin reactions.
!! Phosphates
Phosphates are antioxidants and acidity regulators or raising agents.
!Processed foods
!!Sainsbury’s Strawberry Trifle
Maltodextrin, emulsifiers, gelling agents, red colouring, sodium citrate, plus trisodium citrate, tetrasodium diphosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and anti-fungal potassium sorbate. A serving gives you nearly 24g of your daily 90g of sugar as sugar, dextrose and strawberry juice concentrate, plus 9g saturated fat.
!!WeightWatchers from Heinz Chicken & Lemon Risotto
The ‘cooked chicken’ makes up 15 per cent of the dish as a whole, but in the ingredients list the ‘marinated chicken’ is listed as being made from 11 per cent chicken, potentially making the dish just 1.6 per cent actual chicken. There is, however, chicken stock and chicken fat in other components of the meal, which may make up the difference. Other ingredients include ‘flavourings’, tri and di- phosphates, carrageenan and xantham gum (naturally sourced gelling agents) and sugar under the names of milk sugar, sugar and dextrose plus maltodextrin and 2g of salt per serving.
!!Gourmet Pringles
MSG, sodium acetate, lactic acid, more maltodextrin, the emulsifiers mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate), 2g of salt per 100g and over 11g of saturated fat per 120g packet.
!!Jacobs Thai Bites with ‘value’ chicken liver pâté on top
The crackers contain flavour enhancers MSG, disodium inosinate (E631), and disodium guanylate (E627), pyroligneous acid, and a relatively high 1.5g salt per 100g. The liver pâté has pork connective tissue as its third ingredient, sodium nitrite (E250), mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, di and tri phosphates, and sugar in the guise of dextrose.
!!‘Value’ supermarket pizza
Along with sodium nitrate and more pentasodium triphosphate, there’s also potassium nitrate, listed as saltpetre (E249), in this pizza, an ingredient also used in fireworks and nitrite salt. ‘Ferments’ are also listed, which in this case are presumably enzymes, but it’s impossible to tell what sort. There’s also 2.5g of salt per serving. In another similar pizza we found a mould inhibitor called calcium proponiate (E282).
!!Reduced-fat cheese-and-onion crisps
Flavour enhancers MSG and disodium 5’-ribonucleotide, natural colourings, plus some ‘flavourings’.
!!Cheap sausages wrapped in cheap bacon
The bacon contains sodium nitrite, which prevents botulism in meats among other functions. The main additive is water, as pork only makes up 87 per cent of the final product - the next ingredients by volume are salt and sugar. Three rashers will give you 20.5g of fat. The sausages are 67 per cent pork, 11 per cent pork fat, rusk, and potato starch, wheat fibre and soya protein, sodium metabisulphite, a further shot of cochineal colouring and some ‘flavourings’. Per 50g sausage you get 11g of fat, of which half is saturated. Two sausages give you nearly 2g of salt.
!!Crab sticks
Just 30 per cent actual fish, the rest of the bulk comes from wheat starch, sugar and soya protein. The pink colour comes not from crab, but from cochineal, and the white from calcium carbonate, otherwise known as chalk.
!!Irn Bru
Taurine, caffeine (the world’s most popular psychoactive drug, also habit-forming) and glucuronolactone which are all stimulants. Sunset yellow (E110), cochineal (E124). Sugar and glucose are the second and third ingredients after water.
Share your tips on eating healthily and ethically here.
Guardian Unlimited © Guardian News and Media Limited 2007
Rebecca Seal uncovers the chemicals in your canapés. Share your tips on eating healthily and ethically here
Rebecca Seal Sunday August 20, 2006 Observer
!The goal
A successful diet will burn fat instead of creating it. 

The low carb diet is based on the theory that our body energy runs on glucose and will go for the fastest available carbohydrate source. Any excess glucose is turned into fat. The purpose of the diet is to train your body to consume fat as a source of glucose. You can eat any protein and no-carb food - hence the use of cream in the Atkins diet. Fats are not carbohydrates and are not the source of your fatness. Overconsumption of sugar and white carbohydrates are. 

The deadly combination seems to be carbohydrates plus fat and sugar. But fats such as olive oil and even butter are better for you that 100g of shortbread biscuit will give you 65 out of your 130g of carbs plus a mass of sugar you can see how easy it is to go over the top without realising it. 100g of Mars Bar has 65g. At one time I might have had 2 of them at work in the day.

The first part of the diet deprives your body of its usual source of glucose - white bread, biscuits, pizzas, potatoes etc so that it switches over to burning body fat. You then reintroduce low sugar carbohydrates into your diet, rebalance your insulin levels and eventually find your own optimum carbs intake. 
!Science
Dietary carbohydrate increases blood glucose levels, particularly in the postprandial period, and consequently also insulin levels and plasma triglycerides. The detrimental effects of a high-carbohydrate diet on plasma glucose/insulin, triglyceride/HDL or fibrinolysis occur only when carbohydrate foods with a high glycaemic index are consumed, while they are abolished if the diet is based largely on fibre-rich, low-glycaemic-index foods. In conclusion, weight reduction is a powerful measure for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the diet for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome should be limited in the intake of saturated fat, while high fibre/low-glycaemic-index foods should be used without specific limitations. Moderate amounts of monounsaturated fat could be permitted as they do not induce detrimental metabolic effects.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10889805

 All carbohydrates (a category including sugars) convert to sugar in the blood, and the more refined the carbs are, the quicker the conversion goes. When you eat a glazed doughnut or a serving of mashed potatoes, it turns into blood sugar very quickly. To manage the blood sugar, the pancreas produces insulin, which moves sugar into cells, where it's stored as fuel in the form of glycogen.

If you have a perfectly healthy metabolism, the system works beautifully, says Dr. Stephen Phinney, a nutritional biochemist and an emeritus professor of UC Davis who has studied carbohydrates for 30 years. "However, over time, as our bodies get tired of processing high loads of carbs, which evolution didn't prepare us for … how the body responds to insulin can change," he says.

When cells become more resistant to those insulin instructions, the pancreas needs to make more insulin to push the same amount of glucose into cells. As people become insulin resistant, carbs become a bigger challenge for the body. When the pancreas gets exhausted and can't produce enough insulin to keep up with the glucose in the blood, diabetes develops.

The first sign of insulin resistance is a condition called metabolic syndrome — a red flag that diabetes, and possibly heart disease, is just around the corner. People are said to have the syndrome when they have three or more of the following: high blood triglycerides (more than 150 mg); high blood pressure (over 135/85); central obesity (a waist circumference in men of more than 40 inches and in women, more than 35 inches); low HDL cholesterol (under 40 in men, under 50 in women); or elevated fasting glucose.
!Foods and supplements
An overview of evidence from 2004 is here: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/529.long
----
!!!Rasperry Ketones
A 200-250mg daily dose is recommended
!!!Ephedrine
Ephedrine in its natural form, known as má huáng (麻黄) in traditional Chinese medicine, has been documented in China since the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) as an antiasthmatic and stimulant.
Ephedrine is obtained from the plant Ephedra sinica and other members of the Ephedra genus.
The ECA stack, containing caffeine and aspirin besides ephedrine and is a popular supplement taken by body builders to cut down body fat before a competition
!Garcinia Cambogia
Supplements that also contain ''potassium'',''calcium'' and ''chromium'' are significantly relevant for absorption purposes and numerous clinical studies supports this statement.
! CLA and chromium
 CLA and chromium have emerged as major dietary supplements that reduce body weight and fat mass, and increase basal metabolic rate in animal models. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933788

----
[[Atkins Diet]]
Summaries of different diets: http://www.chewfo.com/diets/
http://supplementreviews.com/categories/weight-loss
!How to use the external Javascript files
Add a location reference to the MarkupPostBody Shadowed Tiddler like this:
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Here are some horrible truths:

Most radio drama is very badly written. Radio drama is an endangered species. It has never taken a hold of mainstream programming on commercial radio in the UK. It used to be the mainstream in the States and Australia but lost out to TV in the middle to late fifties.
It is under threat within public radio services including the BBC because of the pressure of monetarist ideology and the fact that authors and radio drama directors have been too complacent. IRDP is a significant oasis and continues to support the principle of the original play.

Ground rules

The Beginning

The beginning is everything. If this part of it does not work you are 'up shit creek without a paddle'. Your listeners will desert you. You have failed. You do not exist as a dramatist. Booo!

The Moment of Arrival

This is how you drop your listeners into the story. Don't give them a warm bed with comfortable pillows and a hot water bottle. The background and sub-text of previous histories is better explored through revelation in dramatic action. So parachute your listener into a top dramatic moment. Not the climax. That would be premature. Find the MOMENT to join the story. Avoid the slow snail's explicatory route. Kick 'em into a high energy trip and whoosh them through the rapids.

Structure

Set up...struggle...resolution. You can reverse this if the set-up is more dramatic and explosive than the resolution. Regard your play as a series of phases

The Plot

This is the story with lots of twists and turns. The more the merrier. Most listeners like good exciting plots. Without a good plot you're eating a souffle that has gone flat. You need plot, more plot and more plot. Run at least two story lines. Two sub plots would be interesting. Keep the plots linked logically within the same play. The best system is a major and a minor storyline linked to one another. Get them to come together at the end.

Surprise

People are hungry for entertainment. If they wanted boredom they would be filling out their tax returns instead of listening to your radio play. Make people afraid, but also excited.

Character

Your main character must have the sympathy of the audience. Your audience has to identify with your main character. If this does not happen you have created a failure. Booo!

Conflict

Drama = conflict = audience. There has to be an emotional, financial, human, moral, physical struggle so your listeners can laugh or cry. Yes, you want your listeners to laugh or cry or laugh and cry. If you don't, give up.

Polarities or Extremes

The art of story telling is exploring the extreme limits of our psychological or physical existence. To pitch one polarity against another.

The Climax

I apologize for the sexual metaphor. But there is something in this. The better sex has foreplay, development, sustained excitement, surprise and affection, nay love followed by an explosion of ecstasy. Good radio drama is not all that different. If you don't use it, you lose it.

Dialogue

This is how we engage dramatically with the world. Characters inform, argue, amuse, outrage, argue through the ebb and flow of dialogue. When we do we talk and that is how great radio plays are made.....by talking in dramatic dialogue.

Atmosphere / Ambience

This sets the emotional spirit of the play. It determines whether your listeners believe in the world that you have created. Worlds are not created by dramatic dialogue alone. There is attitude and atmosphere. This is determined by detail and relevant detail. It could be in a sound effect. It could be in the writing. It could be in the music. It could be in everything. But the result is that the fifth dimension of radio writing - the imagination of the listener - is stimulated to become a picture palace of the mind.

Emotion

Got to be there. You have to generate an emotional response from the audience....preferably to the main character....also not so strongly in relation to the other characters. Emotion = love, hate, admiration. Never mind about the type of emotion.....concentrate on whether it is there or not. Emotional connection between the writing and the listener = good radio drama.

Balance Character and Plot

You have to have both. You cannot trade. One can predominate over the other. Where they are balanced equally....it can only work if characterisation relates to plot development. If your main plot is character intensive, make sure that your minor plot is plot intensive.

Purpose

Crook's golden rule is that every word, every line, every scene must serve a dramatic purpose in terms of characterisation and plot development. Drop anything that does not have a dramatic purpose.

Tension and Humour

To stop the listener dropping off or switching off, maintain the tension always and throw in the humour. Tension, humour, tension, humour, tension humour...like the foxtrot..Make the emotional rhythm of the play dance on the listener's heart and mind. Charm and alarm, charm and alarm. But they've got to be linked. Your character uses humour to react to the tension in the scene or play. Keep one character who uses humour to deal with difficult situations. Make sure the humour is verbal. Slapstick belongs to a different type of play or entertainment. Make sure you do not have characters taking it in turns to be funny. This is not stand up comedy or sitcom. Make sure that the character who uses humour has a consistent sense of humour.

Get your listener inside the world of your play. How?

a. Sympathy or empathy with the main character.
b. A bloody good set up.
c. A big, nasty antagonist or villain.
d. Great Plot...Great Story....twists and turns.
e. Crisis at the beginning is dramatic and a great start.
f. Emotional intensity. Hit some high points.
g. Escalating conflict so the structure climbs with tension and humour.
h. Strike the colours with detail so there's an atmosphere, mood...ambience.
I. Modulate charm with alarm...humour with tension...tension with humour...funny policeman nasty policeman.
j. Surprise, surprise...that's what you do to the listener, through the plot.

The principle of developing scenes

Introduction.
Character one...goal and objective.
Character two...goal and objective.
Purpose of scene in overall plot.
One of the characters achieves a goal.
Link to the next scene by introducing or pointing to location of next scene or presence of character in next scene.

Question marks in the mind of the listener. Always keep one, better two or three

The Principle of Character

Believable and recognisable.
Purpose within the plot.
Characters have to have function. Character has to be consistent with function.
Characters have to be intentional.
Start with a stereotype to ensure rapid recognition, then twist the stereotype. Challenge the homily that there is nothing new under the sun by making it new under the moon.
Give each character a dominant physical or behavioural characteristic. Make the dominant characteristic purposeful. Make it extreme.
Your main character must be active.
Active character / urgent plot. The character's energy has to fight the urgency of the plot and the urgency of the plot makes the character more energetic.

The principle of Hero / Heroine

Listeners look up to main characters, want to admire them because we all want heroes and heroines in our lives. Life's eternal fantasy that transcendent people and transcendent moments conquer adversity.
If you are very clever you can transfer the hero from the obvious to the humble and make great the inferior or character who has greater potential for human dignity.
Charisma. Characters need intensity and conviction. They may not be perfect but they are attractive. You cannot identify with people who are unlike ourselves...too perfect, no beliefs...take themselves too seriously...lack a sense of humour..
Give your characters private moments when they drop their guards and allow us into their minds and hearts. Make the listener privileged. Use this moment for revelation.
The main character has to change and has to be changed by the plot.
You must have a main character and secondary characters. Your main character changes. Your secondary characters are probably more singular in their characteristics. Your secondary characters are already committed. Your main character is still weighing up the options.
You must have characters who are extreme in relation to each other...characters that are different make drama.

Where are we now?

Well, we should be here....
a. The main character is in the middle of the story.
b. You've used dominant characteristics.
c. The listener likes the main character.
d. The listener cares what happens to the main character.
e. The listener hates the antagonist.
f. The main character is developing.

Principles of Dialogue

a. Dialogue must be a response to a situation, plot or action.
b. Dialogue must be a response to each character in the scene.
c. Dialogue must be comic relief.
d. Dialogue must connect to the next scene.
e. Avoid reflective, passive and neutral. Go for active, and direct and emotional.
f. Dialogue must be believable by being specific...by being specific to the character's background and emotional state.
g. If dialogue is reacting to action or situation then it must be dramatic and poised on polarities. The goals of the characters in each scene should be different.
h. Dialogue should be continuous. Tip...characters often take a tag by repeating the last word spoken by the first character.
i. Dialogue must relate to function.
j. You can mix direct with indirect between two characters because they have different goals.
k. Humorous dialogue is not a character telling a joke but a line or lines responding to the dramatic situation.
l. Heightened dialogue vs naturalistic dialogue. Heightened language is the language of the theatre...high octane communication...poetic, philosophical...charged..the expression of the playwright...It serves not only the development of the plot and character, but it also presents the view of the writer. Works well in radio. But there is now a tendency for more naturalism. Radio producers like to go out on location and explore realism. In these situations you must stick to natural dialogue.

Principles peculiar to Radio

The inner existence.
The tension and conflict between the interior and exterior.
More psychological.
Easier to explore the real and the surreal and to delineate the line between the two.
Have to work in the fifth dimension...the energy of the listener's imaginative participation.
The interior existence offers exploration of personal thoughts, fantasies, emotions and conflicts.
All levels of external conflict can be explored.
The precipitating event through plot has to threaten the inner life of the main character. This is the kick-off in radio drama.
The end or resolution in radio drama is more deeply rooted in the emotional equilibrium and insight of the main character. Changes are internal as well as external.
Time transposition and translocation are faster and more rapid and more complicated. Flashbacks...flashforwards... different ages.
Radio requires less rather than more characters. Characterisation needs to be strong and fascinating.
Maintain the focus of the main character and plot.
Economy of words underlines subtextual surprise and engagement with the listener's imagination.
Wit is vital because language is so important...cleverness with words...energy with words..humour with words...Wit is advanced by surprising the listener...being aggressive with the listener..being fast, short and clever with the listener.
Irony is pathos and bathos. It's conflict between the inner life and outer action.
On February 3, we invited you to speculate on how Lord Hutton, author of the controversial report on the inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly, might have interpreted episodes from history. Copies of the new Guardian book, The Hutton Inquiry and its Impact, were the prizes on offer. Below are the 10 winners, followed by a few that narrowly missed the cut. 

Hutton on the crucifixion of Jesus Christ:
"I am satisfied that the decision to crucify Jesus Christ was one that was made after an independent and rigorous trial by Pontius Pilate. I am further satisfied that Pilate's questioning of him was appropriate and that the Jewish and Roman authorities fully exercised their duty of care towards him. 
From the evidence I have heard, I conclude that Pilate acted impartially throughout, although I cannot entirely rule out the possibility that he was subconsciously influenced by thousands of people - led by the Jewish elders - shouting: "Crucify him, crucify him." 
The issues of whether the trial before the Jewish elders was fair, whether Jesus Christ is the son of God, and whether he deserved to die fall outside my remit, and I therefore wash my hands of them."
Peter Walsh 
Hutton on Adam and Eve:
The story of Original Hutton, into which all Blairites are born and upon which the New Labour religion is based. Previously based on the Anglican church, the government is currently based on the church of Can-Find-an-Angle. That has necessitated an inquiry into the Bible. The Genesis report, as revealed by the Sun from impartial sources: 
Serpent: unauthorised meeting with Eve - expelled from the Garden 
Eve: became wise (as promised) but misrepresented serpent's words - expelled from the Garden 
Adam: didn't check Eve's sources and notes - expelled from the Garden 
God: was untruthful saying that Adam and Eve would die from the fruit, but, as He was previously believed to be a reliable source, the allegation that He lied on purpose was unfounded (He previously claimed to be omniscient, but now blames faulty intelligence) - exonerated and will remain in the government (er, Garden) forever 
Fruit: not found, but search continues 
Gretchen Lippett 
Hutton on the 1987 hurricane:
"I conclude with confidence that the alleged "hurricane" in October 1987 never actually occurred. My reasons are as follows. Firstly, hurricanes are confined to the western Atlantic, from which the UK is far removed. Secondly, I researched the weather records for that month, concentrating on Scotland, since average winds speeds are highest there. No hurricane force winds were recorded there throughout that month. Thirdly, it was claimed that many trees in southern England had been uprooted, but, during a tour there last week I saw no fallen trees at all; indeed, many were young and healthily growing. Finally, on checking the weather broadcasts, I discovered the source of this misconception. A woman in France had told Mr Michael Fish that a hurricane was coming, but he categorically denied that during his forecast. Ironically, it appears that his public denial may actually have been the source of this entirely unfounded allegation. 
Dr Martin Thomas 
Hutton on the battle of the Somme: 
Quotations from Hutton's "Inquiry into the battle of the Somme" 
"I completely exonerate General Haig. He is the model of authority and honesty. Who could not be impressed by this man, his posture, moustache, shiny boots and the rows of ribbons pinned to his uniform? 
"Anyone reading the 'German Somme Defences' dossier - prepared for General Haig by his intelligence and PR officers - would have unquestionably accepted its two central conclusions: that the risk level of the attack was zero, and that boredom would be the army's most dangerous enemy. 
"Since General Haig's actions were wholly based upon the information in the dossier, he can in no way be responsible for the 58,000 casualties suffered on the 1st July or the additional 360,000 suffered up until November 1916. We all know how dangerous it is to stop a military process - just ask Count von Schlieffen." 
Robin Flowers 
Hutton on the death of Thomas a Becket:
"I find the allegation by the Broadsheet of the Borough of Canterbury and its reporter, Andrew of Gillingham, that four knights acting on the orders of King Henry murdered Archbishop Thomas Becket to be totally without foundation and tantamount to libel. 
"Archbishop Becket was a well known eccentric and I totally accept the evidence of the respected knights that he repeatedly ran at, and impaled himself upon, their swords when they entered the cathedral to make confession. 
"The suggestion that the knights had previously had any communication with King Henry is a gross calumny on the part of the BBC. 
"While the allegation that there had existed some dispute between the archbishop and the king is regarded by some as important, it is outside the remit of my inquiry and has no bearing on my investigation." 
The Lord Brian de Hutton 
John Wright 
Hutton on Guy Fawkes: 
"As for the lighted taper in his hand, I am persuaded that Mr Fawkes' explanation, that he was lighting his pipe, is to be accepted. The wisdom of his action is no doubt open to question. But it is undoubtedly the case that the large number of barrels stacked against the walls partially, if not wholly, obscured the NO SMOKING signs. Questions regarding the contents of these barrels are, of course, beyond the scope of this inquiry." 
J V P Whittle 
Hutton on the Hutton report:
1. My terms of reference were: 
"Urgently to conduct an investigation into the Inquiry by Lord Hutton" 
2. I consider the terms of reference required me to consider the circumstances preceding and leading up to the Inquiry of Lord Hutton, in particular (1) they might have an effect on his state of mind and influenced his actions preceding and leading up to his Report or (2) they might have influenced the actions of others affecting Lord Hutton preceding and leading up to his Report. 
3. The term "report" is an Establishment expression, the meaning of which lacks clarity when authorised by the PM. It is capable of two meanings. It could mean "an account or statement of a judicial opinion", or it could mean a "whitewash designed to please the Government", at odds with the evidence and reality. If the former, then indeed the Hutton Report could not be called a Report. However, in the context, I believe it was the latter definition that was required, and was delivered. 
Matthew Turner 
Hutton on the 1966 World Cup final 
Germany win 1966 World Cup final, despite England scoring more goals 
Even as Bobby Moore held aloft the cup in front of jubilant English supporters, Lord Hutton, an impartial spectator, declared Germany the winner. 
"Having sat through the whole proceedings, it is my considered opinion that three of the goals, all from the boot of Geoff Hurst, were unreliable. 
"In contrast, Germany's goals were more convincing. My verdict: England 1 Germany 2." 
Alf Ramsey, while disappointed with the verdict, immediately tendered his resignation, much to the dismay of the English fans. "Whitewash," said one, with a banner urging Alf to stay. "It's all a load of bollocks," said another. 
David Grundy 
Hutton on the birth of British printing and William Caxton:
Matt Buck 
Hutton on the death of King Harold:
28 January, 1067. 
His Royal Highness, in his terms of reference, commanded me to conduct "an urgent inquiry into the apparent suicide of Harold" who was found in a field in Hastings with an arrow through his eye. He had apparently led a mass suicide of his followers, 12,472 of whom also apparently suicided [sic] by falling on swords, arrows, clubs, spears, etc. 
This inquiry, "frankly", took place amid widespread allegations that Our Royal Highness, William, (known as "the Conkerer" for his boyhood devotion to that traditional English pursuit) staged an "illegal invasion" of England. These allegations are beyond my strict remit (but between you and me, HRH is a really top bloke). 
I find that Harold invited HRH to Hastings for a picnic, but chose to kill himself, along with his large catering staff, when the soufflés dropped. 
Case closed. 
Baron Hutton 
Colin McKerlie 
The best of the rest: 
Hutton on the death of Ann Boleyn: 
"I am satisfied that Ms Boleyn took her own life by severing her neck from her body. In the months leading up to her death, she was under considerable pressure, particularly following gross allegations of adultery and her consequent trial for treason. No blame can be attached to the King for the emergence of the allegations for, as he himself said in evidence, "once it became public that the spouse of the monarch was accused of an adulterous affair with her brother, it was only a matter of time before Ms Boleyn's identity was made manifest". The comment by the King's agent to London criers, characterising Ms Boleyn as "a goggle-eyed whore" (for which he subsequently apologised) was regrettable, but had no bearing on the tragedy. 
"I was particularly impressed by the evidence of the Doctor of Physick who cited the possession of six fingers as indicative of suicidal tendencies." 
Catherine Emerson 
Hutton on the Battle of Waterloo: 
Monsieur Hutton reports to Napoleon I on the causes of the inconveniences encountered in Waterloo. 
"It appears that Marshall Grouchy lost the address of his correspondent, the Duke of Wellington, so that the two could not meet to solve their differences and your majesty had to intervene on behalf of Marshall Grouchy. 
"The secret service, having not informed you of the presence of a certain Mr Blucher and of some Prussian acolytes of his, your highness was inconvenienced in his conversation with the Duke. Insulted by Mr Blucher's bad manners, your majesty rightly refused to have anything to do with such gross character and withdrew to Paris. 
"The Press inflated the affair and gave undue weight to what happened to the other 120,000 French soldiers in the field. Their behaviour during an ordinary weekend of vacation abroad was misinterpreted and reported with grave inexactitudes. 
"For example, it was reported that they had breakfast at 6am, while we were given ample evidence to prove that it did not take place before 6.15am. 
"I suggest therefore that, before any announcement of pretended defeats in battle, the Press should be required to exhibit in Paris all the corpses of the pretended dead soldiers as well as an official statement of Your Majesty's about the battle's outcome." 
Luca Einaudi 
Hutton on the charge of the Light Brigade:
From the Manchester Guardian, evening edition of December 1 1854 
Hutton censures poet laureate for 'Light Brigade'; commanders escape unscathed 
This morning, Lord Hutton rendered public the results of his inquiry into the events of the battle of Balaclava on October 25th. The peer was entrusted with this task after Alfred, Lord Tennyson, in his ode to the soldiers of the 13th light dragoons, insinuated incompetence on the part of its commanders Lords Raglan and Lucan with the words "someone had blundered". Hutton reports that Tennyson is entirely to blame for mistaken reporting and failing to check his sources. By contrast, the learned judge refused to believe that officers in Her Majesty's service could commit such a blunder. In particular, testimony that Lord Raglan had indeed given the vague, disastrous order to "charge those guns" was entirely disregarded. 
Thus Tennyson, as representative of the critical media of our free realm, emerges severely chastened, while Lords Raglan and Lucan have been utterly cleared of any incompetence or misconduct. 
This journalist unhesitatingly labels the report a whitewash.
Fabio del Piero 
Hutton on the sinking of the Belgrano:
Her Majesty's Government has accorded in me, Lord Denyng Mutton-Widgery-Pokery, on this Third day of December 1982, the duty to report on the circumstances of the sinking of the warship Belgrano. My report before the House consists of 79 pages, 31,289 words total, of which I now read you a summary: 
"Evidence offered by the Argentine government, the Houston Space Satellite and various drunken RAF and naval personnel that the Belgrano was outside territorial waters cannot be substantiated. Moreover, when the Captain of the Belgrano was requested to remove his warship, the reply ' ****** off ' was clearly heard. 
"On the Prime Minister's personal intervention, we now know that the Belgrano WAS sunk in territorial waters and that it was only freak winds which caused it to be found underwater 350 miles west of the Falklands. 
This matter is now closed. Now is the time to move on.
Russell Telfer 
Hutton on the sinking of the Titanic:
Summing up, Lord Hutton stressed that the crew of the ship were "emphatically not to blame" for the tragedy which cost many lives. Although His Lordship accepted that the crew may have been "subconsciously" aware of an infantile desire by their superiors to break records for the transatlantic crossing, claims that undue pressure was put on them to ignore warnings and proceed willy-nilly into the unknown were "without foundation". 
Animadverting briefly to the fact that the speed of the ship was, given the conditions, contrary to generally accepted and well established international maritime convention, His Lordship said that this "was beyond the terms of his remit" and that the blame for the tragedy lay fairly and squarely with the iceberg, which had clearly drifted south "without proper authorisation" very early in the morning.
Diarmuid Deeney 
Guardian Unlimited © Guardian Newspapers Limited 2005
[source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4857550-111624,00.html]
http://www.diyncrafts.com/10960/health/51-extraordinary-everyday-uses-for-hydrogen-peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is seen as an environmentally safe alternative to chlorine-based bleaches, as it degrades to form oxygen and water and it is generally recognized as safe as an antimicrobial agent by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
http://enjoyment.independent.co.uk/theatre/features/article483991.ece
//With Ibsen’s titanic struggles of man against woman and both against nature, modern theatre was born in all its glorious complexity. In his centenary year, only Shakespeare rivals Ibsen’s stature. Paul Binding celebrates his enduring appeal - Published: 14 May 2006//
‘You are Norwegian?” Peer Gynt is asked during his exile in North Africa. “Yes, by birth,” he answers, “but a world citizen by nature.” His creator too was Norwegian by birth - in Skien, southern Norway, on 20 March 1828. But for 27 years he lived away from his country, maintaining from Germany and Italy a deliberate distance while focusing in his writing on its people and drawing on its landscape, folklore, history and cultural debates. And also while receiving, from 1866 onwards, an annual grant from the Norwegian Parliament. In 1891, age brought him back, just as it had Peer Gynt himself, and an inner healing of wounds surely followed. “Any man who wishes to understand me fully must know Norway,” he declared. As for world-citizenship, this centenary year - Ibsen died on 23 May 1906 - sees abundant vindication of his own claim to this.
“Ibsen 2006” in Oslo has established a website which, in March alone, had 1.3 million hits. It reports 6,000 different Ibsen events round the world this year: mostly theatre productions, but also festivals, conferences, library exhibitions, art-shows. The anniversary month finds seminars in Bangladesh, performances of The Master Builder in Beijing and Colombo, an Ibsen Day at the British Library, and a ceremony at the Library of Congress, Washington. Ibsen 2006 officially closes in October, in Egypt, with a Peer Gynt concert, Grieg’s music played beside the Sphinx, who reminded Peer of legendary creatures from his own valley.
In any ordinary year, Ibsen, with about 150 new productions of plays world-wide, is outdone only by Shakespeare himself, with Peer Gynt and Hedda Gabler eclipsing all but the top Shakespearean handful. Ibsen studies thrive not just in western Europe, but in China, where he’s admired for his assault on male hegemony, and India, with an Ibsen tradition of its own, Indian writers having turned to him for inspiration after Independence.
Would Ibsen be surprised at the vitality and extent of his present reputation? No! His self-belief and unflagging dedication to his work were as remarkable as the plays they brought into being. Would his contemporaries be surprised? Again, no. He had, of course, more than his share of detractors, even haters, often on so-called moral grounds, vociferous among them members of the British press. “The most dreary and purposeless drivel we have ever heard in an English theatre,” said Evening News about The Master Builder; “unwholesome... simply blasphemous”, said Morning Post. But Ibsen’s challenging and feeling diagnoses of both society and the individual were hearkened to and absorbed. In 1890s Britain he won, through William Archer’s translations, creative response from Hardy, James, Gosse, Shaw, Galsworthy and the young Forster - and, in Ireland, the even younger James Joyce.
Ibsen’s consecration of himself to his creativity is shown in his strange relationship to his family. His father, an unsatisfactory, grandiloquent businessman, went bankrupt, causing his son deep resentment and shame; later he portrayed him as Jon Gynt and as Old Ekdal in The Wild Duck. Rumours, almost certainly mistaken, circulated about Henrik’s true paternity, doubts about parentage stalk his work, most harrowingly the last-mentioned play. His mother and siblings got caught up in evangelical revivalism to which Ibsen was intractably hostile. He attacked “all or nothing” faith in Brand. A 10-day-visit to Skien in 1850 was the last time he saw any of his kin, except for his sister Hedvig, and her daughter, and he saw them only late in life. For some years his father wondered if he were dead. Effectively, Ibsen had severed himself from home at 15, when he’d gone to work as an apothecary’s assistant in Grimstad, a little south-coast sea-port. Here, at 17, he made a servant-girl pregnant. He never saw this son afterwards, though for the next 15 years he contributed to his upkeep. But vanished or dead children haunt his oeuvre.
He went on to do notable work for theatres in both Bergen and Christiania (Oslo), and the historical plays he wrote as a young man still have a freshness in their animation of the distant past. But from the world-citizen point of view Ibsen’s oeuvre begins with two long verse-dramas which he feared were unactable, Brand (1866) and Peer Gynt (1867) - written when he was living abroad with his wife, Suzannah, and their only child, Sigurd. Brand asks the question: what religious faith can be inclusive enough for us to live by? Peer Gynt takes on the Norwegian national character and the average male’s alarming ability to make or destroy his life through fantasy. In both works, technical accomplishment and originality match adventurousness of theme, and with them Ibsen became the most distinguished Norwegian writer of his generation, Bjørnson apart.
Posterity has not remained faithful to Ibsen’s rumpus-causing topical comedy, The League of Youth (1869), so very popular throughout his life-time, and even less so to his gigantic “world-drama” about Julian the Apostate, Emperor and Galilean (1873). But in 1877 he produced Pillars of the Community, the first of 12 prose-plays with contemporary settings, and with it serious modern drama, quite simply, began. In recognisable rooms, meticulously described in the stage-directions, recognisable representative members of society, speaking colloquially (and never at any unreal theatrical length) relate to each other, or strive to do so. We have not entered the theatre to leave behind questions of money, property, work, ethics, personal obligations, emotional needs, sexual drives. Ibsen never embarked on a play without knowing every “chink and cranny” of his characters’ lives. As a result, his plays are crystallisations of an elaborate network of relationships and inter-dependencies in which his people, like all of us, have their being. The past continually presses against the present. A tycoon’s scapegoating of his best friend, an eminent father’s secret profligacy, a young woman’s possibly incestuous relationship with an older man - these refuse to lie hidden but obtrude in ugly, unexpected guises. Then the present will demand decisions pitting rational considerations against deeper inner forces.
Often the resolutions these conflicts enforce are terrifying: Nora walking out on husband and children (A Doll’s House, 1879), Mrs Alving about to carry out euthanasia on her only son whose mind has gone through syphilis (Ghosts, 1881). In Hedda Gabler (1890), only suicide can deliver the central character from the tightening of the mostly self-woven web. The social problems behind many of these predicaments were frequently, particularly in Britain, taken as Ibsen’s principal concern. In fact, Ibsen is interested in the whole person, hence Freud’s espousal of him. It is in this that his radicalism, of which he was proud, lies, not in any socio-political adherences (which were inconsistent). Yes, the truth demands to be pursued (An Enemy of the People, 1882) but we should respect illusions as a psychological necessity for some (the incomparably moving Wild Duck, 1884).
Ibsen’s radicalism appears above all in his treatment of women. Each female protagonist is a universe in herself, and often connects to elements of the external universe in ways logos-driven man finds hard to understand. This is the subject of The Lady from the Sea (1888) where Ellida’s kinship with the ocean only ceases to threaten familial peace when fully confronted. As his prose cycle moves forward, Ibsen’s insistence on the role of the natural world in human life and on its innate interior correspondences becomes all-pervasive. This aspect of his work should be singularly sympathetic to the 21st century.
Ibsen’s last four plays - The Master Builder (1892), Little Eyolf (1894), John Gabriel Borkman (1896), When We Dead Awaken (1899) - are works of intricate artistry and complexity of thought. Like Yeats’s later poems, another appropriate comparison, they are obsessed by the (apparent) waning of creativity in those who have hitherto believed will-power to be life’s key determinant. Yet, the plays persuade us, it is possible for us even when most agonised by our sense of loss to survey existence with a completeness of vision withheld from us earlier. Solness, the Master Builder, comes, fearfully, to realise the guilty foundations of his success, to see how his achievements rest on others’ sufferings, of which he’s been by no means unaware. But even in the midst of such painful comprehension he responds to the magic aura of the young woman, Hilde, and refuses to spurn his own most audacious building. In When We Dead Awaken, the world-famous sculptor Arnold Rubek acknowledges his failure to attain that level of insight he’d earlier approached. And he knows that this failure is intimately bound up with his betrayal of his first, and loving, model, Irene. Solness, after mounting the high tower of his new villa with a confidence he’s lacked for a whole decade, falls to his death; Rubek and Irene, together again, ascend their mountain only to be killed by a hurtling avalanche. Yet, strangely, these appalling endings not only move us, they exhilarate and even comfort us. This is what human-kind can rise to - truly a case of Yeats’s “gaiety transfiguring all that dread”.
In March 1900, Ibsen suffered the first of the strokes that incapacitated him for further literary work. He had anyway already designated When We Dead Awaken a “dramatic epilogue” - to the last four plays, to his prose-dramas from A Doll’s House on, perhaps to his entire oeuvre. Certainly he insisted that each play of his should be considered alongside its predecessors and successors. Frode Helland of the Ibsen Centre, Oslo, himself the author of a fine recent study of the last plays, notices a certain movement today away from these vanguard modernist classics, back to Brand and the perennially popular Peer Gynt as well as to such central achievements as A Doll’s House. This is understandable, just as one can see why, after intensive post-structuralist scrutiny, Ibsen should now be receiving attention again for the cultural and political dimensions of his work. Myself, I continue to regard the final quartet of plays as the very summation of his unique art and one of literature’s greatest glories. But I feel constant gratitude for so generous-sized a corpus that transcends time in its appeal to intellect, conscience and heart.
Paul Binding’s ‘With Vine-leaves in His Hair: Ibsen and the Artist’ comes out from Norvik Press later this year
‘You are Norwegian?” Peer Gynt is asked during his exile in North Africa. “Yes, by birth,” he answers, “but a world citizen by nature.” His creator too was Norwegian by birth - in Skien, southern Norway, on 20 March 1828. But for 27 years he lived away from his country, maintaining from Germany and Italy a deliberate distance while focusing in his writing on its people and drawing on its landscape, folklore, history and cultural debates. And also while receiving, from 1866 onwards, an annual grant from the Norwegian Parliament. In 1891, age brought him back, just as it had Peer Gynt himself, and an inner healing of wounds surely followed. “Any man who wishes to understand me fully must know Norway,” he declared. As for world-citizenship, this centenary year - Ibsen died on 23 May 1906 - sees abundant vindication of his own claim to this.
“Ibsen 2006” in Oslo has established a website which, in March alone, had 1.3 million hits. It reports 6,000 different Ibsen events round the world this year: mostly theatre productions, but also festivals, conferences, library exhibitions, art-shows. The anniversary month finds seminars in Bangladesh, performances of The Master Builder in Beijing and Colombo, an Ibsen Day at the British Library, and a ceremony at the Library of Congress, Washington. Ibsen 2006 officially closes in October, in Egypt, with a Peer Gynt concert, Grieg’s music played beside the Sphinx, who reminded Peer of legendary creatures from his own valley.
In any ordinary year, Ibsen, with about 150 new productions of plays world-wide, is outdone only by Shakespeare himself, with Peer Gynt and Hedda Gabler eclipsing all but the top Shakespearean handful. Ibsen studies thrive not just in western Europe, but in China, where he’s admired for his assault on male hegemony, and India, with an Ibsen tradition of its own, Indian writers having turned to him for inspiration after Independence.
Would Ibsen be surprised at the vitality and extent of his present reputation? No! His self-belief and unflagging dedication to his work were as remarkable as the plays they brought into being. Would his contemporaries be surprised? Again, no. He had, of course, more than his share of detractors, even haters, often on so-called moral grounds, vociferous among them members of the British press. “The most dreary and purposeless drivel we have ever heard in an English theatre,” said Evening News about The Master Builder; “unwholesome... simply blasphemous”, said Morning Post. But Ibsen’s challenging and feeling diagnoses of both society and the individual were hearkened to and absorbed. In 1890s Britain he won, through William Archer’s translations, creative response from Hardy, James, Gosse, Shaw, Galsworthy and the young Forster - and, in Ireland, the even younger James Joyce.
Ibsen’s consecration of himself to his creativity is shown in his strange relationship to his family. His father, an unsatisfactory, grandiloquent businessman, went bankrupt, causing his son deep resentment and shame; later he portrayed him as Jon Gynt and as Old Ekdal in The Wild Duck. Rumours, almost certainly mistaken, circulated about Henrik’s true paternity, doubts about parentage stalk his work, most harrowingly the last-mentioned play. His mother and siblings got caught up in evangelical revivalism to which Ibsen was intractably hostile. He attacked “all or nothing” faith in Brand. A 10-day-visit to Skien in 1850 was the last time he saw any of his kin, except for his sister Hedvig, and her daughter, and he saw them only late in life. For some years his father wondered if he were dead. Effectively, Ibsen had severed himself from home at 15, when he’d gone to work as an apothecary’s assistant in Grimstad, a little south-coast sea-port. Here, at 17, he made a servant-girl pregnant. He never saw this son afterwards, though for the next 15 years he contributed to his upkeep. But vanished or dead children haunt his oeuvre.
He went on to do notable work for theatres in both Bergen and Christiania (Oslo), and the historical plays he wrote as a young man still have a freshness in their animation of the distant past. But from the world-citizen point of view Ibsen’s oeuvre begins with two long verse-dramas which he feared were unactable, Brand (1866) and Peer Gynt (1867) - written when he was living abroad with his wife, Suzannah, and their only child, Sigurd. Brand asks the question: what religious faith can be inclusive enough for us to live by? Peer Gynt takes on the Norwegian national character and the average male’s alarming ability to make or destroy his life through fantasy. In both works, technical accomplishment and originality match adventurousness of theme, and with them Ibsen became the most distinguished Norwegian writer of his generation, Bjørnson apart.
Posterity has not remained faithful to Ibsen’s rumpus-causing topical comedy, The League of Youth (1869), so very popular throughout his life-time, and even less so to his gigantic “world-drama” about Julian the Apostate, Emperor and Galilean (1873). But in 1877 he produced Pillars of the Community, the first of 12 prose-plays with contemporary settings, and with it serious modern drama, quite simply, began. In recognisable rooms, meticulously described in the stage-directions, recognisable representative members of society, speaking colloquially (and never at any unreal theatrical length) relate to each other, or strive to do so. We have not entered the theatre to leave behind questions of money, property, work, ethics, personal obligations, emotional needs, sexual drives. Ibsen never embarked on a play without knowing every “chink and cranny” of his characters’ lives. As a result, his plays are crystallisations of an elaborate network of relationships and inter-dependencies in which his people, like all of us, have their being. The past continually presses against the present. A tycoon’s scapegoating of his best friend, an eminent father’s secret profligacy, a young woman’s possibly incestuous relationship with an older man - these refuse to lie hidden but obtrude in ugly, unexpected guises. Then the present will demand decisions pitting rational considerations against deeper inner forces.Often the resolutions these conflicts enforce are terrifying: Nora walking out on husband and children (A Doll’s House, 1879), Mrs Alving about to carry out euthanasia on her only son whose mind has gone through syphilis (Ghosts, 1881). In Hedda Gabler (1890), only suicide can deliver the central character from the tightening of the mostly self-woven web. The social problems behind many of these predicaments were frequently, particularly in Britain, taken as Ibsen’s principal concern. In fact, Ibsen is interested in the whole person, hence Freud’s espousal of him. It is in this that his radicalism, of which he was proud, lies, not in any socio-political adherences (which were inconsistent). Yes, the truth demands to be pursued (An Enemy of the People, 1882) but we should respect illusions as a psychological necessity for some (the incomparably moving Wild Duck, 1884).
Ibsen’s radicalism appears above all in his treatment of women. Each female protagonist is a universe in herself, and often connects to elements of the external universe in ways logos-driven man finds hard to understand. This is the subject of The Lady from the Sea (1888) where Ellida’s kinship with the ocean only ceases to threaten familial peace when fully confronted. As his prose cycle moves forward, Ibsen’s insistence on the role of the natural world in human life and on its innate interior correspondences becomes all-pervasive. This aspect of his work should be singularly sympathetic to the 21st century.
Ibsen’s last four plays - The Master Builder (1892), Little Eyolf (1894), John Gabriel Borkman (1896), When We Dead Awaken (1899) - are works of intricate artistry and complexity of thought. Like Yeats’s later poems, another appropriate comparison, they are obsessed by the (apparent) waning of creativity in those who have hitherto believed will-power to be life’s key determinant. Yet, the plays persuade us, it is possible for us even when most agonised by our sense of loss to survey existence with a completeness of vision withheld from us earlier. Solness, the Master Builder, comes, fearfully, to realise the guilty foundations of his success, to see how his achievements rest on others’ sufferings, of which he’s been by no means unaware. But even in the midst of such painful comprehension he responds to the magic aura of the young woman, Hilde, and refuses to spurn his own most audacious building. In When We Dead Awaken, the world-famous sculptor Arnold Rubek acknowledges his failure to attain that level of insight he’d earlier approached. And he knows that this failure is intimately bound up with his betrayal of his first, and loving, model, Irene. Solness, after mounting the high tower of his new villa with a confidence he’s lacked for a whole decade, falls to his death; Rubek and Irene, together again, ascend their mountain only to be killed by a hurtling avalanche. Yet, strangely, these appalling endings not only move us, they exhilarate and even comfort us. This is what human-kind can rise to - truly a case of Yeats’s “gaiety transfiguring all that dread”.
In March 1900, Ibsen suffered the first of the strokes that incapacitated him for further literary work. He had anyway already designated When We Dead Awaken a “dramatic epilogue” - to the last four plays, to his prose-dramas from A Doll’s House on, perhaps to his entire oeuvre. Certainly he insisted that each play of his should be considered alongside its predecessors and successors. Frode Helland of the Ibsen Centre, Oslo, himself the author of a fine recent study of the last plays, notices a certain movement today away from these vanguard modernist classics, back to Brand and the perennially popular Peer Gynt as well as to such central achievements as A Doll’s House. This is understandable, just as one can see why, after intensive post-structuralist scrutiny, Ibsen should now be receiving attention again for the cultural and political dimensions of his work. Myself, I continue to regard the final quartet of plays as the very summation of his unique art and one of literature’s greatest glories. But I feel constant gratitude for so generous-sized a corpus that transcends time in its appeal to intellect, conscience and heart.
Paul Binding’s ‘With Vine-leaves in His Hair: Ibsen and the Artist’ comes out from Norvik Press later this year
http://www.runnersworld.com/tag/itbs-iliotibial-band-syndrome
Swelling is not  symptom!
<<importTiddlers inline>>
/***
|Name|ImportTiddlersPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ImportTiddlersPlugin|
|Version|3.5.1|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|config.macros.importTiddlers.handler|
|Description|interactive controls for import/export with filtering.|

When many people share and edit copies of the same TiddlyWiki document, the ability to quickly collect all these changes back into a single, updated document that can then be redistributed to the entire group is very important. It can also be very extremely helpful when moving your own tiddlers from document to document (e.g., when upgrading to the latest version of TiddlyWiki, or 'pre-loading' your favorite stylesheets into a new 'empty' TiddlyWiki document.)

This plugin lets you selectively combine tiddlers from any two TiddlyWiki documents. An interactive control panel lets you pick a document to import from, and then select which tiddlers to import, with prompting for skip, rename, merge or replace actions when importing tiddlers that match existing titles. Automatically add tags to imported tiddlers so they are easy to find later on. Generates a detailed report of import 'history' in ImportedTiddlers.

''Note: As of 3/21/2007, the interactive {{{<<importTiddlers>>}}} and non-interactive {{{<<loadTiddlers>>}}} macro definitions and related code have been split into separate [[ImportTiddlersPlugin]] and [[LoadTiddlersPlugin]] to permit selective installation of either the interactive and/or non-interactive macro functions''

!!!!!Usage
<<<
{{{<<importTiddlers>>}}} or {{{<<importTiddlers core>>}}}
invokes the built-in importTiddlers macro (TW2.1.x+). If installed in documents using TW2.0.x or earlier, fallback is to use 'link' display (see below)

{{{<<importTiddlers link>>}}}
creates "import tiddlers" link that when clicked to show/hide import control panel

{{{<<importTiddlers inline>>}}}
creates import control panel directly in tiddler content

<<importTiddlers inline>>

Press ''[browse]'' to select a TiddlyWiki document file to import, and then press ''[open]''. Alternatively, you can type in the path/filename or a remote document URL (starting with http://). When you have entered the desired source location, press ''[load]'' to retrieve the tiddlers from the remote source. //Note: There may be some delay to permit the browser time to access and load the document before updating the listbox with the titles of all tiddlers that are available to be imported.//

Select one or more titles from the listbox (hold CTRL or SHIFT while clicking to add/remove the highlight from individual list items). You can press ''[select all]'' to quickly highlight all tiddler titles in the list. Use the ''[-]'', ''[+]'', or ''[=]'' links to adjust the listbox size so you can view more (or less) tiddler titles at one time. When you have chosen the tiddlers you want to import and entered any extra tags, press ''[import]'' to begin copying them to the current TiddlyWiki document.

''select: all, new, changes, or differences''

You can click on ''all'', ''new'', ''changes'', or ''differences'' to automatically select a subset of tiddlers from the list. This makes it very quick and easy to find and import just the updated tiddlers you are interested in:
>''"all"'' selects ALL tiddlers from the import source document, even if they have not been changed.
>''"new"'' selects only tiddlers that are found in the import source document, but do not yet exist in the destination document
>''"changes"'' selects only tiddlers that exist in both documents but that are newer in the source document
>''"differences"'' selects all new and existing tiddlers that are different from the destination document (even if destination tiddler is newer)

''Import Tagging:''

Tiddlers that have been imported can be automatically tagged, so they will be easier to find later on, after they have been added to your document. New tags are entered into the "add tags" input field, and then //added// to the existing tags for each tiddler as it is imported.

''Skip, Rename, Merge, or Replace:''

When importing a tiddler whose title is identical to one that already exists, the import process pauses and the tiddler title is displayed in an input field, along with four push buttons: ''[skip]'', ''[rename]'', ''[merge]'' and ''[replace]''.

To bypass importing this tiddler, press ''[skip]''. To import the tiddler with a different name (so that both the tiddlers will exist when the import is done), enter a new title in the input field and then press ''[rename]''. Press ''[merge]'' to combine the content from both tiddlers into a single tiddler. Press ''[replace]'' to overwrite the existing tiddler with the imported one, discarding the previous tiddler content.

//Note: if both the title ''and'' modification date/////time match, the imported tiddler is assumed to be identical to the existing one, and will be automatically skipped (i.e., not imported) without asking.//

''Import Report History''

When tiddlers are imported, a report is generated into ImportedTiddlers, indicating when the latest import was performed, the number of tiddlers successfully imported, from what location, and by whom. It also includes a list with the title, date and author of each tiddler that was imported.

When the import process is completed, the ImportedTiddlers report is automatically displayed for your review. If more tiddlers are subsequently imported, a new report is //added// to ImportedTiddlers, above the previous report (i.e., at the top of the tiddler), so that a reverse-chronological history of imports is maintained.

If a cumulative record is not desired, the ImportedTiddlers report may be deleted at any time. A new ImportedTiddlers report will be created the next time tiddlers are imported.

Note: You can prevent the ImportedTiddlers report from being generated for any given import activity by clearing the "create a report" checkbox before beginning the import processing.

<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
copy/paste the following tiddlers into your document:
''ImportTiddlersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)

create/edit ''SideBarOptions'': (sidebar menu items) 
^^Add {{{<<importTiddlers>>}}} macro^^

''Quick Installation Tip #1:''
If you are using an unmodified version of TiddlyWiki (core release version <<version>>), you can get a new, empty TiddlyWiki with the Import Tiddlers plugin pre-installed (''[[download from here|TW+ImportExport.html]]''), and then simply import all your content from your old document into this new, empty document.
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.04.19 [3.5.1]'' in readTiddlersFromHTML(), for TW2.2 and above, use importTiddlyWiki() (new core functionality) to get tiddlers from remote file content. Also, copied updated TW21Loader.prototype.internalizeTiddler() definition from TW2.2b5 so plugin can read tiddlers from TW2.2+ even when running under TW2.1.x
''2007.03.22 [3.5.0]'' in refreshImportList(), add handling for 'select section' when a heading is selected. Makes it really easy to import by tag or date!
''2007.03.21 [3.4.0]'' split loadTiddlers functionality into separate plugin (see LoadTiddlersPlugin)
''2007.03.20 [3.3.1]'' tweak to previous change to allow relative file references via http: (bypasses getLocalPath() so remote URL will be used)
''2007.03.20 [3.3.0]'' added support for local, relative file references: in loadRemoteFile(), check for fileExists(). If not found, prepend relative path location and try again. Allows use of simple "foo.html" file references with importTiddlers and/or loadTiddlers macros
''2007.02.24 [3.2.1]'' re-labeled control panel "open" button to "load" to avoid confusion with "open" button in system-provided Browse... dialog. (i.e., "browse, open, open" becomes "browse, open, load")
''2007.02.09 [3.2.0]'' loadTiddlers: added support for "noReload" tag (prevents overwriting existing tiddler, even if inbound tiddler is newer)
''2007.02.08 [3.1.3]'' loadTiddlers: added missing code and documentation for "newTags" handling (a feature change from long, long ago that somehow got lost!)
|please see [[ImportTiddlersPluginHistory]] for additional revision details|
''2005.07.20 [1.0.0]'' Initial Release
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
// // ''MACRO DEFINITION''
//{{{
// Version
version.extensions.importTiddlers = {major: 3, minor: 5, revision: 1, date: new Date(2007,4,19)};

// IE needs explicit global scoping for functions/vars called from browser events
window.onClickImportButton=onClickImportButton;
window.refreshImportList=refreshImportList;

// default cookie/option values
if (!config.options.chkImportReport) config.options.chkImportReport=true;

// fixups for TW2.0.x and earlier
if (window.merge==undefined) window.merge=function(dst,src,preserveExisting)
 { for (p in src) if (!preserveExisting||dst[p]===undefined) dst[p]=src[p]; return dst; }
if (config.macros.importTiddlers==undefined) config.macros.importTiddlers={ };

merge(config.macros.importTiddlers,{
 label: "import tiddlers",
 prompt: "Copy tiddlers from another document",
 openMsg: "Opening %0",
 openErrMsg: "Could not open %0 - error=%1",
 readMsg: "Read %0 bytes from %1",
 foundMsg: "Found %0 tiddlers in %1",
 countMsg: "%0 tiddlers selected for import",
 importedMsg: "Imported %0 of %1 tiddlers from %2",
 src: "", // path/filename or URL of document to import (retrieved from SiteUrl tiddler)
 proxy: "", // URL for remote proxy script (retrieved from SiteProxy tiddler)
 useProxy: false, // use specific proxy script in front of remote URL
 inbound: null, // hash-indexed array of tiddlers from other document
 newTags: "", // text of tags added to imported tiddlers
 addTags: true, // add new tags to imported tiddlers
 listsize: 8, // # of lines to show in imported tiddler list
 importTags: true, // include tags from remote source document when importing a tiddler
 keepTags: true, // retain existing tags when replacing a tiddler
 index: 0, // current processing index in import list
 sort: "" // sort order for imported tiddler listbox
});

if (config.macros.importTiddlers.coreHandler==undefined)
 config.macros.importTiddlers.coreHandler=config.macros.importTiddlers.handler; // save built-in handler

config.macros.importTiddlers.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
 if (!params[0] || params[0].toLowerCase()=='core') { // default to built in
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.coreHandler)
 config.macros.importTiddlers.coreHandler.apply(this,arguments);
 else 
 createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickImportMenu);
 }
 else if (params[0]=='link') // show link to floating panel
 createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickImportMenu);
 else if (params[0]=='inline') {// show panel as INLINE tiddler content
 createImportPanel(place);
 document.getElementById("importPanel").style.position="static";
 document.getElementById("importPanel").style.display="block";
 }
 else if (config.macros.loadTiddlers)
 config.macros.loadTiddlers.handler(place,macroName,params); // any other params: loadtiddlers
}
//}}}

// // ''INTERFACE DEFINITION''
// // Handle link click to create/show/hide control panel
//{{{
function onClickImportMenu(e)
{
 if (!e) var e = window.event;
 var parent=resolveTarget(e).parentNode;
 var panel = document.getElementById("importPanel");
 if (panel==undefined || panel.parentNode!=parent)
 panel=createImportPanel(parent);
 var isOpen = panel.style.display=="block";
 if(config.options.chkAnimate)
 anim.stopAnimating(new Slider(panel,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));
 else
 panel.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block" ;
 e.cancelBubble = true;
 if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
 return(false);
}
//}}}

// // Create control panel: HTML, CSS
//{{{
function createImportPanel(place) {
 var panel=document.getElementById("importPanel");
 if (panel) { panel.parentNode.removeChild(panel); }
 setStylesheet(config.macros.importTiddlers.css,"importTiddlers");
 panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"span","importPanel",null,null)
 panel.innerHTML=config.macros.importTiddlers.html;
 refreshImportList();
 var siteURL=store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl"); if (!siteURL) siteURL="";
 document.getElementById("importSourceURL").value=siteURL;
 config.macros.importTiddlers.src=siteURL;
 var siteProxy=store.getTiddlerText("SiteProxy"); if (!siteProxy) siteProxy="SiteProxy";
 document.getElementById("importSiteProxy").value=siteProxy;
 config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=siteProxy;
 return panel;
}
//}}}

// // CSS
//{{{
config.macros.importTiddlers.css = '\
#importPanel {\
 display: none; position:absolute; z-index:11; width:35em; right:105%; top:3em;\
 background-color: #eee; color:#000; font-size: 8pt; line-height:110%;\
 border:1px solid black; border-bottom-width: 3px; border-right-width: 3px;\
 padding: 0.5em; margin:0em; -moz-border-radius:1em;\
}\
#importPanel a, #importPanel td a { color:#009; display:inline; margin:0px; padding:1px; }\
#importPanel table { width:100%; border:0px; padding:0px; margin:0px; font-size:8pt; line-height:110%; background:transparent; }\
#importPanel tr { border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#importPanel td { color:#000; border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\
#importPanel select { width:98%;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%;}\
#importPanel input { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%}\
#importPanel .box { border:1px solid black; padding:3px; margin-bottom:5px; background:#f8f8f8; -moz-border-radius:5px;}\
#importPanel .topline { border-top:2px solid black; padding-top:3px; margin-bottom:5px; }\
#importPanel .rad { width:auto; }\
#importPanel .chk { width:auto; margin:1px;border:0; }\
#importPanel .btn { width:auto; }\
#importPanel .btn1 { width:98%; }\
#importPanel .btn2 { width:48%; }\
#importPanel .btn3 { width:32%; }\
#importPanel .btn4 { width:24%; }\
#importPanel .btn5 { width:19%; }\
#importPanel .importButton { padding: 0em; margin: 0px; font-size:8pt; }\
#importPanel .importListButton { padding:0em 0.25em 0em 0.25em; color: #000000; display:inline }\
#importCollisionPanel { display:none; margin:0.5em 0em 0em 0em; }\
';
//}}}

// // HTML 
//{{{
config.macros.importTiddlers.html = '\
<!-- source and report -->\
<table><tr><td align=left>\
 import from\
 <input type="radio" class="rad" name="importFrom" value="file" CHECKED\
 onClick="document.getElementById(\'importLocalPanel\').style.display=this.checked?\'block\':\'none\';\
 document.getElementById(\'importHTTPPanel\').style.display=!this.checked?\'block\':\'none\'"> local file\
 <input type="radio" class="rad" name="importFrom" value="http"\
 onClick="document.getElementById(\'importLocalPanel\').style.display=!this.checked?\'block\':\'none\';\
 document.getElementById(\'importHTTPPanel\').style.display=this.checked?\'block\':\'none\'"> web server\
</td><td align=right>\
 <input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkImportReport" checked\
 onClick="config.options[\'chkImportReport\']=this.checked;"> create a report\
</td></tr></table>\
<!-- import from local file -->\
<div id="importLocalPanel" style="display:block;margin-bottom:5px;margin-top:5px;padding-top:3px;border-top:1px solid #999">\
local document path/filename:<br>\
<input type="file" id="fileImportSource" size=57 style="width:100%"\
 onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value"\
 onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value;">\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<!-- import from http server -->\
<div id="importHTTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-bottom:5px;margin-top:5px;padding-top:3px;border-top:1px solid #999">\
<table><tr><td align=left>\
 remote document URL:<br>\
</td><td align=right>\
 <input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="importUseProxy"\
 onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.useProxy=this.checked;\
 document.getElementById(\'importSiteProxy\').style.display=this.checked?\'block\':\'none\'"> use a proxy script\
</td></tr></table>\
<input type="text" id="importSiteProxy" style="display:none;margin-bottom:1px" onfocus="this.select()" value="SiteProxy"\
 onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=this.value"\
 onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=this.value;">\
<input type="text" id="importSourceURL" onfocus="this.select()" value="SiteUrl"\
 onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value"\
 onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value;">\
</div><!--panel-->\
\
<table><tr><td align=left>\
 select:\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectAll"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select all tiddlers">\
 &nbsp;all&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectNew"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers not already in destination document">\
 &nbsp;added&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectChanges"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers that have been updated in source document">\
 &nbsp;changes&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectDifferences"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers that have been added or are different from existing tiddlers">\
 &nbsp;differences&nbsp;</a> \
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importToggleFilter"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="show/hide selection filter">\
 &nbsp;filter&nbsp;</a> \
</td><td align=right>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListSmaller"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="reduce list size">\
 &nbsp;&#150;&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListLarger"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="increase list size">\
 &nbsp;+&nbsp;</a>\
 <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListMaximize"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="maximize/restore list size">\
 &nbsp;=&nbsp;</a>\
</td></tr></table>\
<select id="importList" size=8 multiple\
 onchange="setTimeout(\'refreshImportList(\'+this.selectedIndex+\')\',1)">\
 <!-- NOTE: delay refresh so list is updated AFTER onchange event is handled -->\
</select>\
<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkAddTags" checked\
 onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags=this.checked;">add new tags &nbsp;\
<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkImportTags" checked\
 onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.importTags=this.checked;">import source tags &nbsp;\
<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkKeepTags" checked\
 onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.keepTags=this.checked;">keep existing tags<br>\
<input type=text id="txtNewTags" size=15 onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags=this.value" autocomplete=off>\
<div align=center>\
 <input type=button id="importLoad" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="load"\
 title="load listbox with tiddlers from source document"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 <input type=button id="importStart" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="import"\
 title="add selected source tiddlers to the current document"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 <input type=button id="importClose" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="close"\
 title="clear listbox or close control panel"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
</div>\
<div id="importCollisionPanel">\
 tiddler already exists:\
 <input type=text id="importNewTitle" size=15 autocomplete=off">\
 <div align=center>\
 <input type=button id="importSkip" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="skip"\
 title="do not import this tiddler"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 <input type=button id="importRename" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="rename"\
 title="rename the incoming tiddler"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 <input type=button id="importMerge" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="merge"\
 title="append the incoming tiddler to the existing tiddler"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 <input type=button id="importReplace" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="replace"\
 title="discard the existing tiddler"\
 onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\
 </div>\
</div>\
';
//}}}

// // Control interactions
//{{{
function onClickImportButton(which)
{
 // DEBUG alert(which.id);
 var theList = document.getElementById('importList');
 if (!theList) return;
 var thePanel = document.getElementById('importPanel');
 var theCollisionPanel = document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel');
 var theNewTitle = document.getElementById('importNewTitle');
 var count=0;
 switch (which.id)
 {
 case 'fileImportSource':
 case 'importLoad': // load import source into hidden frame
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=null; // clear the imported tiddler buffer
 refreshImportList(); // reset/resize the listbox
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.src=="") break;
 // Load document into hidden iframe so we can read it's DOM and fill the list
 config.macros.importTiddlers.loadRemoteFile(config.macros.importTiddlers.src, function(src,txt) {
 var tiddlers = readTiddlersFromHTML(txt);
 var count=tiddlers?tiddlers.length:0;
 displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.foundMsg.format([count,src]));
 config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=tiddlers;
 window.refreshImportList(0);
 });
 break;
 case 'importSelectAll': // select all tiddler list items (i.e., not headings)
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count++;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));
 break;
 case 'importSelectNew': // select tiddlers not in current document
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 theList.options[t].selected=!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value);
 count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));
 break;
 case 'importSelectChanges': // select tiddlers that are updated from existing tiddlers
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 if (theList.options[t].value==""||!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value)) continue;
 for (var i=0; i<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; i++) // find matching inbound tiddler
 { var inbound=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[i]; if (inbound.title==theList.options[t].value) break; }
 theList.options[t].selected=(inbound.modified-store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value).modified>0); // updated tiddler
 count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));
 break;
 case 'importSelectDifferences': // select tiddlers that are new or different from existing tiddlers
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;
 if (!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value)) { theList.options[t].selected=true; count++; continue; }
 for (var i=0; i<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; i++) // find matching inbound tiddler
 { var inbound=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[i]; if (inbound.title==theList.options[t].value) break; }
 theList.options[t].selected=(inbound.modified-store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value).modified!=0); // changed tiddler
 count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));
 break;
 case 'importToggleFilter': // show/hide filter
 case 'importFilter': // apply filter
 alert("coming soon!");
 break;
 case 'importStart': // initiate the import processing
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=0;
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(0);
 importStopped();
 break;
 case 'importClose': // unload imported tiddlers or hide the import control panel
 // if imported tiddlers not loaded, close the import control panel
 if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) { thePanel.style.display='none'; break; }
 importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report
 config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=null; // clear the imported tiddler buffer
 refreshImportList(); // reset/resize the listbox
 break;
 case 'importSkip': // don't import the tiddler
 var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];
 for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;
 var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];
 theImported.status='skipped after asking'; // mark item as skipped
 theCollisionPanel.style.display='none';
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index+1); // resume with NEXT item
 importStopped();
 break;
 case 'importRename': // change name of imported tiddler
 var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];
 for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;
 var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];
 theImported.status = 'renamed from '+theImported.title; // mark item as renamed
 theImported.set(theNewTitle.value,null,null,null,null); // change the tiddler title
 theItem.value = theNewTitle.value; // change the listbox item text
 theItem.text = theNewTitle.value; // change the listbox item text
 theCollisionPanel.style.display='none';
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with THIS item
 importStopped();
 break;
 case 'importMerge': // join existing and imported tiddler content
 var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];
 for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;
 var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];
 var theExisting = store.getTiddler(theItem.value);
 var theText = theExisting.text+'\n----\n^^merged from: ';
 theText +='[['+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+'#'+theItem.value+'|'+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+'#'+theItem.value+']]^^\n';
 theText +='^^'+theImported.modified.toLocaleString()+' by '+theImported.modifier+'^^\n'+theImported.text;
 var theDate = new Date();
 var theTags = theExisting.getTags()+' '+theImported.getTags();
 theImported.set(null,theText,null,theDate,theTags);
 theImported.status = 'merged with '+theExisting.title; // mark item as merged
 theImported.status += ' - '+theExisting.modified.formatString("MM/DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss");
 theImported.status += ' by '+theExisting.modifier;
 theCollisionPanel.style.display='none';
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with this item
 importStopped();
 break;
 case 'importReplace': // substitute imported tiddler for existing tiddler
 var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];
 for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;
 var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];
 var theExisting = store.getTiddler(theItem.value);
 theImported.status = 'replaces '+theExisting.title; // mark item for replace
 theImported.status += ' - '+theExisting.modified.formatString("MM/DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss");
 theImported.status += ' by '+theExisting.modifier;
 theCollisionPanel.style.display='none';
 config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with THIS item
 importStopped();
 break;
 case 'importListSmaller': // decrease current listbox size, minimum=5
 if (theList.options.length==1) break;
 theList.size-=(theList.size>5)?1:0;
 config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize=theList.size;
 break;
 case 'importListLarger': // increase current listbox size, maximum=number of items in list
 if (theList.options.length==1) break;
 theList.size+=(theList.size<theList.options.length)?1:0;
 config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize=theList.size;
 break;
 case 'importListMaximize': // toggle listbox size between current and maximum
 if (theList.options.length==1) break;
 theList.size=(theList.size==theList.options.length)?config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize:theList.options.length;
 break;
 }
}
//}}}

// // refresh listbox
//{{{
function refreshImportList(selectedIndex)
{
 var theList = document.getElementById("importList");
 if (!theList) return;
 // if nothing to show, reset list content and size
 if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) 
 {
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
 theList.options[0]=new Option('please open a document...',"",false,false);
 theList.size=config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize;
 return;
 }
 // get the sort order
 if (!selectedIndex) selectedIndex=0;
 if (selectedIndex==0) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='title'; // heading
 if (selectedIndex==1) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='title';
 if (selectedIndex==2) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='modified';
 if (selectedIndex==3) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='tags';
 if (selectedIndex>3) {
 // display selected tiddler count
 for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
 if (!theList.options[t].selected) continue;
 if (theList.options[t].value!="")
 count+=1;
 else { // if heading is selected, deselect it, and then select and count all in section
 theList.options[t].selected=false;
 for ( t++; t<theList.options.length && theList.options[t].value!=""; t++) {
 theList.options[t].selected=true;
 count++;
 }
 }
 }
 clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));
 return; // no refresh needed
 }

 // get the alphasorted list of tiddlers (optionally, filter out unchanged tiddlers)
 var tiddlers=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound;
 tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a['title'] == b['title']) return(0); else return (a['title'] < b['title']) ? -1 : +1; });
 // clear current list contents
 while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
 // add heading and control items to list
 var i=0;
 var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(tiddlers.length+' tiddler'+((tiddlers.length!=1)?'s are':' is')+' in the document',"",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="title" )?">":indent)+' [by title]',"",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="modified")?">":indent)+' [by date]',"",false,false);
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="tags")?">":indent)+' [by tags]',"",false,false);
 // output the tiddler list
 switch(config.macros.importTiddlers.sort)
 {
 case "title":
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);
 break;
 case "modified":
 // sort descending for newest date first
 tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a['modified'] == b['modified']) return(0); else return (a['modified'] > b['modified']) ? -1 : +1; });
 var lastSection = "";
 for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) {
 var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
 var theSection = tiddler.modified.toLocaleDateString();
 if (theSection != lastSection) {
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(theSection,"",false,false);
 lastSection = theSection;
 }
 theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);
 }
 break;
 case "tags":
 var theTitles = {}; // all tiddler titles, hash indexed by tag value
 var theTags = new Array();
 for(var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) {
 var title=tiddlers[t].title;
 var tags=tiddlers[t].tags;
 if (!tags || !tags.length) {
 if (theTitles["untagged"]==undefined) { theTags.push("untagged"); theTitles["untagged"]=new Array(); }
 theTitles["untagged"].push(title);
 }
 else for(var s=0; s<tags.length; s++) {
 if (theTitles[tags[s]]==undefined) { theTags.push(tags[s]); theTitles[tags[s]]=new Array(); }
 theTitles[tags[s]].push(title);
 }
 }
 theTags.sort();
 for(var tagindex=0; tagindex<theTags.length; tagindex++) {
 var theTag=theTags[tagindex];
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(theTag,"",false,false);
 for(var t=0; t<theTitles[theTag].length; t++)
 theList.options[i++]=new Option(indent+indent+theTitles[theTag][t],theTitles[theTag][t],false,false);
 }
 break;
 }
 theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item
 if (theList.size<config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize) theList.size=config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize;
 if (theList.size>theList.options.length) theList.size=theList.options.length;
}
//}}}

// // re-entrant processing for handling import with interactive collision prompting
//{{{
function importTiddlers(startIndex)
{
 if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) return -1;

 var theList = document.getElementById('importList');
 if (!theList) return;
 var t;
 // if starting new import, reset import status flags
 if (startIndex==0)
 for (var t=0;t<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;t++)
 config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[t].status="";
 for (var i=startIndex; i<theList.options.length; i++)
 {
 // if list item is not selected or is a heading (i.e., has no value), skip it
 if ((!theList.options[i].selected) || ((t=theList.options[i].value)==""))
 continue;
 for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==t) break;
 var inbound = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];
 var theExisting = store.getTiddler(inbound.title);
 // avoid redundant import for tiddlers that are listed multiple times (when 'by tags')
 if (inbound.status=="added")
 continue;
 // don't import the "ImportedTiddlers" history from the other document...
 if (inbound.title=='ImportedTiddlers')
 continue;
 // if tiddler exists and import not marked for replace or merge, stop importing
 if (theExisting && (inbound.status.substr(0,7)!="replace") && (inbound.status.substr(0,5)!="merge"))
 return i;
 // assemble tags (remote + existing + added)
 var newTags = "";
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.importTags)
 newTags+=inbound.getTags() // import remote tags
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.keepTags && theExisting)
 newTags+=" "+theExisting.getTags(); // keep existing tags
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags && config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags.trim().length)
 newTags+=" "+config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags; // add new tags
 inbound.set(null,null,null,null,newTags.trim());
 // set the status to 'added' (if not already set by the 'ask the user' UI)
 inbound.status=(inbound.status=="")?'added':inbound.status;
 // do the import!
 // OLD: store.addTiddler(in); store.setDirty(true);
 store.saveTiddler(inbound.title, inbound.title, inbound.text, inbound.modifier, inbound.modified, inbound.tags);
 store.fetchTiddler(inbound.title).created = inbound.created; // force creation date to imported value
 }
 return(-1); // signals that we really finished the entire list
}
//}}}

//{{{
function importStopped()
{
 var theList = document.getElementById('importList');
 var theNewTitle = document.getElementById('importNewTitle');
 if (!theList) return;
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.index==-1)
 importReport(); // import finished... generate the report
 else
 {
 // DEBUG alert('import stopped at: '+config.macros.importTiddlers.index);
 // import collision... show the collision panel and set the title edit field
 document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel').style.display='block';
 theNewTitle.value=theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index].value;
 }
}
//}}}

// // ''REPORT GENERATOR''
//{{{
function importReport(quiet)
{
 if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) return;
 // DEBUG alert('importReport: start');

 // if import was not completed, the collision panel will still be open... close it now.
 var panel=document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel'); if (panel) panel.style.display='none';

 // get the alphasorted list of tiddlers
 var tiddlers = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound;
 // gather the statistics
 var count=0;
 for (var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++)
 if (tiddlers[t].status && tiddlers[t].status.trim().length && tiddlers[t].status.substr(0,7)!="skipped") count++;

 // generate a report
 if (count && config.options.chkImportReport) {
 // get/create the report tiddler
 var theReport = store.getTiddler('ImportedTiddlers');
 if (!theReport) { theReport= new Tiddler(); theReport.title = 'ImportedTiddlers'; theReport.text = ""; }
 // format the report content
 var now = new Date();
 var newText = "On "+now.toLocaleString()+", "+config.options.txtUserName
 newText +=" imported "+count+" tiddler"+(count==1?"":"s")+" from\n[["+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+"|"+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+"]]:\n";
 if (config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags && config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags.trim().length)
 newText += "imported tiddlers were tagged with: \""+config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags+"\"\n";
 newText += "<<<\n";
 for (var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) if (tiddlers[t].status) newText += "#[["+tiddlers[t].title+"]] - "+tiddlers[t].status+"\n";
 newText += "<<<\n";
 // update the ImportedTiddlers content and show the tiddler
 theReport.text = newText+((theReport.text!="")?'\n----\n':"")+theReport.text;
 theReport.modifier = config.options.txtUserName;
 theReport.modified = new Date();
 store.saveTiddler(theReport.title, theReport.title, theReport.text, theReport.modifier, theReport.modified, theReport.tags);
 if (!quiet) { story.displayTiddler(null,theReport.title,1,null,null,false); story.refreshTiddler(theReport.title,1,true); }
 }

 // reset status flags
 for (var t=0; t<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; t++) config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[t].status="";

 // refresh display if tiddlers have been loaded
 if (count) { store.setDirty(true); store.notifyAll(); }

 // always show final message when tiddlers were actually loaded
 if (count) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.importedMsg.format([count,tiddlers.length,config.macros.importTiddlers.src]));
}
//}}}

// // File and XMLHttpRequest I/O
//{{{
config.macros.importTiddlers.fileExists=function(theFile) {
 var found=false;
 // DEBUG: alert('testing fileExists('+theFile+')...');
 if(window.Components) {
 try { netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalXPConnect"); }
 catch(e) { return false; } // security access denied
 var file = Components.classes["@mozilla.org/file/local;1"].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
 try { file.initWithPath(theFile); }
 catch(e) { return false; } // invalid directory
 found = file.exists();
 }
 else { // use ActiveX FSO object for MSIE 
 var fso = new ActiveXObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject");
 found = fso.FileExists(theFile)
 }
 // DEBUG: alert(theFile+" "+(found?"exists":"not found"));
 return found;
}

config.macros.importTiddlers.loadRemoteFile = function(src,callback,quiet,ask,filter,force) {
 if (src==undefined || !src.length) return null; // filename is required
 if (!quiet) clearMessage();
 if (!quiet) displayMessage(this.openMsg.format([src]));
 if (src.substr(0,5)!="http:" && src.substr(0,5)!="file:") { // if src is relative (i.e., not a URL)
 if (!this.fileExists(src)) { // if file cannot be found, might be relative path.. try fixup
 var pathPrefix=document.location.href; // get current document path and trim off filename
 var slashpos=pathPrefix.lastIndexOf("/"); if (slashpos==-1) slashpos=pathPrefix.lastIndexOf("\\"); 
 if (slashpos!=-1 && slashpos!=pathPrefix.length-1) pathPrefix=pathPrefix.substr(0,slashpos+1);
 src=pathPrefix+src;
 if (pathPrefix.substr(0,5)!="http:") src=getLocalPath(src);
 }
 }
 if (src.substr(0,4)!="http" && src.substr(0,4)!="file") { // if not a URL, read from local filesystem
 var txt=loadFile(src);
 if ((txt==null)||(txt==false)) // file didn't load
 { if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,"(unknown)"])); }
 else {
 if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.readMsg.format([txt.length,src]));
 if (callback) callback(src,convertUTF8ToUnicode(txt),quiet,ask,filter,force);
 }
 }
 else {
 var x; // get an request object
 try {x = new XMLHttpRequest()} // moz
 catch(e) {
 try {x = new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP")} // IE 6
 catch (e) {
 try {x = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")} // IE 5
 catch (e) { return }
 }
 }
 // setup callback function to handle server response(s)
 x.onreadystatechange = function() {
 if (x.readyState == 4) {
 if (x.status==0 || x.status == 200) {
 if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.readMsg.format([x.responseText.length,src]));
 if (callback) callback(src,x.responseText,quiet,ask,filter,force);
 }
 else {
 if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,x.status]));
 }
 }
 }
 // get privileges to read another document's DOM via http:// or file:// (moz-only)
 if (typeof(netscape)!="undefined") {
 try { netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalBrowserRead"); }
 catch (e) { if (!quiet) displayMessage(e.description?e.description:e.toString()); }
 }
 // send the HTTP request
 try {
 var url=src+(src.indexOf('?')<0?'?':'&')+'nocache='+Math.random();
 x.open("GET",src,true);
 if (x.overrideMimeType) x.overrideMimeType('text/html');
 x.send(null);
 }
 catch (e) {
 if (!quiet) {
 displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,"(unknown)"]));
 displayMessage(e.description?e.description:e.toString());
 }
 }
 }
}

function readTiddlersFromHTML(html)
{
 // for TW2.2+
 if (TiddlyWiki.prototype.importTiddlyWiki!=undefined) {
 var remoteStore=new TiddlyWiki();
 remoteStore.importTiddlyWiki(html);
 return remoteStore.getTiddlers("title"); 
 }

 // for TW2.1 and earlier
 // extract store area from html 
 var start=html.indexOf('<div id="storeArea">');
 var end=html.indexOf("<!--POST-BODY-START--"+">",start);
 if (end==-1) var end=html.indexOf("</body"+">",start); // backward-compatibility for older documents
 var sa="<html><body>"+html.substring(start,end)+"</body></html>";

 // load html into iframe document
 var f=document.getElementById("loaderFrame"); if (f) document.body.removeChild(f);
 f=document.createElement("iframe"); f.id="loaderFrame";
 f.style.width="0px"; f.style.height="0px"; f.style.border="0px";
 document.body.appendChild(f);
 var d=f.document;
 if (f.contentDocument) d=f.contentDocument; // For NS6
 else if (f.contentWindow) d=f.contentWindow.document; // For IE5.5 and IE6
 d.open(); d.writeln(sa); d.close();

 // read tiddler DIVs from storeArea DOM element 
 var sa = d.getElementById("storeArea");
 if (!sa) return null;
 sa.normalize();
 var nodes = sa.childNodes;
 if (!nodes || !nodes.length) return null;
 var tiddlers = [];
 for(var t = 0; t < nodes.length; t++) {
 var title = null;
 if(nodes[t].getAttribute)
 title = nodes[t].getAttribute("title"); // TW 2.2+
 if(!title && nodes[t].getAttribute)
 title = nodes[t].getAttribute("tiddler"); // TW 2.1.x
 if(!title && nodes[t].id && (nodes[t].id.substr(0,5) == "store"))
 title = nodes[t].id.substr(5); // TW 1.2.x
 if(title && title != "")
 tiddlers.push((new Tiddler()).loadFromDiv(nodes[t],title));
 }
 return tiddlers;
}
//}}}

// // COPIED FROM TW2.2beta5
// // enables reading tiddler definitions using TW2.2 storeArea format, even when plugin is running under TW2.1.x
// // storeArea format changes include:
// // <pre> nodes
// // attribute(tiddler) renamed to attribute(title)
// // attribute(modified) is omitted if created==modified
//{{{
if (version.major+version.minor/10 <= 2.1) TW21Loader.prototype.internalizeTiddler = function(store,tiddler,title,node)
{
 var e = node.firstChild;
 var text = null;
 if(node.getAttribute("tiddler")) {
 text = getNodeText(e).unescapeLineBreaks();
 } else {
 while(e.nodeName!="PRE" && e.nodeName!="pre") {
 e = e.nextSibling;
 }
 text = e.innerHTML.replace(/\r/mg,"").htmlDecode();
 }
 var modifier = node.getAttribute("modifier");
 var c = node.getAttribute("created");
 var m = node.getAttribute("modified");
 var created = c ? Date.convertFromYYYYMMDDHHMM(c) : version.date;
 var modified = m ? Date.convertFromYYYYMMDDHHMM(m) : created;
 var tags = node.getAttribute("tags");
 var fields = {};
 var attrs = node.attributes;
 for(var i = attrs.length-1; i >= 0; i--) {
 var name = attrs[i].name;
 if (attrs[i].specified && !TiddlyWiki.isStandardField(name)) {
 fields[name] = attrs[i].value.unescapeLineBreaks();
 }
 }
 tiddler.assign(title,text,modifier,modified,tags,created,fields);
 return tiddler;
};
//}}}
On 25 April 2007 14:04:52, KeithRichardson imported 2 tiddlers from
[[http://tiddlythemes.com/empties/DevFire.html|http://tiddlythemes.com/empties/DevFire.html]]:
<<<
#[[PageTemplate]] - replaces PageTemplate - 1/12/2007 23:13:00 by YourName
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#[[*Offline Sites]] - added
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#[[InlineJavascriptPlugin]] - added
#[[Latest news clips]] - added
#[[SiteSubtitle]] - replaces SiteSubtitle - 4/25/2007 13:42:00 by YourName
#[[SiteTitle]] - replaces SiteTitle - 4/25/2007 13:42:00 by YourName
<<<

!Spicy raita

Raita is served as a cooling dish in most Indian states. I’ve found that having raita on the menu at Rasa is essential - British people are used to having raitas with Indian meals - and we make them in a number of ways. South Indians like their raitas to have plenty of flavour and colour. This one helps make a meal of a spicy treat and has proved most popular with our Indian customers. If you prefer a mild raita, just omit the chillies. Serves 4.
200g plain yogurt
1 tomato, cubed
50g cucumber, cubed
3 fresh green chillies, finely sliced
1.5cm cube fresh root ginger, finely chopped
a few sprigs of fresh coriander, chopped
a pinch of chilli powder
In a large bowl, combine the yogurt, tomato, cucumber, green chillies and ginger. Mix well, then garnish with the coriander and chilli powder. Serve cold. 
!Tomatoes with turmeric and yoghurt
A tomato curry with a deeply spiced brick- red sauce. Wonderful with brown rice.
serves 4
onions - 2 medium
groundnut oil - 3 tbs
garlic - 4 juicy cloves
a hot red chilli
brown mustard seed - 1 tsp
ground turmeric - 2 tsp
cumin seed - 2 tsp
a ‘thumb’ of ginger
crushed tinned tomatoes - 400g
largish tomatoes - 8-12 (Marmande would be just right)
thick yoghurt - 100g
Peel the onions and roughly chop them, then let them cook slowly in groundnut oil over a low to moderate heat. Peel the garlic, slice it thinly then add it to the onions.Chop the chilli finely and add it, with its seeds, to the onions. Stir in the mustard seed, turmeric and cumin seed and continue cooking. Peel the ginger then cut it into matchstick-sized shreds. Add it to the pan and let it cook briefly before you add the tinned tomatoes, 400ml of water and a grinding of black pepper and salt. Turn up the heat and bring to the boil, then add the whole tomatoes.
Turn the heat down to a gentle simmer and leave to cook, covered with a lid, for 25 to 35 minutes, turning the tomatoes once or twice during cooking. You want them to soften but not totally collapse. Add a little more water should the mixture thicken too quickly.
Push the tomatoes to one side, then stir in the yoghurt. Let the sauce heat through, stirring gently, but without letting it come to the boil. Serve with rice or warm naan
!Roast chicken and mint salad
A sound use for leftover pilau rice, but so good is it that I often cook a pan of rice especially. I usually use leftover roast chicken, but there is no reason why one couldn’t roast a couple of breasts. A nice garden lunch this one.
serves 3
basmati rice - 200g
sprouted seeds (mung, lentils etc) - 175g
small, hot red chillies - 2
mint - 6 bushy sprigs
nam pla (Thai fish sauce) - 2 tbs
lime juice - 2 tbs
olive oil - 3 tbs
2 roast chicken breasts or leftover chicken
Wash the rice then put it into a small pan covered by about the same volume of water. Add a little salt and bring to the boil. Turn down to a jolly simmer and cover with a tight lid.When the water has evaporated (and deep holes have appeared in the surface) test it for tenderness. Turn the heat off, then leave the rice covered with its lid for 10 minutes. Fluff up the rice with a fork and leave to cool. Rinse the sprouted seeds in cold running water and drain. Make the dressing by chopping and seeding the chillies, chopping the mint leaves (and discarding the stem) and mixing in a serving dish with the nam pla, lime juice and olive oil.Cut the chicken into thin strips. Toss them with the dressing then add the cooled rice. Mix gently then check the seasoning. You may need a little salt. Leave for 20 minutes or so for the flavours to marry. 
#Raw materials
#Process
#Shape
#Produce end product
----
+++[Research sources]
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/
[[Aslib Proceedings|https://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0001-253X]]
===
There is some information here: [url]http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HKL/is_1_8/ai_76445405[/url]

"Ultrasound uses a single high frequency (20,000-1,000,000 Hz) to stimulate a local area and heat up tissue. Therapeutic infrasound produces alpha sound waves in the approximate range of 8 to 14Hz in a multiple, random, chaotic signal. The sound waves travel and penetrate deeply throughout the body. Infrasound can be applied over a plaster cast, boots or wraps. Unlike a single frequency, the chaotic nature of the infrasound overrides the body's natural ability to tune out a rhythmic, predictable pattern. Infrasound is inaudible to the human ear and can travel great distances without distortion. It is, in fact, what whales use to communicate."

I've just discovered ultrasound for my knee cartilage teat and now you send me on another wild chase after yet another therapy! I'm making notes here: [url]http://mediawiki.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/index.php/Category:Health[/url]. Please add your findings if you want.

There seems to be a lot of positive results from these "alternative" medical therapies and I've learnt not to discount them. Doctors are a very conservative breed and are not generally very up to date on cutting edge therapies.

I found out that there are now cheap home ultrasound devices and I've bought one. Maybe you can buy an infra sound one yourself if there is one available yet.

Also it depends on what your condition is - the purpose of many of these deep tissue therapies is to stimulate the blood supply and to transport and focus nutrients in a particular area to allow your own defence systems to get to work. They can't repair cartilage splits (like mine) or broken bones but they can speed up the repair and protect process - or so I have understood since I'm not a medical professional.

Source: [[Infra sound treatment - HealthBoards Message Boards|http://www.healthboards.com/boards/showthread.php?p=3920319#post3920319]]

http://mediawiki.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk/index.php?title=Sound_therapy_gadgets
/***
|Name|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Version|1.6.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|Insert Javascript executable code directly into your tiddler content.|

''Call directly into TW core utility routines, define new functions, calculate values, add dynamically-generated TiddlyWiki-formatted output'' into tiddler content, or perform any other programmatic actions each time the tiddler is rendered.
!!!!!Usage
<<<
When installed, this plugin adds new wiki syntax for surrounding tiddler content with {{{<script>}}} and {{{</script>}}} markers, so that it can be treated as embedded javascript and executed each time the tiddler is rendered.

''Deferred execution from an 'onClick' link''
By including a {{{label="..."}}} parameter in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker, the plugin will create a link to an 'onclick' script that will only be executed when that specific link is clicked, rather than running the script each time the tiddler is rendered. You may also include a {{{title="..."}}} parameter to specify the 'tooltip' text that will appear whenever the mouse is moved over the onClick link text

''External script source files:''
You can also load javascript from an external source URL, by including a src="..." parameter in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker (e.g., {{{<script src="demo.js"></script>}}}). This is particularly useful when incorporating third-party javascript libraries for use in custom extensions and plugins. The 'foreign' javascript code remains isolated in a separate file that can be easily replaced whenever an updated library file becomes available.

''Display script source in tiddler output''
By including the keyword parameter "show", in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker, the plugin will include the script source code in the output that it displays in the tiddler.

''Defining javascript functions and libraries:''
Although the external javascript file is loaded while the tiddler content is being rendered, any functions it defines will not be available for use until //after// the rendering has been completed. Thus, you cannot load a library and //immediately// use it's functions within the same tiddler. However, once that tiddler has been loaded, the library functions can be freely used in any tiddler (even the one in which it was initially loaded).

To ensure that your javascript functions are always available when needed, you should load the libraries from a tiddler that will be rendered as soon as your TiddlyWiki document is opened. For example, you could put your {{{<script src="..."></script>}}} syntax into a tiddler called LoadScripts, and then add {{{<<tiddler LoadScripts>>}}} in your MainMenu tiddler.

Since the MainMenu is always rendered immediately upon opening your document, the library will always be loaded before any other tiddlers that rely upon the functions it defines. Loading an external javascript library does not produce any direct output in the tiddler, so these definitions should have no impact on the appearance of your MainMenu.

''Creating dynamic tiddler content''
An important difference between this implementation of embedded scripting and conventional embedded javascript techniques for web pages is the method used to produce output that is dynamically inserted into the document:
* In a typical web document, you use the document.write() function to output text sequences (often containing HTML tags) that are then rendered when the entire document is first loaded into the browser window.
* However, in a ~TiddlyWiki document, tiddlers (and other DOM elements) are created, deleted, and rendered "on-the-fly", so writing directly to the global 'document' object does not produce the results you want (i.e., replacing the embedded script within the tiddler content), and completely replaces the entire ~TiddlyWiki document in your browser window.
* To allow these scripts to work unmodified, the plugin automatically converts all occurences of document.write() so that the output is inserted into the tiddler content instead of replacing the entire ~TiddlyWiki document.

If your script does not use document.write() to create dynamically embedded content within a tiddler, your javascript can, as an alternative, explicitly return a text value that the plugin can then pass through the wikify() rendering engine to insert into the tiddler display. For example, using {{{return "thistext"}}} will produce the same output as {{{document.write("thistext")}}}.

//Note: your script code is automatically 'wrapped' inside a function, {{{_out()}}}, so that any return value you provide can be correctly handled by the plugin and inserted into the tiddler. To avoid unpredictable results (and possibly fatal execution errors), this function should never be redefined or called from ''within'' your script code.//

''Accessing the ~TiddlyWiki DOM''
The plugin provides one pre-defined variable, 'place', that is passed in to your javascript code so that it can have direct access to the containing DOM element into which the tiddler output is currently being rendered.

Access to this DOM element allows you to create scripts that can:
* vary their actions based upon the specific location in which they are embedded
* access 'tiddler-relative' information (use findContainingTiddler(place))
* perform direct DOM manipulations (when returning wikified text is not enough)
<<<
!!!!!Examples
<<<
an "alert" message box:
><script show>
 alert('InlineJavascriptPlugin: this is a demonstration message');
</script>
dynamic output:
><script show>
 return (new Date()).toString();
</script>
wikified dynamic output:
><script show>
 return "link to current user: [["+config.options.txtUserName+"]]";
</script>
dynamic output using 'place' to get size information for current tiddler:
><script show>
 if (!window.story) window.story=window;
 var title=story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7);
 return title+" is using "+store.getTiddlerText(title).length+" bytes";
</script>
creating an 'onclick' button/link that runs a script:
><script label="click here" title="clicking this link will show an 'alert' box" show>
 if (!window.story) window.story=window;
 alert("Hello World!\nlinktext='"+place.firstChild.data+"'\ntiddler='"+story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7)+"'");
</script>
loading a script from a source url:
>http://www.TiddlyTools.com/demo.js contains:
>>{{{function demo() { alert('this output is from demo(), defined in demo.js') } }}}
>>{{{alert('InlineJavascriptPlugin: demo.js has been loaded'); }}}
><script src="demo.js" show>
 return "loading demo.js..."
</script>
><script label="click to execute demo() function" show>
 demo()
</script>
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''InlineJavascriptPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.02.19 [1.6.0]'' added support for title="..." to specify mouseover tooltip when using an onclick (label="...") script
''2006.10.16 [1.5.2]'' add newline before closing '}' in 'function out_' wrapper. Fixes error caused when last line of script is a comment.
''2006.06.01 [1.5.1]'' when calling wikify() on script return value, pass hightlightRegExp and tiddler params so macros that rely on these values can render properly
''2006.04.19 [1.5.0]'' added 'show' parameter to force display of javascript source code in tiddler output
''2006.01.05 [1.4.0]'' added support 'onclick' scripts. When label="..." param is present, a button/link is created using the indicated label text, and the script is only executed when the button/link is clicked. 'place' value is set to match the clicked button/link element.
''2005.12.13 [1.3.1]'' when catching eval error in IE, e.description contains the error text, instead of e.toString(). Fixed error reporting so IE shows the correct response text. Based on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski
''2005.11.09 [1.3.0]'' for 'inline' scripts (i.e., not scripts loaded with src="..."), automatically replace calls to 'document.write()' with 'place.innerHTML+=' so script output is directed into tiddler content. Based on a suggestion by BradleyMeck
''2005.11.08 [1.2.0]'' handle loading of javascript from an external URL via src="..." syntax
''2005.11.08 [1.1.0]'' pass 'place' param into scripts to provide direct DOM access 
''2005.11.08 [1.0.0]'' initial release
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.inlineJavascript= {major: 1, minor: 6, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,2,19)};

config.formatters.push( {
 name: "inlineJavascript",
 match: "\\<script",
 lookahead: "\\<script(?: src=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: label=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: title=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?( show)?\\>((?:.|\\n)*?)\\</script\\>",

 handler: function(w) {
 var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
 lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
 var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
 if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
 if (lookaheadMatch[1]) { // load a script library
 // make script tag, set src, add to body to execute, then remove for cleanup
 var script = document.createElement("script"); script.src = lookaheadMatch[1];
 document.body.appendChild(script); document.body.removeChild(script);
 }
 if (lookaheadMatch[5]) { // there is script code
 if (lookaheadMatch[4]) // show inline script code in tiddler output
 wikify("{{{\n"+lookaheadMatch[0]+"\n}}}\n",w.output);
 if (lookaheadMatch[2]) { // create a link to an 'onclick' script
 // add a link, define click handler, save code in link (pass 'place'), set link attributes
 var link=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"a",null,"tiddlyLinkExisting",lookaheadMatch[2]);
 link.onclick=function(){try{return(eval(this.code))}catch(e){alert(e.description?e.description:e.toString())}}
 link.code="function _out(place){"+lookaheadMatch[5]+"\n};_out(this);"
 link.setAttribute("title",lookaheadMatch[3]?lookaheadMatch[3]:"");
 link.setAttribute("href","javascript:;");
 link.style.cursor="pointer";
 }
 else { // run inline script code
 var code="function _out(place){"+lookaheadMatch[5]+"\n};_out(w.output);"
 code=code.replace(/document.write\(/gi,'place.innerHTML+=(');
 try { var out = eval(code); } catch(e) { out = e.description?e.description:e.toString(); }
 if (out && out.length) wikify(out,w.output,w.highlightRegExp,w.tiddler);
 }
 }
 w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
 }
 }
} )
//}}}
If you look carefully at instructions written in English (for example, a cooking recipe, the notice in a public telephone box, the directions which tell you how to use a machine), you will often find that the grammar is not quite the same as that of ordinary English. Articles are often left out, for instance:
{{{
'In case of fire, break glass' Other words may disappear too: in particular, the word ' it' is often omitted:
' Chill thoroughly before serving'
}}}
!!Exercise
Read these two short texts carefully, and note how the sentences are constructed. Then write a set of instructions yourself. (Some suggestions: explain how to play a gramophone record, drive a car, shave, wash, boil an egg; give the recipe for a more complicated dish.)
----
!Elastoplast First Aid Plasters
!!Directions
#Cleanse wound and surrounding skin carefully.
#Dry thoroughly - dressing will not adhere in the presence of moisture, grease, powder
etc.
#Remove protective covering and apply dressing to wo\±nd.
#Firmly, but gently press down adhesive edges.
----
!Advocaat Belvedere
Mix together 6 large egg yolks and 6 oz. castor sugar and heat in a saucepan together with i large can of evaporated milk until the mixture thickens. Allow to cool, stirring occasionally to stop skin forming. When cool, pour into a bottle and top with brandy to taste. Will keep in a refrigerator for 2-3 days. Costs about 55 p, serves about 8. (Recipe from Woman's Own)
----
http://www.radioandtelly.co.uk/internetradio.html
!Interview questions
http://www.questionpro.com/akira/TakeSurvey;jsessionid=daa8WQ5xEOCiFS
http://www.geekinterview.com/
http://www.drmyhill.co.uk/wiki/Iodine_-_what_is_the_correct_daily_dose%3F
!Italian Cinema
http://www.italica.rai.it/eng/cinema/index.htm

http://it.movies.yahoo.com/3/142788.html
Many people suffer with jaw joint (TMJ) problems; sometimes some simple advice is helpful. Firstly some general advice;

Don't bite your fingernails

Never bite your lower lip

Avoid biting on your front teeth

Keep your upper & lower teeth apart when you are at rest.

It may help to carry out the exercise below, which will strengthen the muscles that pull the lower jaw backwards. This in turn will relax the muscles that close the mouth and will prevent from functioning those muscles that pull the jaw forward and to one side. The jaw joint will act more as a hinge and this will take the strain off it.

Firstly chose a relaxed time in the day to carry out the exercise then

1. Close your mouth on your back teeth, resting the tip of your tongue on the roof of the mouth just behind the front teeth.

2. Run the tip of the tongue backwards along the roof as far back as it will go, still biting.

3. Holding the tongue in this place slowly open your mouth until the tongue is just pulled away from the roof. Do not open further. Hold this position for five seconds then close your mouth and relax.

4. Repeat this exercise over the next five minutes in a firm relaxed manner.

As you open your mouth you should feel tension in the muscles at the back of your jaw and beneath your chin. For the first few times you do the exercise you should check in front of a mirror that the lower teeth move vertically.

Sometimes your pain may seem worse but this is because of the unaccustomed exercise.

If the exercise is being carried out correctly, there will be no clicks or noise from the joints.

One other thing; Yawning can put quite a strain on the TMJ, when you feel the urge to yawn.

Drop your chin down onto your chest first; this will limit the jaw opening!
A SERIAL conman was last night facing jail for tricking his way into Windsor Castle by posing as a policeman during a series of scams. Michael Hammond invented a string of false identities and pretended to live like a millionaire playboy who was friends with the royals and had celebrity lovers such as Jordan and Dannii Minogue. But the debt-ridden son of a decorator's fantasies also resulted in innocent people being stopped by armed police after he posed as an officer to claim they were terrorists or gangsters. He even had an Iraqi family stopped on a cross-channel ferry when he told detectives they were linked to al-Qaeda. And hours of police time were wasted responding to his hoax calls. The 36-year-old was last night described by one officer as the "most professional conman" he had ever come across and said to be "incapable of telling the truth". Hammond bluffed his way into Windsor Castle on May 17 last year by calling police stationed there and posing as Det Supt Simon Morgan - the officer leading the Operation Minstead hunt for Britain's most prolific sex attacker who preys on elderly women around London. A court heard he claimed he was accompanying friends of Princes William and Harry who were known to the public and did not want to use the regular entrance. Despite wearing torn jeans and a jumper, he was let through the Henry VIII gate, normally reserved for members of the Royal Family and staff, with friend Tracey Simmonds, 29. Once inside he even called police again saying one of the princes' friends had got lost. A livery porter was dispatched to find the bogus missing person. Hammond's escapades came to light when officers spotted him on the castle CCTV and watched him pretending to be the policeman while talking on his mobile. No members of the Royal Family were there at the time. Simmonds was not charged in connection with the incident. Tall, pleasant and polite, Hammond gatecrashed celebrity parties as part of his scam to convince people he was a playboy. He adopted the double-barrelled name Edwards-Hammond, featured regularly in newspapers, and collected the many press cuttings linking him with stars. Among others he was pictured with Elton John, actress Judi Shekoni, model Elli Goodall and linked to Renee Zellweger and TV star Catalina Guirado. Sgt Neil John, in charge of the case, likened Hammond to Leonardo DiCaprio's character Frank Abagnale Jr in the film Catch Me If You Can. In the movie Abagnale pretends to be a doctor and a pilot to cash fraudulent cheques before being caught. Sgt John said: "He lives in a fantasy world. There's a lot of intelligence there. People have described him as Walter Mitty. "He was the type of person who would blag his way into a party, go up and put his arm around the principal guy or girl, get his picture taken by the paparazzi and claim he knew them or was having a relationship with them. "He's the most professional conman I've seen." Jordan insisted she met the fraudster only three times and Dannii Minogue branded his claims of a relationship with her as "ludicrous". Hammond, who said he played polo, has even been photographed with Princes Charles and William at the sporting events. He claims he knows them and Prince Harry "very well". The royals, however, are said to have "no recollection" of him. But while Hammond was only deluding himself with his playboy fantasies around the rich and famous, his more sinister ploy of masquerading as a police officer caused others grief. Prosecutor Anthony Connell described him as a "wicked and dishonest man". Hammond posed as an array of different officers between September 2003 and August 2004. Phone records showed his mobile was used to call police 133 times, mostly the Met but also Essex, Kent, City of London, Manchester, Cambridgeshire, Sussex and British Transport Police. The calls started when he claimed armed raiders were attacking his penthouse flat in Canary Wharf, East London. Six armed officers were dispatched to the incident. Last February Hammond was given a police escort after calling the City of London police saying he was a surgeon on his way to perform an vital operation on a sick child. Two days later, he pretended to be an officer from Operation Trident claiming he had spotted three black males, one with a hand gun, acting suspiciously opposite McDonald's near Downing Street. Firearms and Diplomatic protection unit officers were sent and the three men were searched at gunpoint. In April, he asked for assistance in Soho, London, with an armed and dangerous Trident suspect. Last July he posed as an Interpol officer while travelling on a P&O cross-channel ferry. He pointed out an Iraqi family and had them stopped and investigated. He pulled a similar stunt with other Iraqis days later. Mr Connell told Isleworth crown court in South West London: "He has caused many innocent people, including members of ethnic minorities, to be detained by police often at gunpoint." Lucy Kennedy, defending, said the con artist had "difficulties" and said the offences were linked to drinking alcohol. The court was told Hammond had 102 previous convictions including two for impersonating police officers. The others were for fraud or deception. In 2000 he was jailed for six months when he posed as a Special Branch officer and tried to con money from a lorry driver. Hammond was arrested at various stages during his hoax campaign but usually got off court proceedings by claiming sickness. It was only when police examined phone logs and other details that a full picture emerged. Hammond's Windsor Castle scam came after a series of security breaches at royal households. Self-styled comedy terrorist Aaron Barschak's had gatecrashed Prince William's 21st birthday party at the castle. And Mirror reporter Ryan Parry got a job working as a footman at Buckingham Palace ahead of US President George Bush's state visit. Hammond admitted being a public nuisance, falsely impersonating a police officer and wasting police time. He was remanded in custody and will be sentenced on February 4. The crook is reportedly writing a book about his experiences, under the working title Almost Famous or Faking It. 
http://www.mirror.co.uk
By Jane Kerr 
[[Road to fitness stories]]
[[Rebounder exercises]]
[[Nutrient Timing for Peak Performance]]
[[Healthy food and drink]]
[[Sports supplements]]
[[The 7 minute workout]]
[[Therapies]]
----
http://www.simplyshredded.com
http://www.simplyshredded.com/top-10-muscle-myths-we-test-research-the-10-biggest-axioms-of-bodybuilding.html
!Shortcuts
*HIT - High Intensity Training:
A BBC Horizon programme tested research that claimed that only 1 minute's HIT on an exercise bike could significantly decrease insulin levels and increase aerobic fitness - if you had the correct genes! (Type 2 diabetes occurs when blood sugar levels build up to dangerously high levels due to reduced insulin function, often caused by a sedentary lifestyle.)

Insulin sensitivity is important for keeping blood sugar or glucose stable. When you eat, your digestion starts putting glucose into your bloodstream. This causes the pancreas to release insulin, a hormone that triggers body tissue to absorb circulating glucose. 

If your insulin sensitivity reduces, the pancreas has to release more and more insulin to keep blood glucose levels stable.

Abnormally low insulin sensitivity is known as insulin resistance, a condition that results in high levels of insulin, glucose and fats circulating in the bloodstream. It is a main risk factor for metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
----
<html><body>
<iframe width="560" height="315" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/v7-h_w7bJrU" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
</body></html>
----
Recent HIT research shows that doing ten one-minute sprints on a stationary exercise bike with about one minute of rest in between, three times a week, is as good for improving muscle as many hours of less strenuous conventional long-term biking. 

This type of exercise is not suitable for weight loss as the sprints are too short to burn many calories, but it was shown to improve general fitness.

HIT for 60sec then 90sec easy for 8 reps will stimulate G.H production, no carbs for 1hr as this will block the GH
!Aerobic fitness
The evidence that ties aerobic fitness to health shows that one of the best predictors of a healthy long life is the body's ability to take in and use oxygen while we are exercising maximally. The more blood the heart pumps around the body, the more oxygen our muscles use and the lower our risk of disease and early death.

So the purpose of aerobic workouts is to increase the body's ability to take in and use oxygen, something scientists measure as VO2 max: the maximum volume of oxygen used during exercise. The higher a person's VO2 max, the more resilient they are to illness. Your ability to increase your VO2 max might be conditioned by your genes. 

Apparently, around 15% of the population are non-responders, and around 20% are high-responders. 

!Bodybuilding food
*Protein or whey protein
Per 30g Serving:
Energy kJ/Kcal 518/122, Protein 24.2g, Carbohydrate 1.5g, (of which sugars) 1.5g, Fat 2g, (of which saturates) 0.76g.
http://www.myprotein.com/sports-nutrition/essential-whey-60/10530747.html
*Creatine
*Fish oil
*Casein at night = cottage cheese
While casein is "optimal" before bed, don't forget that milk is 80% casein (the other 20% being whey), and if you mix your whey with some milk, and then throw in some natural peanut butter, olive oil, or other healthy fats -you can slow the absorbtion down quite a bit, thus "mimicking" casein protein.


!Kettlebells
These exercises are not for beginners and you MUST do a warmup first.
<html><body>
<iframe width="560" height="315" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/NkXw9hB0Zpo" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
</body></html>
http://www.runnersworld.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kefir
http://users.sa.chariot.net.au/~dna/kefir_cheese.html
Parody of Online Help
Phone the Samartins and get through to an Options voice message

Source: [[Keith's Notebook - 03 May 2007 16:33:21It is all a frame of mind, this enjoyment of living. [Lin Yutang] |file:///F:/JSAS/http_root/www/wikis/1keithsnotes.html]]
+++[Aloe vera barbadensis]
<<wikipedia 'Aloe Vera'>> 
Historical or traditional use of aloe (may or may not be supported by scientific studies)

Aloe has been historically used for many of the same conditions for which it is used today—particularly constipation and minor cuts and burns. In India, it has been used by herbalists to treat intestinal infections, suppressed menses, and colic.
Active constituents of aloe

The constituents of aloe latex responsible for its laxative effects are known as anthraquinone glycosides. These molecules are split by the normal bacteria in the large intestines to form other molecules (aglycones), which exert the laxative action. Since aloe is such a powerful laxative, other plant laxatives such as senna or cascara are often recommended first.

Topically, it is not yet clear which constituents are responsible for the wound healing properties of aloe.1 Test tube studies suggest polysaccharides, such as acemannon, help promote skin healing by anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immune-stimulating actions. Aloe’s effects on the skin may also be enhanced by its high concentration of amino acids, as well as vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and essential fatty acids.

Aloe has been used to treat minor burns.2 Stabilized aloe gel is applied to the affected area of skin three to five times per day. Older case studies reported that aloe gel applied topically could help heal radiation burns,3 and a small clinical trial found it more effective than a topical petroleum jelly in treating burns.4 However, a large, modern, placebo-controlled trial did not find aloe effective for treating minor burns.5

Two small controlled human trials have found that aloe, either alone or in combination with the oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide, effectively lowers blood sugar in people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes.6 7

An aloe extract in a cream has been shown effective in a double-blind, controlled trial in people with psoriasis.8
How much aloe is usually taken?

For constipation, a single 50–200 mg capsule of aloe latex can be taken each day for a maximum of ten days.

For minor burns, the stabilized aloe gel is applied topically to the affected area of skin three to five times per day. Treatment of more serious burns should only be done under the supervision of a healthcare professional. For internal use of aloe gel, two tablespoons (30 ml) three times per day is used by some people for inflammatory bowel conditions, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (see precautions below). For type 2 diabetes, clinical trials have used one tablespoon (15 ml) of aloe juice, twice daily. Treatment of diabetes with aloe should only be done under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Are there any side effects or interactions with aloe?

Except in the rare person who is allergic to aloe, topical application of the gel is generally safe. For any burn that blisters significantly or is otherwise severe, medical attention is absolutely essential. In some severe burns and wounds, aloe gel may actually impede healing.9

The latex form of aloe should not be used by anyone with inflammatory intestinal diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or appendicitis. It should also not be used by children, or by women during pregnancy or breast-feeding.10

In people with constipation, aloe latex should not be used for more than ten consecutive days as it may lead to dependency and fluid loss. Extensive fluid loss may lead to depletion of important electrolytes in the body such as potassium.11

===
[[Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)]]
[[Knee synovitis]]
Knee synovitis occurs when the synovial membrane which lines and lubricates the knee joint, becomes inflamed. Synovitis may be caused by another condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, or may develop on its own. All of the large joints in the body (such as the knee, hip and shoulder) are synovial joints. These joints are surrounded by a synovial membrane which encapsulates the joint and lubricates it by secreting synovial fluid. This lining can become inflamed, causing pain and stiffness in the joint. Synovitis is usually a secondary condition, caused by another ailment, such as arthritis.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane plays an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The synovial tissue of patients with initial OA is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells and production of ''proinflammatory cytokines'' and other mediators of joint injury. 

''[[Low level laser|Low level laser therapy]] treatment with 50 mW'' was more efficient than 100 mW in reducing cellular inflammation, and decreased the expression of IL-1β and IL-6. However, the 100 mW treatment led to a higher reduction of TNFα compared with the 50 mW treatment. 
808 nm, 4 J, 142.4 J/cm2
http://arthritis-research.com/content/15/5/R116
http://www.kombuchatea.co.uk
http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Kombucha-Tea
!Roast leg of lamb with tomato gravy
Late autumn often produces some of the best tomatoes, sweet-sharp and intensely flavoursome. Some spinach and roast potatoes would be good here.
serves 6
leg of lamb - 2kg
a little olive oil
2 whole heads of garlic
tomatoes - 750g
olive oil - 50ml
balsamic vinegar - 50ml
several sprigs of oregano
Set the oven at 230 c/gas 8. Rub the lamb all over with a little olive oil. Season the fat and any flesh you can get at with salt and black pepper and lay it in a roasting tin, tuck the heads of garlic, halved and tossed in a little olive oil, under the meat. Roast in the hot oven for 20 minutes. Turn down the heat to 200 c/gas 6 and continue cooking for a further 30 minutes.
Cut the larger tomatoes in half and toss them in a bowl with a grinding of salt and pepper, the olive oil, balsamic vinegar and oregano leaves pulled from their stems. When the 30 minutes cooking is up, tip the tomatoes and their dressing around the lamb and continue roasting for a further 25 minutes.
Remove the lamb from the roasting tin and leave it to rest, somewhere warm and with a bowl or tea towel over it. This will keep the flesh moist and allow it to relax. Please, don’t skip this resting; it will keep the meat much juicier than if you hack at it the second it comes from the oven.
Turn the oven up to 230 c/gas 8. Return the tomatoes, garlic and pan juices to the oven and leave them for 10-15 minutes while the meat rests. Take the roasting tin out of the oven, remove about a third of the roast tomatoes and keep them warm. Using a potato masher or draining spoon, squash the remaining tomatoes and the garlic into the pan juices. Tip the the lot into a sieve suspended over a warm bowl or saucepan. Push the tomato pulp through the sieve with a wooden spoon then discard the remains. Check the seasoning of the tomato ‘gravy’ underneath, and correct it with salt, pepper and balsamic vinegar. I tend to heat it up for a minute, too, but then, I like my gravy really hot.
Carve the lamb and spoon and serve with the roasted tomatoes and the tomato gravy.
+++[Dictionaries and translators]
!Metasearchers
|Meta-search|http://www.onelook.com/|
|dictionary.net/|http://www.dictionary.net/|
|Dictionary.com|http://www.dictionary.com/|
|FreeDictionary|http://www.thefreedictionary.com/|
!Translators
|AltaVista Translator|http://babelfish.altavista.digital.com|
===
----
[[English Language]]
[[English as a Foreign Language]]
[[Linguistic Terms]]
[[Use of English]]
!Green laser
Bahr and other acupuncturists also conducted a study with 27 patients and applied both traditional metal needles and laser needles. The laser beam power varied between 1.5 and five Watt per square centimetre. With the help of Doppler sonography the scientists tested if the flow rate of blood within the eye artery responded to the treatment. The result: Both the metal needles and their laser peers increased the flow rate. In addition, the more intensive the laser stimulus was, the higher was the flow rate. 
Green laser light only fits for ear acupuncture, says Bahr. Within a depth of four millimetres, half of it is already absorbed. Red light permeates the skin up to ten millimetres, infrared light makes it up to four to six centimetres below the body’s surface.
----
MEDICA.de; Source: Dt. Gesellschaft zur Förderung der med. Diagnostik e. V.
----
Depending on the power and type of laser you are using, generally you are going to treat for approximately 15-60 seconds per point. Most practitioners report having good treatment effects in 10-15 seconds, depending on the type of laser used. Points that require deeper needling, like the legs and torso, may need longer treatment times. Ears, hands and feet require less treatment time.

Most commonly you will find 5 mW lasers for acupuncture
----
http://www.acupuncturetoday.com/mpacms/at/article.php?id=32725
----
http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser.htm/printable
[[1072 nm light]]
!Reviews
A higher powered laser is ideal = shorter time and greater depth.
http://www.aliexpress.com/cold-laser_reviews.html
http://coldlasertherapyreviews.com/
!What to buy
!Hay fever and allergies
[[Lloyds Pharmacy Nasal probes|http://www.lloydspharmacy.com/en/allergy-reliever-15677]] - 652 nanometer & 940 nm
This device is stated to be a class IIA medical device that uses dual wavelength photo-therapy (652 nanometer & 940 nm).One wavelength is stated to improve blood flow and circulation whilst the second red light wavelength suppresses the cells that release histamine therefore reducing inflamation and the irritation symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
!630nm
''[[Biostick|http://www.syrolight.com/biostick]]'' - LEDs - coldsores
----
Wavelength: 630 nm
Beam area at focus: 0.5 cm2
Number of therapeutic LED: 4
Continuous Wave Mode
Total light power: 18 mW
----
''Venkman softlaser pen''
----
Unit class: Low-level laser class 3 A
Laser: GaALAs (Gallium-Aluminium-Arsenide) diode, continuous beam
Power output:     max. 6mW
Laser wavelength:  635-670nm
!660nm
*Lloyds Pharmacy SpotClear Advance - has a 7 LED or 24 LED option
Designed for clearing acne but theoretically should improve skin.
!1,072nm
''[[Lipzore|http://www.expresschemist.co.uk/lipzor-light-device.html]]'' for cold sores
''Virulite'' - cold sores
https://www.justvitamins.co.uk/blog/
http://www.knowledgeofhealth.com/
----
http://www.medgadget.com/
----
<html><body>
<iframe src="http://www.scoop.it/t/keep-fit/js?format=square&amp;numberOfPosts=8&amp;title=Keep+fit&amp;speed=3&amp;mode=normal&amp;width=300" align="middle" frameborder="0" height="250" scrolling="no" width="300"></iframe>
</body></html>

[[Road to fitness stories]]
----
+++[Health newsfeeds]
<html><body>
<iframe id="newsblock"  style="border-style: none;border-width: 0;border-color: #FFFFFF;background-color: #FFFFFF;width: 200px;height: 800px;" src="http://www.poweringnews.com/newsframe.aspx?feedurl=http%3A//www.telegraph.co.uk/health/rss&maxitems=-1&showfeedtitle=0&showtitle=1&showdate=1&showsummary=1&showauthor=0&showactionsbox=0&showrsslink=0&showcopyright=1&opennewwindow=1&inheritstyles=0&bgcolor=%23FFFFFF&titlefontsize=10&summaryfontsize=10&fontfamily=Arial%2CHelvetica&titlecolor=%230000CC&summarycolor=%23000000&sepstyle=none&sepcolor=%23A0A0A0&objectid=newsblock98952608" frameborder="0"></iframe>

<iframe id="newsblock"  style="border-style: none;border-width: 0;border-color: #FFFFFF;background-color: #FFFFFF;width: 200px;height: 800px;" src="http://www.poweringnews.com/newsframe.aspx?feedurl=http%3A//www.dailymail.co.uk/health/index.rss&maxitems=-1&showfeedtitle=0&showtitle=1&showdate=1&showsummary=1&showauthor=0&showactionsbox=0&showrsslink=0&showcopyright=1&opennewwindow=1&inheritstyles=0&bgcolor=%23FFFFFF&titlefontsize=10&summaryfontsize=10&fontfamily=Arial%2CHelvetica&titlecolor=%230000CC&summarycolor=%23000000&sepstyle=none&sepcolor=%23A0A0A0&objectid=newsblock54366515" frameborder="0"></iframe>

<iframe id="newsblock"  style="border-style: none;border-width: 0;border-color: #FFFFFF;background-color: #FFFFFF;width: 200px;height: 800px;" src="http://www.poweringnews.com/newsframe.aspx?feedurl=http%3A//www.medicalnewstoday.com/rss/mens_health.xml&maxitems=-1&showfeedtitle=0&showtitle=1&showdate=1&showsummary=1&showauthor=0&showactionsbox=0&showrsslink=0&showcopyright=1&opennewwindow=0&inheritstyles=0&bgcolor=%23FFFFFF&titlefontsize=10&summaryfontsize=10&fontfamily=Arial%2CHelvetica&titlecolor=%230000CC&summarycolor=%23000000&sepstyle=none&sepcolor=%23A0A0A0&objectid=newsblock23131750" frameborder="0"></iframe>
</body></html>
===
+++[Keep Fit newsfeeds]
<html><body>
<iframe id="newsblock"  style="border-style: none;border-width: 0;border-color: #FFFFFF;background-color: #FFFFFF;width: 200px;height: 800px;" src="http://www.poweringnews.com/newsframe.aspx?feedurl=http%3A//www.menshealth.co.uk/building-muscle/rss/&maxitems=-1&showfeedtitle=0&showtitle=1&showdate=1&showsummary=1&showauthor=0&showactionsbox=0&showrsslink=0&showcopyright=1&opennewwindow=1&inheritstyles=0&bgcolor=%23FFFFFF&titlefontsize=10&summaryfontsize=10&fontfamily=Arial%2CHelvetica&titlecolor=%230000CC&summarycolor=%23000000&sepstyle=none&sepcolor=%23A0A0A0&objectid=newsblock73660458" frameborder="0"></iframe>

<iframe id="newsblock"  style="border-style: none;border-width: 0;border-color: #FFFFFF;background-color: #FFFFFF;width: 200px;height: 800px;" src="http://www.poweringnews.com/newsframe.aspx?feedurl=http%3A//www.coreperformance.com/rss/&maxitems=-1&showfeedtitle=0&showtitle=1&showdate=1&showsummary=1&showauthor=0&showactionsbox=0&showrsslink=0&showcopyright=1&opennewwindow=1&inheritstyles=0&bgcolor=%23FFFFFF&titlefontsize=10&summaryfontsize=10&fontfamily=Arial%2CHelvetica&titlecolor=%230000CC&summarycolor=%23000000&sepstyle=none&sepcolor=%23A0A0A0&objectid=newsblock33004552" frameborder="0"></iframe>
</body></html>

===
<<showUpdates>>
http://www.takelegaladvice.com
http://www.communitylegaladvice.org.uk
http://www.lawontheweb.co.uk
To make energy-boosting lemonade you will need:
2 tbs fresh squeezed lemon juice (approx. ½ - 1 organic or unwaxed lemon)
300-500ml water
1 tsp organic Grade B maple syrup (optional)
Pinch cayenne pepper

+++[24 March BBC news reports on wind farms and Arab protest]
Yet more examples of BBC bias, partiality and lack of objectivity. Sometimes when I am listening to BBC television news it is like listening to a propaganda broadcast for the Israeli government or today, for the Wind Farm Business interest. ON BBC News at about 11.25:

Subject: report on Umm al-Fahm protest.
The item ended with "Umm al-Fahm is a bastion of Arab-Israeli nationalism." Well that's all right then. Why make such a statement? It's got nothing to do with the protests - certainly not as you reported it - and is it even true? Is it relevant? And I think it is more approprate to state who the marchers were but you did not. The reason for making such an odd statement is to shift the blame onto the Arabs. It's such a jarring addon the the story it was obviously deliberately and for no good reason inserted by one of your editorial staff - is he/she Jewish by any chance? Also, the video clips I am watching from your own web site show far more clearly the severity of the events. Why was a watered down non-event shown on live TV - are we afraid of offending my granny? Not much chance of that.

Subject: Report on the RSPB's decision not to oppose Wind Farms
Your reporter sounded like a messenger from the Wind Farm industry, talking about delays to to planning decsions, how far we are behind (our own targets would you believe!!) some other countries. And so! Doh! What that does is plant seeds of misinformaation into the minds of the majority brainless public.

Watching BBC news is a bit like watching Question Time - a waste of time because you are not going to hear anything that rocks the establishment boat - no dissenting voices here!
===
+++[23 Oct to Daily Mail on Nick Griffith]
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1222424/BNPs-Nick-Griffin-jeered-BBC-Question-Time.html
Question Time was a disgrace. It was a packed audience consisting of all the people you would expect to hate the BNP, unrepresentative of what the rest of Britain actually thinks. It was an ugly Lynch mob, showing the ugly, irrational. hysterical face of the democratic mob. And Dimbelby was not impartial either. What are his crimes? He attacks Islam - not allowed. He doesn't want immigration - bad boy, not allowed. He thinks the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan are illegal. Not allowed. He doesn't believe that 6m Jews were killed in the Holaucast - a crime. But when the Muslim MP (who talked the most sense actually) criticised immigration policy - not a murmur. The Thought Police are just around the corner, watching You and the audience were the heavies ready to attack anyone thinking the wrong way. Churchill was an Imperialist, basically a white supremacist  - he certainly didn't fight the Nazis to liberate India, Vietnam or Malaysia. 
===
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_therapy
[[Low level laser therapy]]
[[Lasers for home use]]
[[1072 nm light]]
[[LED devices]]
----
Light therapy or phototherapy or photobiomodulation (classically referred to as heliotherapy) consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light. The light is administered for a prescribed amount of time and, in some cases, at a specific time of day.

Lasers and LED's produce intense beams of light at specific wavelengths. When the right wavelength at the right intensity is used at the correct anatomical location for the right amount of time you can stimulate repair, resolve inflammation and reduce pain by changing biochemical reactions at the level of the cell. LED light can be as effective as a laser.

The therapeutic range of wavelengths is from 600 to 1200 nanometers which is red light that you can see at the lower end moving into invisible light at the upper end. Wavelengths in the range 600–700 nm are used to treat superficial tissue, and longer wavelengths in the range 780–950 nm, which penetrate further, are used to treat deeper-seated tissues.

You can find devices like these in Boots for example, mostly for skin quality enhancement and for clearing spots. Even a common laser pointer uses a therapeutic wavelength of about 660nm. Theoretically you could use it to help clear a cold sore by shining the light directly onto the cold sore for 1 to 3 minutes 3 times a day. 
+++[Homophones]
Words which sound the same but have a different meaning & spelling.
Surely you can do something!
I can, but don’t call me Shirley!
!!Homophonic phrases
Syllable for syllable, phrases sound alike, but the sum of the meaning is different. Not frequently found in English - have to be forced.
Where did Humpty Dumpty leave his hat?
Humpty dumped ‘is ‘at on a wall.
What happened to the snake with a cold?
She adder viper nose.
What did the electrician’s wife say when he came in late?
Wire you insulate?
===
+++[Homonyms]
Words which are spelled the same but have different meanings.
How do you hire a horse?
Put a brick under each foot.
Is the tomb of Karl Marx just another Communist plot?

Bloodnok: You can’t come in, I’m in the bath,
Seagoon: (off) What are you doing in the bath?
Bloodnok: I’m watching television.
Seagoon: (off) What’s showing?
Bloodnok: Nothing, I’ve got a towel round me.

Which plant makes money?
Mint.

Whether life is worth living depends on the liver .

The small of my back is too big doctor.

Where do fish learn to swim?
In a school.

What runs along every street in town?
The pavement

Can I interest you in a nightcap?
No thanks, I don’t wear one. (Naked Gun)

How do you get down from an elephant? (get down=phrasal verb)
You don’t, you get down from a swan. (get down = verb + object)

There was a record number of births in Kilburn this week. Apparently, it was due to the Irish sweep. He has now moved to Camden Town.

Of a neon display in STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” :

Moon: It has scale, it has colour, it is, in the best sense of the word, electric. (p11)
===
+++[Homonymic phrases]
Whole phrases can be turned into homonymic puns.

’I have designs on you’ as the tattooist said to his girlfriend.

What did the needle say to the thread?

I’ve got my eye on you.
===
+++[Mimes]
Phonetic similitudes, usually rhymes, with the appeal of homophones.

What do cannibals play at parties?
Swallow my leader.

What is pink, wobbly and flies?
A jellycopter.

What do policeman have in their sandwiches?
Truncheon meat.

What did the duck say as it flew upside down?
I’m quacking up.

What do hedgehogs eat for breakfast?
Prickled onions.
===
+++[Mimetic phrases]
As mimes, but based on well known phrases.

Hollywood, land of mink and honey.

Your honey or your life.
Your honey - or your wife?

Are Eskimos God’s frozen people?

A cannibal came home to find his wife cutting up a boa constrictor and a small native. ‘Oh, no’, he said, ‘not snake and pygmy pie again.
===
+++[Deconstruction or pseudomorphs]
!!False word forms.

Seagoon: A penguin please
Sellers: Certainly, I’ll look in the catalogue.
Seagoon: But I don’t want a cat, I want a penguin.
Sellers: Then I’ll look in the penguin-logue

What do you do with a wombat?
Play wom.

Samson was terribly dis-tressed by Delilah.

Be alert!
Your country needs lerts.

What do you give an injured lemon?
Lemon-aid

Which bird always succeeds?
A budgie with no teeth.
===
+++[Bilingual puns]
Where a foreign words is made to bear the sense of an English word by homophonic accident or literal translation.

What do Frenchmen eat for breakfast?
Huit-heures bix. (Weetabix)

Here lies Willie Longbottom Aged 6.
Ars longa, vita brevis

’Je t’adore’, he whispered passionately in her ear.
’Shut it yourself’ she shouted back at him.
===
+++[Other forms of word play]

!!Playing with rules of conversation

At customs –

Customs officer: Cigarettes, brandy, whisky...
Girl: How kind you are in this country. I’ll have a coffee please.

(Request for information mistaken for offer- same form covers different functions.)
You know your great great great great grandfather?
Yes?
No you don’t, he’s dead!

(Conversation markers taken literally).

Where did King John sign the Magna Carta?
At the bottom.

Waiter, your thumb is in my soup.
Don’t worry , Sir, it’s not hot.

How do you stop a skunk smelling?
Hold his nose.
===
+++[Malapropism]
The use of a word in mistake for one sounding similar to comic effect (Named after Mrs Malaprop in Sheridan’s play The Rivals who made many such mistakes.)

Illiterate him, I say, quite from your memory.
He is the very pineapple of politeness!

She’s as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile. (all Sheridan)

Dot Cotton, Eastenders - Why don’t you go & do some aerobatics ? (aerobics)

Heat is generated internally by eccentricity and distributed through conviction .
(electricity, convection)
===
+++[Portmanteaux]
Lewis Carroll’s term for two words and meanings packed into one word.

If buttercups are yellow, what colour are hiccups?
Burple.

What do you call an overweight pumpkin?
A plumpkin.
===
+++[Spoonerism]
Ttransposition, usually accidental, of the initial letters etc of two or more words. Named after Rev W. A. Spooner, English scholar, died 1930 - reputed to have made such errors in speaking.

You have hissed the mystery lectures.

The Lord is a shoving leopard.

You have deliberately tasted two worms (wasted two terms) and will leave Oxford on the town drain (down train).

pillified and villoried (STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND”)

When I pick you up, I’ll heap my porn outside your door.

A type of joke is based on this kind of wordplay:

What’s the difference between a night watchman and a butcher?
One stays awake, the other weighs a steak.
What’s the difference between a barber in Rome and a mad circus owner?
One is a shaving Roman and the other a raving showman.
===
+++[Axial clash]
Where a word changes in grammatical function creating another meaning.

How do you make a cat drink?
Put it in a liquidizer.

Why did the window box?
Because it saw the garden fence.

How do you make a sausage roll?
Give it a push.

How do you make a Maltese cross?
Tread on his toes.

How do you make an elephant float?
Take two scoops of ice-cream,some lemonade, and add one elephant
===
+++[Playing with word boundaries]

Steven , you have acute appendicitis.
I came here to be treated, not admired doctor.

How could you say in one word that you had come across a doctor?
Metaphysician.

Knock Knock
Who’s there?
Felix
Felix who?
Felix-ited all over!

Keep Fit by Jim Nastics

Hospitality by Colin Anytime

Keep it up by Lucy Lastic
Is a Buddhist monk refusing an injection at the dentist trying to transcend dental meditation?

Why can’t you starve in the desert?
Because of the sandwich is there.

Why did the man throw the butter out of the window?
Because he wanted to see the butterfly.
===
+++[Playing with syntax]

The surgeon told the man that he would be in a deep sleep throughout the operation.
She took the stethoscope from round his neck and twisted it nervously in her hands.
(unclear what the pronoun refers to)

Mummy, Mummy, I don’t like Daddy.
Then leave him on the side of your plate and eat your vegetables.

A Scotsman takes all his money out of the bank once a year for a holiday; once it’s had a holiday he puts it back again.

Mummy, can I go out to play?
With these holes in your trousers?
No, with the girl next door.

Is it bad to write on an empty stomach?
No, but it’s better to write on paper.
===
+++[Mocking language of certain groups]

In STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND”, ‘critic- speak’, including their tendency to refer to other texts and to sprinkle their comments with foreign phrases, is mocked throughout, e.g.:
Moon : Let me say at once that it has elan while at the same time avoiding eclat .
Moon : Je suis , it seems to be saying, ergo sum . .... I think we are entitled to ask - and here one is irresistibly reminded of Voltaire’s cry, ‘ Voila ‘! - I think we are entitled to ask - Where is God ?
===
+++[Inappropriate register]

Radio : Here is another police message. Essex county police are still searching in vain for the madman who is at large in the deadly marshes of the coastal region. Inspector Hound, who is masterminding the operation.is not available for comment but it is widely believed that he has a secret plan.... Meanwhile police and volunteers are combing the swamps with loud-hailers, shouting, ‘Don’t be a madman. Give yourself up.’

(STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” p14)
Birdboot : ...I can’t... I’m not alone.... All right! I love your little pink ears and you are my own fluffy bunny-boo....

(STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” p32)
===
+++[Sexual innuendo]

Birdboot : Of course, she lacks technique as yet- (STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” p36)

Magnus : Well I think I’ll go and oil my gun. (STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” p38)
===
+++[Ambiguity]
!!Playing with rules of conversation

’This car has had one careful owner Sir’, said the salesman.
’But it’s covered with dents and scratches!’
’I’m afraid the other owners weren’t so careful’.

Hound : You never know, there might have been a serious matter.
Cynthia : Drink?
Hound : More serious than that, even.
(STOPPARD’S “REAL INSPECTOR HOUND” p27)
===
+++[Hyperbole]
Exaggeration for effect, often comic.
===
+++[Bathos]
An anticlimax; a change in mood from the sublime to the absurd or trivial.

Moon : Pistachio fudge? Nectarine cluster? Hickory Nut Praline? Chateau Neuf de Pape ‘55 Cracknell?
Birdboot : I’m afraid not.. Caramel?
Moon : Faced as we are with such ubiquitous obliquity it is hard, it is hard indeed, and therefore I will not attempt, to refrain from invoking the names of Kafka, Sartre, Shakespeare, St. Paul, Beckett, Birkett, Pinero, Pirandello, Dante and Dorothy L. Sayers.
This A-Level English Language resource was found free at www.englishresources.co.uk
===
[[Literature Articles|Literature]]
[[Literature Websites]]
[[Book Reviews]]
[[Famous Writers]]
----
http://shakespeare.clusty.com
http://www.opensourceshakespeare.com
!Definitions
|Complete but wordy|http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Canons/Style.htm|
!Underground Poems
|London Underground collection|http://tube.tfl.gov.uk/content/poems/archive.asp|
!Great Artists
|European Artists|http://www.artofeurope.com/|
!Selection of books with downloadable texts and some audio
|Books to download|http://www.hylandmadrid.com/en/books/book.htm|
+++*[THE VICTORIAN AGE (1837−1901)]

HISTORICAL OUTLINE. Amid the many changes which make the reign of Victoria the most progressive in English history, one may discover three tendencies which have profoundly affected our present life and literature. The first is political and democratic: it may be said to have begun with the Reform Bill of 1832; it is still in progress, and its evident end is to deliver the government of England into the hands of the common people. In earlier ages we witnessed a government which laid stress on royalty and class privilege, the spirit of which was clarioned by Shakespeare in the lines:
Not all the water in the rough rude sea
Can wash the balm from an anointed king.

In the Victorian or modern age the divine right of kings is as obsolete as a suit of armor; the privileges of royalty and nobility are either curbed or abolished, and ordinary men by their representatives in the House of Commons are the real rulers of England.
With a change in government comes a corresponding change in literature. In former ages literature was almost as exclusive as politics; it was largely in the hands of the few; it was supported by princely patrons; it reflected the taste of the upper classes. Now the masses of men begin to be educated, begin to think for themselves, and a host of periodicals appear in answer to their demand for reading matter. Poets, novelists, essayists, historians,-all serious writers feel the inspiration of a great audience, and their works have a thousand readers where formerly they had but one. In a word, English government, society and literature have all become more democratic. This is the most significant feature of modern history.
===


+++*[THE SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT]
The second tendency may be summed up in the word “scientific.” At the basis of this tendency is man’s desire to know the truth, if possible the whole truth of life; and it sets no limits to the exploring spirit, whether in the heavens above or the earth beneath or the waters under the earth. From star−dust in infinite space (which we hope to measure) to fossils on the bed of an ocean which is no longer unfathomed, nothing is too great or too small to attract man, to fascinate him, to influence his thought, his life, his literature. Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859), which laid the foundation for a general theory of evolution, is one of the most famous books of the age, and of the world. Associated with Darwin were Wallace, Lyell, Huxley, Tyndall and many others, whose Outlines of English and American Literature 165 essays are, in their own way, quite as significant as the poems of Tennyson or the novels of Dickens.
It would be quite as erroneous to allege that modern science began with these men as to assume that it began with the Chinese or with Roger Bacon; the most that can be said truthfully is, that the scientific spirit which they reflected began to dominate our thought, to influence even our poetry and fiction, even as the voyages of Drake and Magellan furnished a mighty and mysterious background for the play of human life on the Elizabethan stage. The Elizabethans looked upon an enlarging visible world, and the wonder of it is reflected in their prose and poetry; the Victorians overran that world almost from pole to pole, then turned their attention to an unexplored world of invisible forces, and their best literature thrills again with the grandeur of the universe in which men live.
===


+++*[IMPERIALISM]
A third tendency of the Victorian age in England is expressed by the word “imperialism.” In earlier ages the work of planting English colonies had been well done; in the Victorian age the scattered colonies increased mightily in wealth and power, and were closely federated into a world−wide Empire of people speaking the same noble speech, following the same high ideals of justice and liberty.
The literature of the period reflects the wide horizons of the Empire. Among historical writers, Parkman the American was one of the first and best to reflect the imperial spirit. In such works as A Half−Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe he portrayed the conflict not of one nation against another but rather of two antagonistic types of civilization: the military and feudal system of France against the democratic institutions of the Anglo−Saxons. Among the explorers, Mungo Park had anticipated the Victorians in his Travels in the Interior of Africa (1799), a wonderful book which set England to dreaming great dreams; but not until the heroic Livingstone’s Missionary Travels and Research in South Africa, The Zambesi and its Tributaries and Last Journals

[Footnote: In connection with Livingstone’s works, Stanley’s How I Found Livingstone (1872) should also be read. Livingstone died in Africa in 1873, and his Journals were edited by another hand. For a summary of his work and its continuation see Livingstone and the Exploration of Central Africa (London, 1897).] appeared was the veil lifted from the Dark Continent. Beside such works should be placed numerous stirring journals of exploration in Canada, in India, in Australia, in tropical or frozen seas,-wherever in the round world the colonizing genius of England saw opportunity to extend the boundaries and institutions of the Empire. Macaulay’s Warren Hastings, Edwin Arnold’s Indian Idylls, Kipling’s Soldiers Three,-a few such works must be read if we are to appreciate the imperial spirit of modern English history and literature.
===


+++*[POETS OF THE VICTORIAN AGE]
<<<
ALFRED TENNYSON (1809−1892)
ROBERT BROWNING (1812−1889)
ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING (1806−1861)
MATTHEW ARNOLD (1822−1888)
<<<
!THE PRE−RAPHAELITES. 
In the middle of the nineteenth century, or in 1848 to be specific, a number of English poets and painters banded themselves together as a Pre−Raphaelite Brotherhood. [Footnote: The name was used earlier by some German artists, who worked together in Rome with the purpose of restoring art to the medieval simplicity and purity which, as was alleged, it possessed before the time of the Italian painter Raphael. The most famous artists of the English brotherhood were John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt.] They aimed to make all art more simple, sincere, religious, and to restore “the sense of wonder, reverence and awe” which, they believed, had been lost since medieval times. Their sincerity was unquestioned; their influence, though small, was almost wholly good; but unfortunately they were, as Morris said, like men born out of due season. They lived too much apart from their own age and from the great stream of common life out of which superior art proceeds. For there was never a great book or a great picture that was not in the best sense representative, that did not draw its greatness from the common ideals of the age in which it was produced.
The first poet among the Pre−Raphaelites was Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828−1882), the son of an exiled Italian writer.
<<<
William Morris (1834−1896)
ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE (1837−1909)
<<<
===


+++*[THE VICTORIAN NOVELISTS]
<<<
CHARLES DICKENS (1812−1870)
WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY (1811−1863)
MARY ANN EVANS, “GEORGE ELIOT” (1819−1880)
Charlotte Bronte (1816−1855)
Charles Reade (1814−1884)
Anthony Trollope (1815−1882)
<<<
===

!Calf's liver and bacon - Mrs Beaton
Ingredients
    900g liver
    900g bacon
    pepper and salt, to taste
    a small piece of butter
    flour
    2 tbsp lemon-juice
    150ml water

Preparation method

    Cut the liver in thin slices, and cut as many slices of bacon as there are of liver; fry the bacon first, and put that on a hot dish before the fire.
    Fry the liver in the fat which comes from the bacon, after seasoning it with pepper and salt and dredging it with a little flour. Turn the liver occasionally to prevent its burning, and when done lay it round the dish with a piece of bacon between each. Pour away the bacon fat, put in a small piece of butter, dredge in a little flour, add the lemon-juice and water, give one boil, and pour it in the middle of the dish.
!Calves Liver with Bacon,Onions and Balsamico - Jamie Oliver
Ingredients
Serves 2

1 tbsp butter
1 large onion, thinly sliced
1 tsp sugar
2 tbsp balsamico
6 rashers of streaky bacon(rindless)
300-350g calves liver, thinly sliced
2 tbsp olive oil
Some flour for dusting.
Salt and black pepper. 

''Method''
Before you start put the oven/grill on a low heat to keep the onions and bacon warm whilst you cook the liver.

1.Melt the butter in a frying pan and fry the onions and sugar over a medium heat, stirring often. They should be nicely browned when they're ready (takes about 8-10 mins).
2.Add the balsamic vinegar, some salt and pepper and stir into the onions. Remove from the pan and keep them warm.
3. Using the same pan, fry the bacon till browned but not TOO crispy. Keep warm.
4. Now season the liver with salt and pepper then coat lightly with the flour.
5. Clean your frying pan and heat it up till its nice and hot. Add the olive oil then the liver slices and fry over a high heat for about 30 seconds per side. You want the liver to be browned on the outside and pink on the inside. Cooking the liver too long will make it tough and dry !

Serve the liver with mashed potatoes and drizzle with a little balsamico creme (a thicker version of balsamic vinegar, usually sold in a squeezy bottle).

Tip ! You can also serve the liver just as it is with a lambs lettuce salad and some italian/french bread.
!Lemon Olive Oil Liver-Gallbladder Flush
Ingredients: 1/2 Red Grapefruit, 1/4 small lemon, small clove grated garlic (if you are not going anywhere), 1 - 2 Tablespoons first cold-pressed Extra Virgin Olive Oil.
Cut the half grapefruit in 4 slices and cut the rind off. Slice lemon and do the same. Throw the chunks of citrus in the blender. Add grated garlic (optional) and olive oil.
Wait 1 hour before eating. 
!Lemon Olive Oil Liver-Gallbladder Flush #2
This is simply the next logical step using the above recipe. It is a short (2 - 3 day) fast. The grapefruit lemon olive oil drink is taken morning and evening and in between, herb teas, vegetable broth and raw vegetable juice provide sustenance.

The day before and day after such a cleanse, eat lightly - mostly raw salads, a little protein, and raw fruits. 
!Expat info 
http://www.easyexpat.com/
http://www.expat-blog.com/
http://britishexpats.com
!!Gibraltar
http://www.friday-ad.gi/
!Information
http://www.visitlondon.com
http://www.londonpass.com
http://golondon.about.com
http://www.timeout.com/london/
http://www.londonmarkets.co.uk/
http://www.londonsalsa.co.uk/
!Accommodation
!Travel
http://www.tfl.gov.uk

http://wellnessmama.com/4770/lotion-bars/
[[Light therapy]]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_level_laser_therapy
[[Lasers for home use]]
[[1072 nm light]]
[[Cold laser technical detail]]
[[Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy - PEMF]]
[[Laser acupuncture]]
----
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) uses low-level (low-power) lasers or light-emitting diodes to alter cellular function. Whereas high-power lasers ablate tissue, low-power lasers are claimed to stimulate it and to encourage the cells to function. Sometimes called Cold or Biostimulation  lasers.

[[Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT)|http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4126803]] is a fast-growing technology used to treat a multitude of conditions that require stimulation of healing, relief of pain and inflammation, and restoration of function. Although the skin is the organ that is naturally exposed to light more than any other organ, it still responds well to red and near-infrared wavelengths. The photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells. Consequently electron transport, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) nitric oxide release, blood flow, reactive oxygen species increase and diverse signaling pathways get activated. Stem cells can be activated allowing increased tissue repair and healing. In dermatology, LLLT has beneficial effects on wrinkles, acne scars, hypertrophic scars, and healing of burns. LLLT can reduce UV damage both as a treatment and as a prophylaxis. In pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo, LLLT can increase pigmentation by stimulating melanocyte proliferation and reduce depigmentation by inhibiting autoimmunity. Inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and acne can also benefit.
----
!Therapeutic Benefits of Laser Therapy
Lasers and LED's produce intense beams of light at specific wavelengths. When the right wavelength at the right intensity is used at the correct anatomical location for the right amount of time you can stimulate repair, resolve inflammation and reduce pain by changing biochemical reactions at the level of the cell. In addition, high intensity single point lasers can release trigger points and treat acupuncture points instead of needles.
*Anti-inflammatory Action: Laser light reduces swelling, leading to decreased pain, less stiffness, and a faster return to normal joint and muscle function.
*Rapid Cell repair: Laser light accelerates cellular reproduction and healing.
*Faster Wound Healing: Laser light stimulates fibroblast development and accelerates collagen synthesis in damaged tissue.
*Reduced Fibrous Tissue Formation: Laser light reduces formation of scar tissue, leading to more complete healing, with less chance of weakness and re-injury later.
*Increased Vascular Activity: Laser light increases blood flow to the injured area.
*Stimulated Nerve Function: Laser light speeds nerve cell processes, which may decrease pain and numbness associated with nerve-related conditions.
!Conditions treated using laser therapy
*[[Acute soft tissue injuries]] e.g. sprains/strains
*[[Back and neck pain]]
*[[Osteoarthritis]]
*Chronic pain syndromes e.g. RSI, frozen shoulder, chronic low back pain
*Fractures and non-union fractures
*Nerve pain (Neuropathic pain) e.g. from disc injuries
*Ulcers e.g. diabetic ulcers
*Post operative care: Post operative pain, tendon repair, post mastectomy lymphoedema, infected wounds,
*Burns
!How does LLLT or Photomedicine therapy work?
http://youtu.be/Hunknb_g56I
*Therapeutic lasers work by supplying energy to the body in the form of photons of light.
The tissue and cells then absorb this energy, where it is used to accelerate the normal rate of tissue healing.
*The red and near infrared light (600nm – 1000nm) commonly used in LLLT can be produced by laser or high intensity LED. The intensity of LLLT laser and LEDs is not high like a surgical laser and there is no heating effect.
Once the light energy passes through the layers of skin and reaches the target area, it is absorbed and interacts with the light sensitive elements in the cell.
The effects of LLLT are photochemical, like photosynthesis in plants. The laser can affect cell membrane permeability and aid the production of ATP (the fuel for our cells) thereby providing the cell with more energy, which in turn means the cell is in optimum condition to play its part in a natural healing process.
!Evidence
Effect of low-level laser therapy in patients... [Lasers Med Sci. 2014] - PubMed - NCBISourceURL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912778
Effect of low-level laser therapy in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis
Cold Laser Therapy for Pain and Sports InjuriesSourceURL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcZwYjAt7Jk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcZwYjAt7Jk
http://www.electrotherapy.org/
----


<html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="story.closeAllTiddlers();restart();">Home </a></html>[[Site index|Index]][[*News]][[NewsFeeds]] <<search>>^^SearchEngines^^^^MiniBrowser^^^^[[Wikipedia|Wikipeida search window]]^^^^<<newTiddler>>^^ ^^<<upload>>^^^^<<toggleSideBar "Toggle Sidebar" open hide>>^^
The one thing I learned from Euell Gibbons' love affair with nature is
that every day there's something to harvest in the wild for my crock. Jack Keller

In Stalking the Good Life, the late naturalist Euell Gibbons wrote about wild berries. "Actually," he wrote, "I begin picking berries about the time the last spring snow melts away." He then describes in one chapter a succession of harvests of wild wintergreen berries (teaberries), strawberries, red raspberries, black raspberries, wineberries, dewberries, blackberries, blueberries, huckleberries, squaw huckleberries (deerberries), and elderberries. Elsewhere in the book he describes harvests of wild barberries, black haws, cherries, chokecherries, cranberries, grapes, juneberries, wild raisins, squashberries, shadbush berries, serviceberries, sarvisberries, sugar pears, and sugar plums. These are just some of the berries -- but a sampling of what is out there -- growing in the wild and available to be harvested and turned into wine. 

No matter where you live in the world, you live but a short walk or drive away from more edible wild plants than you probably ever imagined. Ancient man was successful as a species because he was capable of eating a very large variety of plants and animals. Many plants bear fruit or other components that can be made into wine suitable for just about any palate. On the pages that follow, I will be describing but a few of the thousands of wild edible plants in the United States and Canada which are suitable in one way or another for winemaking. Readers living outside this geographic area should not turn away. Many of the plants featured herein have relatives scattered all over the globe, and I have consistently tried to identify the genus (and species) of each plant featured so that distant relatives can be identified and recipes adapted to suit them. See "Adapting Recipes," below, for tips on how to do this.

At the end of the text portions of this section, I have listed a few recipes for making wine from wild edible plants. This list is presently small, but will grow in time. Please check back from time to time to see how it has grown. If you want to see a particular recipe there that isn't, send me an email requesting it. I may not respond immediately, but I will respond.

Adapting Recipes

Okay, you're out walking in the woods and come across a thick stand of salmonberries. You pull a couple of plastic bags from your day pack and an hour later you're heading for home with 8-10 pounds of sweet (but slightly tart), fresh fruit. You check your well-thumbed copy of First Steps in Winemaking and strike out. Then you fire up the computer and start burning up the search engines. Nothing! What to do? Well, hopefully you've got a bookmark set to The Winemaking Home Page and are therefore in luck. No, I don't have a salmonberry wine recipe (yet), but I can tell you how to make salmonberry wine. More acurately, I can tell you how to adapt a recipe to serve your purposes, and that's better than nothing.

The first thing you do is ask yourself, "What is a salmonberry similar to?" By similar, I mean most like in type of fruit, taste, pulp, firmness, color, skin or rind if that applied, and type plant. It is unwise to compare fruit from vining plants with fruit from bushes or trees unless there simply is no alternative. So, let's compare the salmonberry with similar berries.

Well, it looks like a salmon-colored blackberry, but tastes more like a red raspberry, wineberry or thimbleberry. Except, in reality, it tastes like none of these. Still, it comes closer in taste to a red raspberry than a blackberry, wineberry or thimbleberry. We might be able to narrow it down further, but this will do--quite nicely, actually. Start with a red raspberry wine recipe and go from there. But first, there are a few things you need to think about.

Fruit Content
With few exceptions, the more fruit you use in making a wine, the fruitier tasting it will be. This can be good or it can be too much. If good, so much the better. If too much, you have a problem. You can blend it with a complementary but weaker tasting wine or with a "second" wine made from the same fruit pulp as the first batch--if you happened to have made one. There really isn't much more you can do. Why is this important?

It's important for two reasons. When making a wine by recipe that specifies a varied quantity--such as 4-6 lbs--you can be assured that using the lesser quantity will make an acceptable wine, but using the larger quantity will make a fruitier wine. If you opt to use the larger quantity, you would be wise to also make a "second" batch using the pressed pulp from the first batch. This will always make a weaker wine, but one that is almost always acceptable on its own merit. More importantly, you'll have that "second" wine to use in blending with the first batch should its taste be too strong for you.

But it's also important when adapting a recipe for another ingredient. If the substituted ingredient lacks the fullness of flavor of the original ingredient called for in the recipe, you'll need to adjust the quantity upwards to make up for what is naturally lacking. In the case of substituting salmonberries for red raspberries, I can tell you right off that salmonberries lack the flavor and aroma raspberries are so famous for. Thus, you'll want to adjust the quantity upwards, but not too much. Berry wines should be subtle, not overpowering. My red raspberry recipe calls for 3-4 lbs of fruit. If using salmonberries instead of raspberries, use 4-5 lbs.

Another thing to consider about fruit content is that when using less fruit rather than more, the lesser amount, if within the recipe limitations, will usually produce a wine that more closely approximates the taste of grape wine, albeit the approximation may take a leap of imagination. What I mean is this: in truth, grape wines do not taste like grape juice, and fruit wines should not taste like fruit juice. My favorite peach wine recipe calls for 3 lbs of peaches per gallon, but I will reduce the amount of fruit to 2-1/2 lbs for an exceptionally flavorable crop. Conversely, for a weakly flavored crop I might increase the amount to 3-1/2 lbs.

Sugar Content and Supplementation
More than anything else, it is the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol by the action of yeast that makes wine. A critical amount of sugar simply must be present or you are wasting your time and ingredients. When this amount is absent, you must add sugar.

The amount you must add, of couse, depends on how much is there to begin with. You determine this by using a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity (S.G.) of the diluted liquor. What I mean by diluted liquor is the combined ingredients in the recipes less the sugar and yeast. If you measured the S.G. of the fruit juice alone and added sugar to attain a starting S.G. of, say, 1.095, that reading would be meaningless the moment you added water and other ingredients. So, combine the ingredients less the sugar and yeast, measure the S.G., and then add sugar to raise the S.G. accordingly.

This is especially important when adapting a recipe to a substitute ingredient. The substitute ingredient almost certainly will not contain exactly the same natural sugar as the ingredient specified in the recipe. You then adjust the sugar content accordingly. This will probably mean an amount close to that called for in the recipe, but not exactly the same amount.

Sugar can be added in several forms and several ways, but usually this boils down to adding refined sugar or adding honey. Unless a recipe specifically calls for honey, I always use sugar, and unless it specifically calls for light or dark brown sugar, I use finely granulated white cane sugar. Cane and beet sugar are both sucrose and are chemically the same. Unrefined brown sugar can still be found, but it is imported these days and usually costs more than domestic brown sugar. Domestic brown sugar is really refined sugar with molasses added. It will affect both taste and color of the wine, but for some wines it is required. Corn sugar is dextrose, preferred for beermaking but tradionally avoided by winemakers. Terry Garey and a few others say you can use it if you want to, but long ago I was taught "vinters scorn what comes from corn;" this ditty may be unfounded, but I've never wanted to risk a batch of wine testing its veracity.

Honey is another subject altogether. It comes in many, many flavors, depending upon the flowers the bees predominately visited while collecting pollens and nectares used to make it. These flavors do affect the wine, but so does the honey itself. Honey tends to mellow out a wine and contributes ever so slightly to body. Some people prefer it for that reason alone, while others prefer it for ecological reasons. I use it only when the recipe calls for it, when I know the wine will otherwise be thin, or when I want to impart a specific flavor to the wine--such as heather, clover, orange, or mesquite.

My problem with honey is that it slows down the clarification process considerably. Honey contains pollen, and pollen takes a long time to settle out. Even when settled, it can easily be lifted from the lees by the siphoning action of racking, and then it must again settle out. If you filter your wine, this is much less a problem than if you don't.

Acidity
Salmonberries are just a little bit more tart than red raspberries. This means it contains something red raspberries don't contain, or lacks something red raspberries don't. Tartness is usually caused by acid, but it could be caused by tannin, pectin, or simply a natural flavor. In the case of salmonberries, it's acid. If the difference were great, you'd want to adjust the amount of added acid in the recipe to be adapted downward, but in this case the difference is so slight as to be negligible. Indeed, the amount of acid blend you might remove from the red raspberry wine recipe is so small that it might easily be absent depending upon how you measure 1/2 tsp. A pinch less might be justified, but that is only about 20-30 grains of the crystalline blend, and that is not worth fretting about.

On the other hand, if the berries were unusually tart, you might cut the amount of acid blend used by 1/8 to 1/5. You wouldn't want to reduce it by more, as acid is essential to the health and reproduction of yeast.

Acidity should not generally be a worry if you have compared your fruit wisely and correctly. If in doubt, however, use an acid testing kit and adjust acidity to no more than 0.60% tartaric.

http://www.maltadirect.com/
!Mango with lime juice
The mangoes at the moment are as good as I’ve ever eaten. Show respect by eating them as they are, or with a squeeze of lime.
serves 3-4
mangoes - 2, perfectly ripe
lime - 1, ripe
Peel the mangoes and discard the skin. Working over a bowl, cut long slices from each side of the fruit, catching as much of the juice as you can in the bowl. Then squeeze over the juice from the lime and leave to chill for half an hour or so. Serve just as it is, without cream, sugar or any other fruit.
http://www.transportdirect.info/TransportDirect/en/
http://www.seat61.com/index.html - for overland travel
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http://maps.google.co.uk
http://www.viewlondon.co.uk
+++[London]
[[Tube map|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:London_Underground_Zone_1.png#file]]
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===
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!Breakfast
* Porridge or Muesli
* Cereal and banana
* Toast and jam or marmite
* French toast
* Cinnamon toast
* Poached or scrambled egg on toast
* Boiled eggs
* Bacon sandwhich
* Egg and bacon
!Lunch
* Sandwhich - egg, bacon etc
* Cheese salad
* Toastie - cheese and tomato
* Sardines on toast
* Omelette
* Boiled, Poached or scrambled egg 
* Soup
* Bacon bone soup and lentils
* Pizza
* Baked potato and filling (tuna)
* Pasta
* Packet noodles
* Macaroni
* Beans on toast with egg or cheese top
!Tea
* Bacon, eggs and chips
* Chili con canre
* Curry
* Fish in Parsley sauce
* Ham salad and chips or potatoes
* Lamb chops and potatoes and vegetables
* Lasagne
* Mince and dumplings in the oven
* Omelette
* Pasta - tuna, garlic, tomatoes etc
* Pie and muchy peas
* Pizza and chips and salad
* Risotto
* Sausage, tomatoes and mashed potatoes
* Shepherds pie
* Smoked haddock
* Spaghetti Bolognese
* Spanish omelette
* Stew
* Stir Fry
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''Help''
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http://aiddlywiki.sourceforge.net/wikibar_demo_2.html



!Sections
Sections in Mediawiki are created by creating their headers. Please, use the example below and replace Section, Subsection and Sub-Subsection with the names you would like to give to your sections:

==Section==
===Subsection===
====Sub-subsection==== 

----
http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knee_cartilage_replacement_therapy
Meniscal transplantation - London Sports Orthopaedics
http://www.kneeguru.co.uk/
http://www.kneeguru.co.uk/KNEEnotes/guest-contributors/mrs-lesley-hall/cruciate-ligament-rehabilitation-tutorials-lesley-hall/cruciate-6
http://kneedoctor.ca/
http://www.saveyourknees.org/

!Calcium
Higher consumption of milk/dairy products reduces the risk of colon cancer, and high calcium intake reduces the risk of CRC.
High calcium intake had a greater protective effect against tumors of the distal colon and rectal cancer vs. proximal colon.
In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that dairy products, calcium, and dietary vitamin D inhibits the development of colorectal cancer (CRC).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116875
http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/calcium-fact-sheet
In this large prospective study in a prostate cancer screening trial, greater dietary intake of calcium and dairy products, particularly low-fat types, may be modestly associated with increased risks for nonaggressive prostate cancer, but was unrelated to aggressive disease. Furthermore, we found no relationship between calcium intake and circulating vitamin D.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18086766
/%
|Name|MiniBrowser|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#MiniBrowser|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin, MiniBrowserList|
|Overrides||
|Description|use an 'inline frame' to display another site inside a tiddler with navigation buttons and a dropdown list of favorite URLs.|

Usage:
<<tiddler MiniBrowser with: myid>>

where:
 id - (optional) specifies an ID to assign to the DOM element for the embedded IFRAME. If you want to have **more than one** MiniBrowser displayed at a time, you MUST provide an ID, so that each MiniBrowser can be uniquely identified within the DOM structure.

Note: MiniBrowserList can be *empty*, but must already exist for you to ADD a favorite to the list. If you don't copy the sample list from TiddlyTools, be sure to create this tiddler in your own document if you intend to use the MiniBrowser's "favorites" droplist.

%/<html><form target="browser_$1" style="margin:0;padding:0"
 onsubmit="this.action=this.url.value; this.form.done.disabled=false" style="margin:0;padding:0"><nobr><!--
--><input type="button" value="<" title="back" style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
 onclick="try{window.frames['browser_$1'].history.go(-1)}catch(e){window.history.go(-1)}" ><!--
--><input type="button" value=">" title="forward" style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
 onclick="try{window.frames['browser_$1'].history.go(+1)}catch(e){window.history.go(+1)}"><!--
--><input type="button" value="+" title="refresh"style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
 onclick="window.frames['browser_$1'].location.reload()"><!--
--><input type="button" value="x" title="stop"style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
 onclick="window.stop()"><!--
--><select name="bookmarks" id="browser_bookmarks_$1" size="1" style="font-size:8pt;width:21%"
 onchange="var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1'); if (!this.value.length) return window.miniBrowserResetSize(); else window.miniBrowserSetSize(this.form); this.form.url.value=this.value; this.form.action=this.value; this.form.submit(); this.form.done.disabled=false">
<option value="">bookmarks...</option>
</select><!--
--><input type="button" value="add" title="add this URL to the MiniBrowser bookmarks" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
 onclick="window.miniBrowserAddBookmark(this.form.url);"><!--
--><input type="button" value="del" title="remove this URL from the MiniBrowser bookmarks" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
 onclick="window.miniBrowserDeleteBookmark(this.form.bookmarks);"><!--
--><input type="button" value="edit" title="edit the MiniBrowser bookmarks list definition" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
 onclick="story.displayTiddler(null,'MiniBrowserList',2)"><!--
--><input type="text" name="url" size="60" value="" style="font-size:8pt;width:35%"
 onfocus="this.select();" onkeyup="var k=event.keyCode; if (k==13|k==10) this.form.go.click();"><!--
--><input type="button" name="go" value="go" title="view this URL" style="font-size:8pt;width:4%"
 onclick="if(!this.form.url.value.length) return; window.miniBrowserSetSize(this.form); this.form.action=this.form.url.value; this.form.submit(); this.form.done.disabled=false"><!--
--><input type="button" value="open" title="open this URL in a separate window" style="font-size:8pt;width:6%"
 onclick="if(this.form.url.value.length) window.open(this.form.url.value)"><!--
--><input type="button" value="done" name="done" title="stop viewing this URL" disabled style="font-size:8pt;width:6%"
 onclick="this.form.url.value=''; this.form.bookmarks.selectedIndex=0; window.miniBrowserResetSize(); this.disabled=true;">
<iframe name="browser_$1" id="browser_$1" style="width:100%;height:1em;display:none;background:#fff;border:1px solid"></iframe><div id="browser_resize_$1" style="text-align:center;marginTop:2px;display:none;font-size:8pt"><!--
--> size: <input type="text" name="w" size="3" value="100%" style="font-size:8pt;"
 onfocus="this.select()"><!--
-->x<input type="text" name="h" size="3" value="400" style="font-size:8pt;"
 onfocus="this.select()"><!--
--> <input type="button" value="set" style="font-size:8pt;"
 onclick="var w=this.form.w.value.trim(); if (!w||!w.length) w='100%'; var h=this.form.h.value.trim(); if (!h||!h.length) h='400'; if (!w.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) w+='px'; if (!h.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) h+='px'; var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1'); f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h;"><!--
--><input type="button" value="reset" style="font-size:8pt;"
 onclick="var w='100%'; var h='400'; var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1'); f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h+'px'; this.form.w.value=w; this.form.h.value=h;"><!--
--><input type="button" value="fit" title="resize to fit containing window" style="font-size:8pt;"
 onclick="window.miniBrowserFitSize(this)"><!--
--></div></nobr></form></html><script>

 // load bookmarks droplist from HR-separated "MiniBrowserList" tiddler contents
 var here=document.getElementById("browser_bookmarks_$1");
 while (here.length) here.options[0]=null; // remove current list items
 here.options[here.length]=new Option("bookmarks...","",true,true);
 var list=store.getTiddlerText("MiniBrowserList");
 if (list && list.trim().length) {
 var parts=list.split("\n----\n");
 for (var p=0; p<parts.length; p++) {
 var lines=parts[p].split("\n");
 var label=lines.shift(); // 1st line=display text
 var value=lines.shift(); // 2nd line=item value
 var indent=value&&value.length?"\xa0\xa0":"";
 here.options[here.length]=new Option(indent+label,value,false,false);
 }
 }

window.miniBrowserSetSize = function(form) {
 var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1');
 var w=form.w.value.trim(); if (!w||!w.length) w='100%'; if (!w.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) w+='px'; 
 var h=form.h.value.trim(); if (!h||!h.length) h='400'; if (!h.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) h+='px';
 f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h; f.style.display="block";
 document.getElementById('browser_resize_$1').style.display="block";
 return false;
}

window.miniBrowserResetSize = function() {
 var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1');
 if (f.src.length) f.src="";
 f.style.width='100%'; f.style.height='1em'; f.style.display="none";
 document.getElementById('browser_resize_$1').style.display="none";
 return false;
}
window.miniBrowserFitSize = function(place) {
 var trim=88; // fudge factor for controls + padding + borders. ADJUST TO FIT LAYOUT
 var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
 if (!t) { t=place; while (t && t.className!='floatingPanel') t=t.parentNode; } if (!t) return;
 var w="100%"; // horizontal stretching via CSS works, but vertical stretching doesn't... so:
 var h=(t.offsetHeight-trim); // workaround: get containing panel/tiddler height and subtract "trim" height
 place.form.w.value=w; place.form.h.value=h; // update width/height input fields
 var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1');
 f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h+"px";
}

window.miniBrowserAddBookmark = function(place) {
 var v=place.value; if (!v.length) return;
 var d=prompt("Please enter a description for\n"+place.value); if (!d || !d.length) return;
 var t = store.getTiddler("MiniBrowserList"); t.set(null,"%0\n%1\n----\n%2".format([d,v,t.text]));
 var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
 if (here) story.refreshTiddler(here.getAttribute("tiddler"),1,true);
 story.refreshTiddler("MiniBrowserList",1,true);
 story.refreshTiddler("MiniBrowser",1,true);
 store.setDirty(true);
}

window.miniBrowserDeleteBookmark = function(place) {
 var v=place.value; if (!v.length) return;
 var d=place.options[place.selectedIndex].text; if (!d.length) return;
 var t = store.getTiddler("MiniBrowserList");
 if (!confirm("Are you sure you want to remove this MiniBrowser bookmark?\n\n"+d+"\n"+v)) return;
 var pat='%0\n%1\n----\n'.format([d.replace(/\xa0/g,''),v]); var re=new RegExp(pat,"i");
 t.set(null,t.text.replace(re,""));
 var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
 if (here) story.refreshTiddler(here.getAttribute("tiddler"),1,true);
 story.refreshTiddler("MiniBrowserList",1,true);
 story.refreshTiddler("MiniBrowser",1,true);
 store.setDirty(true);
}
</script><<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>
----
Google
http://www.google.co.uk/ig?hl=en
----
Lifestyles
http://www.healthwealthandmusic.co.uk
----
Yahoo UK
http://www.yahoo.co.uk
----
Google Groups - discussion/community help
http://groups.google.com/group/TiddlyWiki/
----
http://www.jointhealthmagazine.com/
http://www.herbion.com/herbionwebsite/Arthritis.html
----
*[[Athroplex or Arthrosolve|http://www.lifenaturalcures.com/Scripts/prodView.asp?idProduct=101]] - scam site??
Arnica
• Horse Chestnut
• Meadowsweet
• Mint and Juniper
• Liquorice
• Harpagophytum
• Papaya and pineapple
• Solomon’s Seal
*Oxycollasyn
Biocell Collagen, Celadrin, Opti-MSM, Fruite X-B, 5-Loxin, Sam-E and Regenasure.

Glucosamine Sulfate, Chondroitin Sulfate, Cetyl Myristoleate, Avocado, SAM-e, Turmeric, Ginger Root, White Willow, Cat's Claw, Alfalfa, Barley, Buckwheat, Devil's Claw, Cayenne, Flaxseed, Garlic, Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Soy Isoflavones, Wheatgrass, Acai, Bromelain, Vitamin C, Copper

Manchester University embryonic stem cell research
!Research
http://www.pulsetoday.co.uk/clinical/therapy-areas/complementary-medicine/little-evidence-for-most-complementary-medicines-in-arthritis-finds-review/20001534.article
There is a lack of evidence that complementary therapies such as glucosamine and copper bracelets help treat musculoskeletal conditions, and many therapies carry a risk of side effects, a report by an arthritis charity has found.

The evidence-based review, commissioned by Arthritis Research UK, found that most complementary therapies rated poorly for evidence of efficacy for rheumatoid arthritis, with only fish body oil scoring well and some evidence supporting the use of borage seed oil and evening primrose oil. Only four complementary products were assessed for efficacy in fibromyalgia and none were highly effective, the report found.

There was also concern about the safety of some complementary treatments, with treatments such as chiropractic, osteopathy and flaxseed oil being assigned ‘amber’ warnings for frequency of minor adverse effects.

The complementary therapies that were had the best evidence for efficacy included acupuncture for osteoarthritis, low back pain and fibromyalgia, massage for fibromyalgia and low back pain, tai chi for osteoarthritis and yoga for back pain.

In terms of supplements, capsaicin had the highest level of evidence for efficacy in osteoarthritis, while the nutritional supplement SAMe (S-adneosyl-methionine) was also found to be well tolerated and showed evidence for effectiveness in osteoarthritis.

Other therapies that showed modest evidence for efficacy in osteoarthritis included evening primrose oil, rose hip ginger and green-lipped mussel extract. There was mixed evidence for the efficacy of the widely-used supplement glucosamine in osteoarthritis, with the review noting that it had shown ‘little clinical benefit in terms of pain or changes in the joint’.

Professor Alan Silman, medical director of Arthritis Research UK, said the effectiveness of some complementary therapies in arthritic conditions was likely due to a placebo effect.

‘Complementary therapies are largely chosen by the patient and quite often paid for by the patient, and the relationship between patient and practitioner seems to be crucial in the effectiveness of the treatment,’ he said.

The report noted that up to 60% of people with musculoskeletal conditions in the UK use complementary therapies.
Description: A healthy combination of chicken, fresh tomatoes and spices.
 
Overall preparation time: 40 mins
Serves: 4 
Per serving: 268 calories, 7 (g) of fat 
 
Ingredients:
15ml spoon olive oil
1 red onion, finely sliced
1 clove garlic, crushed
500g pack chicken mince
2 x 5ml spoons ground cinnamon
5ml spoon ground coriander
500g pack fresh plum tomatoes, roughly chopped or 400g can chopped tomatoes
150g ready to eat dried apricots
15ml spoon tomato puree
salt and freshly ground black pepper
 
Method:
Heat the oil in a large saucepan, add the onion and garlic and cook for 3-4 minutes. 

Add the chicken to the onions and cook stirring occasionally for 10 minutes, then add the cinnamon, apricots, coriander, tomatoes and tomato puree. Cover the pan and cook for a further 15 minutes. 

Season to taste and serve. 
http://www.chainreactioncycles.com/Models.aspx?ModelID=8543
https://www.amazon.co.uk/Slime-Inner-tube-sealant-8oz/dp/B000W45GGW
!Buying tyres
[[Buyers guide|http://www.evanscycles.com/buying-guides/tyres]]
----
My Bike - Super East 57-559 ''26x2.125'' = ''660x54mm'' 35-50 PSI
----
For urban riding a slick tyre with maximum puncture resistance is all you really need, but if you want to take it of the beaten track a little, then you should consider a hybrid tyre that has a central tread that is predominantly slick for low rolling resistance, but has a more aggressive side tread, with knobbles to bite into the dirt for off road grip.
Folding bead is supposed to be the best.
!Prices
Continental Traffic MTB Mountain Bike Tyre 26" X 2.1 " Black  - £13 - http://www.pedal-pedal.co.uk/
<!--{{{-->
<!--- http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#MptwEditTemplate ($Rev: 1829 $) --->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar +saveTiddler cancelTiddler deleteTiddler closeOthers permalink references jump wikibar'></div>
<div class="title" macro="view title"></div>
<div class="editLabel">Title</div><div class="editor" macro="edit title"></div>
<div class="editLabel">Tags</div><div class="editor" macro="edit tags"></div>
<div class="editorFooter"><span macro="message views.editor.tagPrompt"></span><span macro="tagChooser"></span></div>
<div macro="showWhenExists EditPanelTemplate">[[EditPanelTemplate]]</div>
<div class="editor" macro="edit text"></div>
<!--}}}-->
/***
| Name|MptwLayoutPlugin|
| Description|A package containing templates and css for the MonkeyPirateTiddlyWiki layout|
| Version|3.0 ($Rev: 1845 $)|
| Source|http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#MptwLayoutPlugin|
| Author|Simon Baird <simon.baird@gmail.com>|
| License|http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#TheBSDLicense|
!Notes
Presumes you have TagglyTaggingPlugin installed. To enable this you should have a PageTemplate containing {{{[[MptwPageTemplate]]}}} and similar for ViewTemplate and EditTemplate.
***/
//{{{
// used in MptwViewTemplate
config.mptwDateFormat = 'DD/MM/YY';
config.mptwJournalFormat = 'Journal DD/MM/YY';
//config.mptwDateFormat = 'MM/0DD/YY';
//config.mptwJournalFormat = 'Journal MM/0DD/YY';

config.shadowTiddlers.GettingStarted += "\n\nSee also MonkeyPirateTiddlyWiki.";

//}}}

//{{{
merge(config.shadowTiddlers,{

'MptwEditTemplate':[
 "<!--{{{-->",
 "<!--- http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#MptwEditTemplate ($Rev: 1829 $) --->",
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 "<div class=\"editLabel\">Tags</div><div class=\"editor\" macro=\"edit tags\"></div>",
 "<div class=\"editorFooter\"><span macro=\"message views.editor.tagPrompt\"></span><span macro=\"tagChooser\"></span></div>",
 "<div macro=\"showWhenExists EditPanelTemplate\">[[EditPanelTemplate]]</div>",
 "<div class=\"editor\" macro=\"edit text\"></div>",
 "<!--}}}-->",
 ""
].join("\n"),

'MptwPageTemplate':[
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 "<!-- http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/#MptwPageTemplate ($Rev: 1829 $) -->",
 "<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>",
 " <div class='headerShadow'>",
 " <span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;",
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 " </div>",
 " <div class='headerForeground'>",
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 " </div>",
 "</div>",
 "<!-- horizontal MainMenu -->",
 "<div id='topMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>",
 "<!-- original MainMenu menu -->",
 "<!-- <div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div> -->",
 "<div id='sidebar'>",
 " <div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>",
 " <div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>",
 "</div>",
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 " <div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>",
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 "<!--}}}-->",
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].join("\n"),

'MptwStyleSheet':[
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 "",
 "/* a contrasting background so I can see where one tiddler ends and the other begins */",
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 "",
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 "",
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 "",
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 " font-weight:bold;",
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 "",
 "/* make shadow go and down right instead of up and left */",
 ".headerShadow {",
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 " top: 1px;",
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 "",
 "/* prefer monospace for editing */",
 ".editor textarea {",
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 "",
 "/* sexy tiddler titles */",
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 " color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];",
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 "",
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 ".viewer {",
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 "",
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 "",
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 "",
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 "",
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 " margin-right: 0.5em;",
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 " color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];",
 " font-size: 115%;",
 "}",
 "#topMenu .button:hover, #topMenu .tiddlyLink:hover {",
 " background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];",
 "}",
 "",
 "/* for Tagger Plugin, thanks sb56637 */",
 ".popup li a {",
 " display:inline;",
 "}",
 "",
 "/* make it print a little cleaner */",
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 " margin:0px ! important;",
 " padding:0px ! important;",
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 " .quickopentag a.button, .miniTag {",
 " display: none ! important;",
 " }",
 "}",
 "/*}}}*/",
 ""
].join("\n"),

'MptwViewTemplate':[
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 "",
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 " <span macro='newJournalHere {{config.mptwJournalFormat?config.mptwJournalFormat:\"MM/0DD/YY\"}}'></span>",
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 "",
 "<div class=\"tagglyTagged\" macro=\"tags\"></div>",
 "",
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 "",
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 "",
 "<div macro=\"showWhenExists ViewPanelTemplate\">[[ViewPanelTemplate]]</div>",
 "",
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 " <div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>",
 "</div>",
 "<div macro=\"showWhen tiddler.tags.containsAny(['css','html','pre','systemConfig']) && !tiddler.text.match('{{'+'{')\">",
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 "</div>",
 "",
 "<div macro=\"showWhenExists ViewDashboardTemplate\">[[ViewDashboardTemplate]]</div>",
 "",
 "<div class=\"tagglyTagging\" macro=\"tagglyTagging\"></div>",
 "",
 "<!--}}}-->",
 ""
].join("\n")

});
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Umej Bhatia discusses Muslim memories of the Crusades and their resonances in Middle Eastern politics today.


On December 11th, 1917, eight centuries after the Kurdish warrior-general Saladin expelled the Crusaders from the holy city of Jerusalem, a British-led Egypt expeditionary force overcame its beleaguered Turkish defenders. The holy city had changed hands after nearly a millennium of Muslim rule, which had been interrupted only by the short-lived Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291) and assorted Crusader states which had introduced an alien, Western Christian, feudal order to the Levant.

Now, as the Ottoman empire tottered, the commander-in-chief of the expeditionary force, General Sir Edmund Allenby approached the Jaffa Gate on the West Wall. Wearing the unspectacular khaki of the British Army, he entered on foot as a mark of respect to the Holy City. But the General had other strategic considerations in mind. The British and Imperial forces included Indian Muslim sepoys who shared the faith of the Ottoman army. After a failed mutiny in the Far East in 1915, they were deemed highly susceptible to the pan-Islamic propaganda of the Central Powers. Allenby therefore had to be careful not to offend their sentiments by invoking a Christian victory. European media coverage was far less circumspect. Allenby’s victory was presented as the ‘consummation of Europe’s last crusade’. The triumphal narrative drew a straight line from the glorious First Crusade of 1095-1101, down to the thwarted Eighth in 1270, encompassing the inconclusive and fizzled Crusades of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This allowed the popular imagination in Europe to claim a final victory in 1917.

But two years after Allenby’s British and Imperial forces took Palestine, it was victory of a more concrete sort that occupied Western statesmen and diplomats who convened in Paris for the frenzied diplomatic activity of the 1919 Peace Conference. Part of the wider mandate to create a lasting post-war peace, which found expression in the Treaty of Versailles, it was also a meeting to supervise the carve-up of the Middle East. In one of many sessions devoted to address the so-called Eastern Question, the French foreign minister Stéphen Jean Marie Pichon began a speech to seek political support for France’s claim to Syria, which he confidently dated back to the Crusades. Pichon’s words resonated among some members of his audience. 

But not all were amused. Among those concentrating on the interpretation of the minister’s speech was the Emir Feisal of the Hijaz. The Emir’s father, the Hashemite Sharif Husayn of Mecca, had led the Arab revolt against Ottoman rule in support of Allied victory in the Middle East. Planned by General Allenby and the Emir’s military advisor, Colonel T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), the desert combat had claimed the lives of many Arab fighters. In return, Sharif Husayn had been promised British support for an Arab state, with the expectation that this would include Greater Syria. 

Feisal overcame French obstruction to arrive in Paris for the Conference, his credentials naming him as his father’s representative, and not as the Crown Prince. Serving as Feisal’s interpreter and aide was the colourful Lawrence, decked out in full Arab regalia. As Pichon held forth on Syria and the Crusades, the trained diplomats present at the meeting would have paid attention to Feisal’s body language. But maintaining the stately composure that had so impressed the American Secretary of State Robert Lansing, Feisal restricted his response to a succinct retort: ‘Pardon me, Monsieur Pichon, but which of us won the Crusades?’ 

Feisal’s riposte had been drawn from a collective memory of the Crusades as a proud and ultimately victorious phase in Islamic history. Pichon, disdainful of Feisal as a British puppet and less impressed by the sight of a regal Arab than his American counterpart, unapologetically asserted France’s crusading pedigree in Syria. In gambits that resemble today’s trans-Atlantic divide, France and Britain played out their age-old rivalry. When Colonel Lawrence met separately with the French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, the British officer was reminded of the French blood spilled during the Crusades. Lawrence’s reply was cutting: ‘Yes… but the Crusaders had been defeated and the Crusades had failed.’ 

France was not deterred by the mere fact of a monumental defeat. A powerful log-rolling lobby ranging from fabric manufacturers in Lyons to Jesuit priests in Beirut had their sights trained on Greater Syria. This was all part of the routine realpolitik of the infamous Sykes-Picot Agreement by which Britain and France agreed to divide the Middle East between them. In addition, France drew inspiration from the poetic glory of the Chanson de Roland, a classic of national poetry that celebrated French valour in the face of a Muslim victory at Roncesvalles. 

Even as Feisal collected debating points, Pichon’s tricolore and a Great-Power backroom deal bested the Hashemite potentate. At the San Remo Conference held in Italy in April 1920, France arrogated to itself the mandate over Greater Syria. Barely three months later, after Feisal’s exile to Italy, the first French high commissioner in Syria, General Henri Gouraud entered Damascus and strode up to Saladin’s tomb. According to some possibly exaggerated accounts, he kicked the tomb, or perhaps merely stumbled, before announcing: ‘Saladin, we have returned. My presence here consecrates the victory of the Cross over the Crescent.’ 

The historic truth of such episodes notwithstanding, contemporary events in the Middle East impart a powerful resonance to the memory of such affronts to Muslim dignity. As the past is recalled, the facts are selectively presented in terms of present preoccupations. Ironically, as distinct terms, the Arabic terms al-hurub al-salibiyya (Crusader wars), or hurub al-salib (wars of the Cross) and al-salibiyyun (Crusaders) first appeared only in modern times among Syrian Christian intelligentsia. Today, shaping the collective memory of the ummah, the worldwide community of Muslims, in particular the majority Sunni population, is a stream of invective designed to resurrect painful memories of the Crusaders and connect them to their contemporary avatars. 

During Islam’s nahda (Rebirth) period of the late nineteenth century, the liberal Egyptian reformer Muhammed Abduh (1849-1905) promoted a polemical view of the Crusades. Rational and judicious, he demonstrated a blind spot, perhaps deliberately cultivated, when it came to discussing the Crusades. Influenced by the pan-Islamic rhetoric of his teacher Jamal al-Afghani, he referred to Europeans as the Franks in the style of his medieval predecessors. He harshly equated the British prime minister William Gladstone, who disliked Jesuit missionaries and was an unenthusiastic imperialist, with Peter the Hermit, the eleventh-century French monk who helped direct the first popular Crusade towards the Holy Land. Making explicit his comparison between the Crusaders and modern European colonialists, Abduh declared: ‘A Frank might reach the highest ranks, like Gladstone, yet still, every word he utters seems to be coming out of Peter the Hermit!’ 

The godfather of modern, militant Islam, Sayyid Qutb (1906-66), expanded Abduh’s polemics on the Crusades. From Egypt, Qutb’s writings on ‘Crusaderism’ spread throughout extremist circles in the Arab Middle East and beyond. In 1988, the Palestinian Hamas Charter referred to both the Allenby and Gouraud incidents. In 1998, Osama Bin Laden, chief ideologue of the transnational terror organisation al-Qaeda, readily played up the clash between the Cross and the Crescent: 

There are two parties to the conflict: World Christianity, which is allied with Jews and Zionism, led by the United States, Britain, and Israel. The second party is the Islamic world.

Yet, bin Laden’s view does not speak for all Muslims. A more nuanced and potentially more authentic, collective memory of the Middle Eastern Crusades does exist, symbolized in part by the memoirs of a twelfth-century Syrian emir, Usamah Ibn Munqidh. He saw the positive and negative aspects of the crusading enterprise, but his voice is a forgotten one. As the Allenby episode demonstrates, the media tends to simplify and thus distort some critical nuances. 

The one-dimensional, black-and-white message of the fundamentalists is well suited to the nature of the mass media, whereas so-called moderates, for want of a better term, have a harder time getting their message across. While the extremists are usually men of action or ideologues, most articulate, moderate Muslims tend to be of an intellectual bent. Their message is not pitched to the lowest common denominator. It is a case of logic versus emotion, and those with effective sound-bites will drown out those who think well but speak softly.

In the case of the Muslim memory of the Crusades, the extremist, agit-prop version of history, whether nationalist or Islamist, is ascendant. You have to look hard to find those who actually tap honestly into the genuine, collective memory of the Crusades. The 1998 novel, Harith al-Miyah (Tiller of the Waves), by the Paris-based Lebanese writer Hoda Barakat describes the multi-layered recollections of a textile merchant, Niqula Mitri in Beirut. His hallucinating imagination amidst the contemporary devastation of Beirut is inter-woven with memories of the disasters that befell the city in the past, including the Frankish invasions, Venetian bombardment, internal wars and Druze-Christian feuds. Barakat sees the period of the medieval Crusades as one of a series of destructive events involving military leaders from different factions in different wars. Religion, solidarity or territorial expansion is not the key factor. He draws no moral or lesson that equates Western imperialism or globalisation with the Crusades. Instead, Barakat’s humane and apolitical vision catalogues the facts of destruction and hopes for survival. In telling the story of the Crusades as one thread in the tapestry of destruction visited upon Beirut, Barakat makes a return to the tradition established by the first Muslim chronicler of the Crusades period, the twelfth-century ad scholar Ibn al-Qalanisi, in his Chronicle of Damascus. 

Tamin al-Barghouti, a young Palestinian poet who teaches at the American University of Cairo, is also among a handful of writers who demonstrate a deep understanding and authentic connection with this episode of history.

Commenting on a recent American foray into the Shi’ite holy city of Najaf, Tamim al-Barghouti recounts a folk tale about an Arab and Frankish fisherman in the coastal town of Acre in the early days of the Crusades. Their fishing lines get tangled, and a quarrel ensues. The Muslim fisherman realises that further provocation would be pointless since the Crusaders out-number the Arabs in Levantine Acre. He makes a deal with the Frank. Each will hit the other with a stick, and the last man standing will take the fish. The hardy Frank agrees, receives his beating without complaint and proceeds to return the favour in kind to the Arab. But the Arab discards his stick and walks away, expressing his dislike for fish, and inviting the Frank to keep his catch. Barghouti recounts the folk tale to illustrate the conviction that invaders of Muslim lands can never claim a conclusive victory:

Whatever victory the Americans claim in Najaf is like the fish the Frank took from the Arab; the Frank can celebrate the fish as much as he wants but the sea speaks Arabic.

Does the West need to develop a better understanding of the Crusades and other watershed events in Muslim memory? Can it help produce insights to help win the hearts and minds of those swayed by extremist rhetoric, or influenced by the fundamentalist reconstruction of history? Is there not a need to develop a greater sensitivity to the implications of policy decisions on the historical imagination of the worldwide community of Muslims, along with an appraisal of the impact of past attempts to shape the Middle East?

After all, don’t today’s events become tomorrow’s memories?

Umej Bhatia, a Singapore Foreign Service officer, is researching the Crusades in Muslim memory at Harvard University. He has served as an Alternate Representative on the UN Security Council. This article is written in his personal capacity.
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Influence of N-acetylcysteine on chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis
http://err.ersjournals.com/content/24/137/451

Dosage:  if a patient suffering from chronic bronchitis presents a documented airway obstruction, NAC should be administered at a dose of ≥1200 mg per day to prevent exacerbations, while if a patient suffers from chronic bronchitis, but is without airway obstruction, a regular treatment of 600 mg per day seems to be sufficient.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348146

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has been proposed as an additional therapeutic agent for AIDS patients because it reduces human immunodeficiency , and it ameliorates immunological reactivity

N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC): NAC supplements are made synthetically from the amino acid l-cysteine. The small molecule slips seamlessly into the blood where it combines with glutamic acid and glycine to restock the liver’s supply of glutathione. A potent liver detoxifier, NAC is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a tool to limit liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose.

cysteine. The sulfur-rich amino acid is a key building block for glutathione. The best sources are eggs, garlic and whey protein. If you buy whey protein, make sure it is bioactive and made from undenatured (or nondenatured) proteins, meaning the bond between the amino acids is preserved, and the cysteine is more bioavailable.

Most glutathione is made inside the body from three amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. In addition, some foods, particularly asparagus, spinach, avocado and squash, are high in a plant version of glutathione that the body converts to replenish its supply.
[[Xylitol nasal rinse]]
Nasal polyposis is important in the differential diagnosis of nasal obstruction. Clinical features of nasal polyposis include nasal congestion (100%), loss of smell and/or taste (75%), sneezing and rhinorrhea (60%), post-nasal drip (65%), facial pain (35%), and ocular itching (25%).

Resistant to medical treatment, and often a contributing factor to complicated bacterial sinus infections, nasal polyps are the most common group of mass lesions of the nasal cavity. There are many unanswered questions about the incidence, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of the lesions.

They are essentially outgrowths of the nasal mucosa and can occasionally be seen on anterior exam with a nasal speculum. Often, they can only be seen with fiberoptic rhinoscopy. The poylps are smooth, gelatinous, semi-translucent, pear-shaped, and pale to white in color. They are located on the lateral wall of the nose, commonly protruding out of the ethmoid sinus area.

They are most commonly confused with hypertrophied or polypoid nasal turbinates. Since polyps are devoid of sensory innervation, they can be distinguished by lack of pain on manipulation (with a swab, e.g.).

The differential diagnosis also includes tumors of the nasal cavity: squamous cell, angiofibroma, inverting papilloma, and sarcoma - all of which are uncommon entities. The "red flags" are unilaterality, friability, firmness, and bleeding (spontaneous or bleeding with light manipulation).

The incidence in general population is unknown - possibly between 0.1 - 2%. One study (Settipane, 1974) documented polyps in 4% of allergic rhinitics, but there is no convincing evidence of a greater incidence in the "atopic" population - i.e., in patients with 1 or more positive skin or RAST tests to common aeroallergens.

There is a higher incidence in asthmatics (20-30%), and even higher (49%) in those asthmatics hypersensitive to aspirin. In general, nasal poylps are most common in middle-aged men. If seen in a young person with concurrent respiratory symptoms, the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis should be considered.

A number of etiologic factors for nasal polyps have been proposed, the most commonly mentioned are inflammatory rhinitis (allergic or irritant-induced, e.g.) and chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. However, it's likely that both factors are involved in any given individual.

One proposed theory is that blockage of sinus ostia occurs via allergic (or vasomotor) inflammation or viral infection. Subsequently, chronic bacterial infection of the sinuses leads to the elaboration of bacterial toxins and enzymes, as well as to indirect inflammatory changes (edema, infiltration of blood cells). All this can result in epithelial damage with subsequent formation of the polyp.

In fact, Norlander (1993) was able to induce the growth of polyps in the maxillary sinuses of rabbits by implanting bacterial colonies and then artificially occluding the ostia. I